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ings as a system. There is too much inclination in some quarters to "limit the Holy One of Israel;" to confine all the operations of Divine grace to one specific form and order; and to construct a Procrustean bed, of perhaps very unscriptual dimensions, on which to measure every variety of religious experience, without any allowance for the innumerable differences of age, understanding, education, or habits. It is true that in the sight of God there are but two classes of human character, separated from each other by a decisive line of demarcation. He knows infallibly who are converted, and who are not; who love and fear him, and who do not; who are justified, and who are not: but to the clouded perceptions even of the best of men, characters often appear in a more dubious light. Between the broadly marked sinner and the broadly marked Christian, there are many shades; so that it is often rash, and seldom necessary, to at tempt to decide on the character of others, except where the lines are traced in plain and visible colours of truth or error, of spirituality or worldly-mindedness. It is not the mere adoption of certain dogmata, however scriptural, that renders a man a faithful disciple of Jesus Christ, partaker of a new
nature, and an ornament to his holy profession; nor, on the other hand, is it always a proof that there is no sincerity of heart, no commencement of Divine instruction, because much ignorance and many prejudices still remain in the mind. An anxious, steady, and persevering, even though slow, advancement, will in the end bring the spiritual pilgrim far nearer to the most commanding altitudes of Christian doctrine and experience, than the selfsufficient indolence of the opinionated religionist, who, beginning with a larger stock of knowledge, but destitute of the same humility and submission of heart, is content with his present attainments, and measures all other men by his own standard, instead of measuring himself by the standard of the word of God. We are aware indeed, though we cannot dwell upon them at present, that there are dangers on the other side; dangers against which we are as anxious our readers should be on their guard as against the one under consideration. Happy is the man whose knowledge, whose faith, whose love, whose joy, whose obe. dience, go hand in hand, growing equally and in due proportion, till they come to the fulness of the stature of the perfect man in Christ Jesus.
LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE,
GREAT BRITAIN. PREPARING for publication:-Notices of Ancient Armour; by Dr. Meyrick ;Letters and Conversations on Preaching;-Clavis Græca Biblica; designed for Theological Students, who have not had a Classical Education; by the Rev. B. Andrews.
In the press: A Vindication of the first two Chapters of St. Matthew and St. Luke; by a Layman;-Edes Althorpian; by the Rev. T. T. Dibden; -Legendre's Geometry and Trigono. CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 245.
metry; translated by Dr. Brewster;Poems; by the late Rev. Thomas Cherry.
Oxford.-The Venerable Archdeacon Goddard, D.D., is appointed Bampton Lecturer for the ensuing year.
A Grace has passed the Senate, to present copies of all such books, yet remaining in hand, as have been printed at the expense of the University, to the library of Bishop's College, Calcutta.
Cambridge. With a view to encou rage classical and theological studies 2T
in the university of Cambridge, a Grace lately passed the Senate to confirm proposals for the institution of a previous examination of candidates for the degrees of Bachelor of Arts,Bachelor in Civil Law, and Bachelor in Physic. A public examination will be held in the Senate House, in the last week of the Lent term, to continue for three days: the subjects of examination are to be one of the four Gospels or the Acts of the Apostles, in the original Greek, and Paley's Evidences of Christianity; and one Greek, and one Latin classical author. The first of these annual examinations is to take place in the Lent term of 1824.
Westminster Abbey is again open for Divine service and to the public. The monuments have been cleaned, and the abbey renovated and repaired. Railings are placed in different directions, to prevent the public from crowding too closely around any particular monument. The sum which visitors will have to pay to iuspect the curiosities, is two shillings, and no extra remuneration is to be given.
