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Luke iv. 6. And the devil said unto him,

Quarantania Matt. iv. . And saith unto him, All these things will I give

thee,
All this power will I give thee, and the glory of
them: for that is delivered unto me; and to

whomsoever I will I give it.
Luke iv. %. If thou therefore wilt worship me,
Matt. iv. I. if thou wilt * fall down and worship me,

*Or fall down Luke iv. 7. all shall be thine. Luke iv. 8. And Jesus answered and said unto him, Get

thee behind me, Satan : for it is written, Thou
shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only

shalt thou serye.
Matt. iv. II. Then the devil leaveth him,
Luke iv. 18 And when the devil 53 had ended all the temp-

tation, he departed from him for a season.

before me.

ing this mountain, speaks of it as extremely high, and commanding the most
beautiful prospect imaginable. It overlooks the mountains of Arabia, the coun-
try of Gilead, the country of the Ammonites, the plains of Moab, the plain of
Jericho, the river Jordan, and the whole extent of the Dead Sea. These various
domains the Tempter might shew to our Lord distinctly, and might also at the
same time point out, (for so the original word sometimes signifies,) and direct
our Lord's eye towards several other regions that lay beyond them, which might
comprehend all the principal kingdoms of the eastern world. According to tra-
dition, the mountain on which our Saviour was tempted is called Quarantania.
Maundrell describes it as exceedingly high, and difficult of ascent, baving a
small chapel at the top, and another about half way up, on a prominent part of a
rock. Near this latter are several caves and holes, originally used by hermits,
and by some even of this day, during the period of Lent, in imitation of the ex,
ample of our blessed Saviour. The words of the Evangelists are so clear and
distinct, in their account of this transaction, and it was so evidently a premedi-
tated scheme on the part of Satan, availing himself of the first symptom of human
weakness, beginning his attack at the moment that our Saviour“ was an hun-
gered;" that, had we no other evidence, there can be no reasonable grounds for
considering the temptation in any other point of view than as a real contest.
· The temptation of Christ, as well as that of our first parents, must be consi-
dered as a real scene. . We are not justified in making our present experience
the criterion of truth, and rejecting the positive testimony of Revelation, on
account of theoretical difficulties. The whole question concerning the origin and
continuance of evil, is involved in insuperable mystery. But we may with as
much propriety deny the origin of evil, as refuse to believe in its remedy: which
it cannot be irrational to conclude would be, in some manner, correspondent to
the disease. Till the next stage of our being has developed the unrevealed
mysteries of the Deity who made mankind, we must be contented, like obedient
children, to believe much that we cannot yet understand.

$3 The Evil Spirit in this temptation is called by the three names, which'unitedly characterise him as the destroyer of man. He is at once their enemy (Paravās), their accuser (ò Alaboros), and their tempter (o freipábwv).

2

Quarantania. And [he] was with the wild beasts; and the Mark L. 18

angels ministered unto him.
and, behold, angels came and ministered unto him 54. Matt. iv. 11.

ON THE DIFFERENCE IN THE ORDER OF THE TEMPTATIONS AS RELATED

BY ST. MATTHEW AND ST. LUKE. 54 In this history of the temptation, St. Matthew's order is, 1. “Command that these stones be made bread.” 2. “Cast thyself down from the temple.", 3. “I will give thee all thou seest from this high mountain, if thou wilt fall down and worship me."-St. Luke's order is, the first temptation the same as St. Matthew; the third temptation is placed by him for the second, and the second for the third. But St. Luke does not affirm this order. He has only kai kvayaywv, ver. 5; and kai hyayev, ver. 9. Whereas St. Matthew uses particles, which seem to fix his order; as, Tóre, ver. 5; and nádiv, ver. 8. Le Clerc says, “ Hoc repugnantia haberi non potest, cum neuter evangelistarum profiteatur se, hâc in re, ordinem temporis accurate secutum."-Newcome's Notes to his Harmony, p. 6, fol. edit. Dublin, 1778.

