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all things.

and Diana were the sun words of the Psalm, “ let and moon ; the one a male, the heavens rejoice, and let the other a female power, the earth be glad 6 :" the as being the lesser and other parts of the creation weaker of the two. Both being called upon to signify are represented as shooting their adoration by their own with arrows, because they proper motions; as the sea cast forth rays of light, to roar, the trees to wave, which pierce and penetrate the floods to clap their

hands. As the objects, so the The figures by which the forms of worship were sym- constellations and signs are bolical: particularly that of distinguished in the headancing in circles to cele- vens, are mostly symbols of brate the revolutions and such high antiquity, that retrogradations of the hea- we are not able to trace venly bodies.

It was an them up to their original. ancient precept, pookuvél The accounts given of them περιφερομένος, , turn round by the Greeks and Romans or move in a circle when deserve no regard ; being you practise divine adora- childish and ridiculous. In tion:” that is, do as the many of these the meaning heavenly bodies themselves is easy, because they speak d0,—" that move in mystic for themselves. The Bears, dance, not without song a.” inhabitants of the arctic We find the sacred dance regions, have possession of appointed and practised in the northern pole. The the Church : where its true Ram, Bull, and Lion, all and original intention was sacred to the solar light probably to ascribe to the and fire, are accommodated Creator the glory of the to the degree of the sun's heavenly motions : and the power as it increases in the idea might be that of a summer months. The Crab, religious dance, in those which walks side-way and

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a Milton.

b Psalın xcvi. 11.

backwards, is placed where it was signified by horns, the sun moves parallel to which are a natural crown the equator, and begins into animals; as we that sign to recede towards the figure of Alexander the south. The Scales are upon some ancient coins. placed at the autumnal The power of empire was equinox, where the light denoted by a rod or sceptre. and darkness are equally A rod was given to Moses balanced : the Capricorn, for the exercising of a or wild mountain-goat, is miraculous power; whence placed at the tropical point was derived the magical from whence the sun begins wand of enchanters; and to climb upwards toward he is figured with horns the north. The ear of corn to denote the glory which in the hand of Virgo marks attended him when he came the season of harvest. The down from the presence of precession of the equinoctial God. In the Iliad of points has now removed the Homer, the priest of Apollo, figures and the stars they who comes to the Greeks to belong to out of their proper ransom his captive daughter, places ; but such was their is distinguished by a sceptre meaning when they were in his hand and a crown in them.

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upon his head; which is Royalty and government called oréuța Becîo the crown were from the earliest times of the god, because the distinguished by symbolical glory of the priest was supinsignia. A kingdom was posed to be derived from always supposed to be at the deity he represented. tended with power and so long as monarchy preglory. The glory of empire vailed, the sceptre of kings was signified by a crown was a single rod : but when with points resembling rays Brutus first formed a reof light, and adorned with public at Rome, he changed orbs, as the heaven is stud- the regal sceptre into a ded with stars. Sometimes bundle of rods, or faggot


of sticks, with an ax in the the artists of Greece as an middle, to signify that the old man, running on tiptoes, power in this case was not with wings at his feet, a derived from heaven, but razor, or a scythe, in his from the multitude of the right hand, a lock of hair people, as peers in empire ; on his forehead, and his who were accordingly flat- head bald behind : of all tered with majesty from which particulars the signithat time forward ; till fication is too well known monarchy returned, and to need a comment. Justice then they were as extra- with her sword and scales; vagant the other way, Fortune with her feet upon Divisum imperium cum a rolling sphere, and her Jove Cæsar habet. Virgil eyes hood-winked; Venplainly understands the geance with her whip; bundle of rods the Envy with her snakes ; ensign of popular power, Pleasure with her enchantby opposing to it the ma- ed cup; Hope with her jesty of monarchy. Non anchor; Death with his populi fasces, non purpura dart and hour-glass ; and Regum

innumerable others of the The metaphysical objects same class, shew what deof the mind, such as the light men have always virtues, the vices, the pro- taken in painting their perties and qualities of ideas after various ways things, were represented of under the images of visible old with great ingenuity forms, to give substance for moral instruction. We and force to their thoughts : have a good specimen of and painters are but indifthis kind in the emblema- ferently furnished for their tical figure of Time, which, profession without a comfor any thing we know, may petent knowledge of these be almost as ancient as time things. The poetical figuro itself. He was figured by called prosopopæia, or, “per

• Goorg. ii. 495.

sonification, from whence uoppa, “wild beasts in the all these devices are bor- shape of men.” rowed, is no where so fre- The law of the Hebrews quently used, nor with so appointed the purity of much sublimity, as in the their diet as a pattern and holy Scripture: of which admonition to purity of the learned author De Sacra conversation : after the exPoesi (Bp. Lowth) has se- ample of which (for Pythalected many fine examples. goras was a Syrian) he bids

The enigmatical method of us, θνησιμαίων απέχεσθαι, to Pythagoras is well known; abstain from all such as die of who was so fond of teaching themselves. He orders, “not by signs, that he made use to stop upon a journey to of the letter Y to signify cut wood;" that is, not to the two different roads of turn aside after things imvice and virtue, to one of pertinent to the end and which young men give the purpose of our life. Also preference, when the age of never to make any libatrial brings them to the tion to the gods from“ point where the way of life vine which has not been divides itself into these two. pruned :” meaning, that no Certain moral precepts are offering would be acceptable preserved which are called but from the fruits of a the symbols of Pythagorasa severe and well-ordered life. He advises “not to keep ani- He pronounced it a base mals with crooked claws ;" action “to wipe away sweat by which he means, that with a sword;" that is, to we should not take into our take away by force and houses and make compan- violence what another hath ions of persons who are earned by his labour. The fierce and cruel in their literal sense of which symnature ; such as another bol will not be understood, author calls onpra åvēpwró-) but by those who know,

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d Those symbols are printed with Hierocles on the Golden Verses, and are commented upon by Gyraldus.

that the ancients used a flat served in their worship; and instrument like the blade of the Church still retains à knife, with the edge of them : though these latter which they wiped away times (and this unhappy sweat from the skin, and country in particular) have cleared it of the water, &c., produced a spurious race of after the use of the bath. Christians, who have thrown It was another of his say-off sacraments and cereings, that it is a foolish monies all together; as if action “to read a poem to they had consulted with a beast,” to communicate some evil spirit of a begwhat is excellent to a stupid garly taste. Priests and ignorant person : which is singers in our Church wear the same for sense with a white linen garment as a that figurative prohibition sign of purity, and to give in the gospel, “Give not them a nearer alliance to that which is holy unto the company of heaven. the dogs, neither cast ye Chanting by responses, your pearls before swine."

which is of the first ages, To these symbols of Pytha- was intended to imitate the goras the hieroglyphic phi- choir of angels, which “cry losophy of Egypt was nearly one to another” with alterrelated, which Pierius hath nate adoration.

The pritaken great pains to inter- mitive Christians turned topret; and also the fables wards the east, in their worof Æsop, which teach pru- ship, to signify their respect dence and wisdom, and to the True Light of the shew the colours of vice world. They set up candles and virtue, from the in- in their churches as a sign stincts of animals.

of their illumination by the Sacraments and ceremo- gospel : and evergreens are nies in religion are signi- still placed there at Christficant actions which all na- mas, to remind us that a tions and all ages have ob- new and perpetual spring

e Matt. vii. 6.


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