In a late Number of the "Annals of Philosophy," a paper was communicated by Mr. Buckland, giving an account of what is alleged to be an "antediluvian den of hyænas," discovered last summer at Kirkdale, near Kirby Moorside, in Yorkshire. The den is a natural fissure, extending 300 feet into the body of the solid rock, and varying from two to five feet in height and breadth. Its mouth was overgrown with grass and bushes, and was accidentally intersected by the working of a stone quarry. It is on the slope of a hill about 100 feet above the level of a small river, which, during a great part of the year, is engulphed. The bottom of the cavern is covered to the depth of about a foot, with a sediment of mud: at the bottom of this mud, the floor of the cave was strewed from one end to the other with teeth and fragments of bones of the hyæna, elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, horse, ox, two or three species of deer, bear, fox, water-rat, and birds. The bones are for the most part broken, and gnawed to pieces, and the teeth lie loose among the fragments of the bones. No bone or tooth has been rolled, or in the least acted on by water; nor are there any pebbles mixed with them. The bones are not at all mineralized. The extinct fossil hyæna is stated most near. ly to resemble that species which now inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, whose
teeth are adapted beyond those of any other animal to the purpose of cracking bones, and whose habit it is to carry home parts of its prey to devour them in the caves of rocks which it inhabits. Five examples are given of bones of the same animal discovered in other parts of this island.
The Cambrian and Cymmoodorion Societies are making extensive researches for inedited Welsh manuscripts and other antiquities of the Principality. Among the queries which they have issued, one is to ascertain whether there exists any translation, or portion of a translation, of the Scriptures into Welsh, more ancient than the Norman conquest, or than the art of printing. RUSSIA.
A series of operations for a new measurement of the meridian, in the Russian provinces of the Baltic, will take place during the summer. Mr. Struve, professor of astronomy, will commence his labours at the 56th degree of north latitude on the meridiau of the observatory of the university of Dorpat; and Dr. Walbeck, of the Swedish university of Abo, will act in concert with him. EGYPT.
Our readers are doubtless acquainted with the many valuable relics of antiquity which have been discovered in this interesting country during the last few years; and particularly with those which, being portable, have been removed and brought to England. The British Museum, in particular, has received rich accesssions of statuary, sarcophagi, altars, columns, and friezes from Thebes, Memphis, and other parts of Egypt. Various enterprising travellershave lately thrown much new light on the history and topography of the coun try, and among others some of our own countrymen. The French also are desirous of obtaining the honour of Egyptian discoveries. M. Caillaud, who is travelling among the ruins of Upper Egypt, writes from Senaar last July
"I made you acquainted with the discovery of forty pyramids, part of forty-five of which I have taken the dimensions. I have also seen traces of a town, and the remains of a great temple with six sphinx-lions cut in brown freestone. Discoveries since made confirm me in the opinion that this was the position of Meroë. The pyramids are to the East; and all, with the exception of one, have a little sanctuary towards the Same quarter. After nine days'march from
Chendi, we arrived at the mouth of the White River: we were the first Europeans who had ever seen it, though Bruce was very close to it. This river, and not that seen by Bruce, is, I believe, the main branch, and in consequence the real Nile. I am more than ever decided to follow it."
A College has been instituted at Poona, under the sanction of Government, for the preservation and advancement of Hindoo literature, and the education of young men of the caste of Brahmans, in the several branches of science and knowledge which usually constitute the objects of study of the learned of India. Ten native professors have been appointed. All young men of respectability are admitted to attend the College gratis; but with the view of encouraging useful learning, Government has allowed five rupees each per month, for the maintenance of one hundred scholars, ten in each branch of study. The books at present in the possession of Government are appropriated to the use of the College, and others are to be procured from Calcutta. The Visram palace is devoted to the institution.
Amongst various points of miscellaneous information contained in the Fourth Report of the Calcutta Schoolbook Society, the recent establishment of a similar society at Penang is men. tioned, and also the successful progress of the institutions at Madras and Bom. bay, and the endowment by Govern
ment of the Hindu College at Calcutta, for the encouragement of the study of Shanskreet, and, through the medium of that language, of general literature. Mr. H. Wilson has consented to superintend the publication of the first six books of Euclid in the Shanskreet language. The republication of extensive editions of many of the Society's most useful elementary works has been determined on. Government has presented the sum of 7,000 rupees to the Society, and ordered a monthly contribution of 5,000 more.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. A Society has lately been formed, on a national scale, for promoting the civilization and improvement of the Indian tribes within the United States. It is intended to give them instruction suited to their capacities; and, with this view, to inquire minutely into their wants and habits, and every other particular connected with their history and country. It is also proposed to settle them, wherever practicable, in farms, and to promote regular habits among them. Most of the leading persons in the United States have become members of the institution. The Indians within the United States' territory amount to about 400,000.