Possibly the reason of the difference in the order of the account of the temptations given us in these two Evangelists, may be in some measure ascertained from a consideration of the respective purposes for which they originally composed their Gospels. St. Matthew wrote for the Jews of Judæa. The title of “King” was the most usual name given to the Messiah by the Jews. “ Vulgatissimum est hoc nomen Messiæ, quem Judæi ubique vocant, novom abro," says Schoetgenius, Horæ Hebr. vol. i. p. 13, and instances abound throughout his book, But he was not only considered as king of Israel, but king over all the world. Thus we read (Zohar Genes. fol. 128, col. 509, ad verba, Genes. xlix, 11, ex versione Sommeri, p. 96, apud Schoetgen, vol, ii, p. 638-9.) “ So the king Messias will shew favour to Israel, but he will be a terror to all people who profess not the true religion." St. Matthew, therefore, seems to point out to his Jewish readers, that Jesus, who was the true spiritual Messiah, first conquered all desire for the luxuries of life.—He then refused to declare himself by any useless though stupendous miracle, the expected king of Israel, by proving himself, at an unfit time, and in an unsuitable manner, the Messiah they expected : for his course was that of toil and suffering, of neglected and lowly poverty and scorn, till the time came for the establishment of his spiritual kingdom. In repulsing the third temptation, he shewed his contempt of all worldly power, and wisdom, and distinction, till the promised period when the converted Heathen should be given him for his spiritual inheritance, and the utmost parts of the earth for his spiritual possession. The Evangelist thus preserves the climax. He ascends from one gradation of virtue to another, and shews how our Lord, by resisting the tempter, attained to that height of excellence which ought to impress the mind with the greatest veneration.

St. Luke wrote for the Gentiles of Achaia. He places before them the same triumph of Christ, and teaches the same doctrine; that he conquered the desire of the pleasures of this life, the love of temporal dominion over the world at large, and all the dazzling glories and triumphs to which that dominion led. But he teaches this doctrine in the manner the most likely to impress the minds of his Gentile readers ; for which purpose he changes the order to preserve the appropriate climax, and the gradation of the power of the temptation. Christ

MATT. iv. 1, and part of ver. 4. 6. 7. 10. 1 Then was a Jesus led up of the Spirit into the wilderness.

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conquered the desires of the appetite : this was the first temptation. In the se-
cond he was offered that which the Gentiles esteemed the highest point of human
happiness, universal dominion over all the kingdoms of the world. And, lastly,
he was invited to throw himself from the pinnacle of the temple, and to receive
at once all those divine honours which the Heathen paid to their gods, for such a
demonstration of divine power would have been immortalized, and would have
placed him above all their other deities. It is well known in what high estima-
tion temporal ambition and sovereignty were at that time held by the uncon-
verted Pagans. The well known compliments which Horace, in various pas-
sages, pays to Augustus

Quos inter Augustus recumbens
Purpureo bibit ore nectar.

Carm. lib. iii. Od. 35. or the

Præsens divus habebitur
Augustus, &c. &c.

Carm. lib. iil. Od. 5.
were not merely expressions of flattery which had only a courtly meaning; but
they may be considered as conveying the real opinion which the Heathen world
entertained of those who obtained universal empire; they esteemed such as gods,
and actually, as all ancient history proves, paid them homage, and offered sacri-
fices to them, and to their statues, as to gods. St. Luke, therefore, represents
our Lord, not only as rejecting the sovereignty over the world, but as refusing to
obtain, by a mere exertion of his power, all the servile homage, and flattering
pomp, attendant on such an elevation. This, in the opinion of a Heathen, would
be the highest test of virtue. The inference in both instances would be the
same; he who performed all the great works recorded in the Evangelists, alike
contemned and declined those objects, which, in the opinion of both Jew or Gen-
tile, were the most highly to be prized and valued. From the narrative of the
temptation they would learn that Christ was the Lord and giver of greater and
more estimable blessings than the luxuries, the honours, or the most enviable dis-
tinctions and advantages of this life.

Thus will the accounts of the two Evangelists be reconciled. Both relate the same facts, both enforce the same doctrine; the order is different, because each considered the opinions and modes of thinking prevalent among those they addressed, and were anxious to impart the greatest interest to their narrative.