Upwards of 200 gentlemen, of the city of New York, have subscribed to an agreement, disapproving of the custom of giving wine at funerals; and promising to discountenance it in their own families, and wherever their influence extends,
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
Sermons on the Public Means of Grace; the Fasts and Festivals of the Church; on Scripture Characters, and various Practical Subjects; by the late Right Rev. Theodore Dehon, D.D. Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church, in the Diocese of South Carolina. 2 vols. 8vo. 11. 1s.
Eighteen Sermons, intended to establish the inseparable Connection between the Doctrines and the Practice of Christianity. 12mo. 5s.
Discourses, chiefly doctrinal, deli. vered in the Chapel of Trinity College, Dublin; by B. Lloyd, D.D. 10s. 6d.
Grounds of Distinction between the Genuine New Testament and the Apocryphal Volume; by the Rev. Thomas Rennell. 6s.
A Defence of the Clergy of the
Church of England, stating their Services, their Rights, and their Revenues; by the Rev. Francis Thackeray. Svo. 5s. 6d.
Treatise on the Sabbath; by the Rev. John Glen. 5s.
Sermons, chiefly delivered in the Chapel of the East-India College, Hertfordshire; by the Rev. Charles Webb Le Bas, A.M. 10s. 6d.
Considerations on the Subject of Calvinism, and a short Treatise on Regeneration; by the Rev. William Bruce Knight, A.M. 68.
The Young Communicant's Remembrancer; by the Rev. William Hamilton. 12mo. 3s. 6d.
An Abridgment of the Prophecies as connected with History, in Question and Answer; selected from the best Authors; by Anne Smith. 12mo.
A Sermon, preached at the Spital, on Easter Tuesday, 1822; by the Rev. Archdeacon Goddard, D.D.
Discourses adapted to the Pulpit or Family Use; by the Rev. Atkyns Bray. Svo. 8s.
Two Sermons, on Ezekiel iii. 17, and Dent. xxx. 19, 20; by the Rev. Charles R. Sumner. Is. 6d.
Institutions of Theology; or, a Concise System of Divinity: with reference under each article to some of the prin cipal Authors who have treated of the subjects particularly and fully; by Alexander Ranken, D.D. one of the Ministers of Glasgow. 14s.
The Destruction of Jerusalem, as connected with Scripture Prophecies; by the Rev. G. Wilkins, A.M. 10s. 6d.
A New System of National and Practical Agriculture; by R. Donald, 2s. 6d. William Lilly's Memoirs of his own Life and Times, &c. 8vo. 12s. 6d.
Life and Writings of John Home; by H. McKenzie, F.R.S. 7s.
An Inaugural Lecture delivered in the University of Glasgow; by D. K. Sandford, A.B. Oxon. Professor of Greek. 2s. 6d.
Observations on da Vinci's Last Supper; by J. W. de Goëthe. 4to. 15s. The Topography of Troy; by Charles Maclaren. 9s.
An Account of the Abipones, an Equestrian People in the Interior of South America; translated from the Latin of Martin Dobrizhoffer. 3 vols. 8vo. 36s.
Statistical Account of Upper Canada; by R. Gonrlay, 3 vols. 21. 2s.
Recollections and Reflections, connected with Public Affairs during the Reign of George the Third; by John Nicholls. 2 vols. 19s.
The Fishes of the Ganges; by F. Hamilton, M.D. F.R.S.L. 4to. 51. 5s. The Entire Poems of Ossian, revised, illustrated, and anthenticated by Visits to the Scites described; by H. Campbeli, F.A.S. 2 vols. royal 12mo. illustrated with a map. 11.
An Essay on the Scripture Doctrines of Adultery and Divorce; and on the Criminal Character and Punishment of Adultery by the Ancient Laws of England and other Countries. Being a Subject proposed for Investigation by the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge in the Diocese of St. Da. vid's, and to which that Society awarded its Premium (by Benefaction) of Fifty Pounds, in Dec. 1821; by H. V. Tebbs, Proctor in Doctors' Commons. 8vo. Ts.
Hints towards the Right Improvement of the present Crisis; by Joseph Jones. 8vo. 5s.
it, by the Rev. Edward Patteson M. A.
A Manual of Instruction and Devotion,
for the Use of Prisoners, by the Rev. Duke Yonge, M. A.
An edition of the Psalter in 24mo. in
troducing the Burial Service, and the Prayers to be used at Sea, for the Use of the Navy.
Ditto, without the above additions. A Christian Guide for plain People, by the Rev. John Miller, M. A. Thoughts for the Labouring Classes, by the Rev. John Miller, M.
It having appeared to the general Board desirable that the Greeks of the Ionian Islands should be supplied with Tracts written by the Ancient Fathers of the Church, in the Greek Language, the following were admitted on the Society's Catalogue.
S. Athanasius contra Gentiles. S. Chrysostomus in Pentecosten Homilie duæ.
S. Basilius ad adolescentes, quomodo ex Gentilium doctrinis proficiant. S. Gregorins Nazienzenus adversus Julianum Imperatorem :-prior Invectiva.
The Sub-Committee appointed to consider of, and report upon, books suited to the formation of a supplemental catalogue, being anxious to make as early a selection as possible, that the views of the Society might be carried into immediate effect, a large list was prepared on the urgency of the occasion; but little opportunity having been allowed for very rigorous examination, the Committee are now employed in a careful revision of the works then adopted, and in the further selection of appropriate publications.
Seasonable supplies of books have been granted to the settlers at the Cape of Good Hope; to the Chatham Garrison Library; and to the King's Beuch Prison.
The Special Committee for counteracting blasphemous and infidel publications report, that, during the present year, upwards of a million of books and tracts have been printed by order of the Committee, and about 900,000 have been issued to the public either gratuitously
or at very reduced prices. The whole expense incurred in printing and distributing these works may be taken at 40061. To meet this heavy expenditure, the Special Fund, including the Society's grant of 1000. amounts to 73261. The balance being thus ample, it is intended to keep up the operations of the Special Fund another year, in hopes of obtaining an increased demand for works on the Society's Catalogue, among that part of the public who are not members of the Society.
The receipts of the Society from April 1820 to April 1821, amounted to 55,2451. and the payments to 52,9541. The number of members has increased to 14,530; and that of the diocesan and district committees at home and abroad to 225.
We extract from the Bishop of Llandaff's Sermon prefixed to the Report, the following just and useful remarks on the necessity of making reli gious, and not merely intellectual, instruction a principal feature in the education of the poor, and we may add of the rich also.
"The present is not, in the common acceptation of the term, an age of Ignorance. It is an age fruitful of know
ledge of various kinds, and boastful of diffusing that knowledge to an extent incalculably beyond that which for mer ages had, perhaps, ever ventured to contemplate. So far as the mere exercise of intellectual power has been called forth, its claims are not to be gainsayed. It must be allowed, that never before were such pains taken, and successfully taken, to give to man, in the most depressed condition of his being, a consciousness of something nobler than mere animal instincts; a lively perception of that native force of intellect which is common to all our species, though not always known or felt even by those who are as amply endowed with it as their fellows. That this sort of illumination is infinitely more extended now than heretofore, is not to be denied. And something it undoubtedly is, to have given men a juster estimate of their natural powers; to have impressed them with notious, or persuasions, which may render them more sensible of the true dignity of their nature, and of the place they hold in the scale of moral being.
"But from this very circumstance arises a more imperious necessity of carefully attending to what yet remains to be accomplished. You may have taught man what he is; but you have yet to teach him what he ought to be. You may have shewn him that he has powers, that he has energies, of which he was before unconscious; but you have yet to direct him to their proper You may have put weapons into his hands; but whether to use them to his welfare or to his destruction, he may be still untaught. Should you stop here, and deem the work of education com. pleted merely by such a development of his faculties, it may well be doubted, whether, both upon himself and upon society, you have not inflicted an evil. rather than bestowed a good. Until discipline has performed its work; un. til principles have been instilled, laws of conduct laid down, rules and maxims of life inculcated, with competent sanctions to enforce their observance; all that has previously been done will be but vain and ostentatious show. It will be just enough to create pride, selfsufficiency, disquietude, discontent; to arouse the corrupt appetencies of nature, and to add strength to every inordinate affection;-but it will provide no counterpoise to evil propensity, no prevailing motive, either of restraint or