It will be observed, that this interpretation is submitted to the reader, on the supposition that the popular interpretation of the πάσας τας βασιλείας του kóguov, (Matt. iv. 8.) be the correct reading ; that it is rightly rendered, “ the kingdoms of this world;" and that consequently the corresponding phrase in St. Luke, háoas rås Baoileias rñs oicovuévns, (Luke iv. 5.) must have the same signification, and is not to be referred principally to the kingdoms into which Judæa was at that time divided. The reading proposed by Michaelis in this pas. sage appears conjectural, and Archbishop Laurence has endeavoured to prove it unfounded. It is however so curious, that I shall append to this note both the remarks of the learned German, and the objections of his critic. The reader will then be able to decide.

Quarantania. 4 But he answered and said, It is written, "Man shall not live by bread alone, o Deut. viii. 3. but by every word p Ps. xci. 11. 6 - for it is written, P He shall give his angels charge concerning thee : and

in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.

7 Jesus said unto him

10 Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan : for it is written, 9 Deut. vi, 13. 9 Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.

LUKE iv. part of ver. 2. 3. 5. 9.
2 -and when they were ended, he afterward hungered.
3 And the devil said unto him, If thou be the Son of God

5 And the devil, taking him up into an high mountain, shewed unto him all the kingdoms of the world

9 And he brought him to Jerusalem, and set him on a pinnacle of the temple, and said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down

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Michaelis is labouring to prove that the Gospel of St. Matthew was composed in Hebrew, and derives one argument in support of his opinion, from Matt. iv. 8. The tempter conducts Christ to the top of a lofty mountain, and shews him táoaç rac baoilsias roũ kóópou. If we take this in a literal sense, the thing is impossible : if it was a mere illusion, there was no necessity for ascending a lofty mountain. Here then it appears, that some word was used in the Hebrew original, which was capable of more than one translation: perhaps x7x7, which signifies “the land,” as well as “ the earth :" or yan, 'which, as well as Oikeuévn, may denote the land of Palestine: or, thirdly, which is perhaps the most probable conjecture, it is not unlikely that St. Matthew wrote axn maban 52, that is," all the kingdoms of the Holy Land," and that the translator mistook 28 for x2x, which in the Septuagint is sometimes rendered by koguos. It is even possible, as 2x signifies literally “ beauty," and kóguos has likewise this sense, that the translation in question was occasioned by a too literal adherence to the original. Now all the kingdoms which existed in Palestine in the time of Christ, could be seen from the top of Mount Nebo. St. Matthew, therefore, meant all the kingdoms of Palestine, which his translator converted into all the kingdoms of the world.-Marsh's Michaelis, vol. iii. part 1. p. 155.

Archbishop Laurence contends, however, that there is no adequate proof that the Gospel of St. Matthew was compiled in the Hebrew language, and that no arguments can, or ought to be, founded on conjectures of this nature. In reply to this remark of Michaelis, he observes that '2x is used for Palestine only in four instances, three times by Daniel, and once by Jeremiah, and each time metaphorically, as “ the pleasant or agreeable land ;" and that the Seventy do not thus translate it either literally or metaphorically: and it is not likely that an appellation of this peculiar description would have been adopted in a plain narrative. Neither could coopos, in the sense of " the world," be put for xas, the proper meaning of which is " an army," and which is only translated Kóguos by the LXX, when the host of heaven is mentioned ; or for '28, in its literal signification of “beauty, honour, and glory." But it is not necessary to interpret the 'word koguos, in the sense of “ the world.” In Rom. iv. 13, the expression kanpovopov kooms, is interpreted by Beza, of the “ land of Ca.

CHAPTER II.
From the Temptation of Christ, to the commencement of his
more public ministry after the imprisonment of John.

SECTION I.
Further testimony of John the Baptist.
John i. 194351.

J. P. 4739. 19 And this is the record of John, when the Jews sent V. £. 26.

Bethabara. naan;" and Glass, in his Philologia Sacra, expressly limits its meaning to denote the land of Canaan.-Sermon on Excess in Philological Speculation, note 12, p. 36.

· Michaelis and Lightfoot begin this part of the history at John v. 15; and Doddridge has placed ver. 15—18 by themselves, before the baptism of Christ. In the note to chap. 1, sect. 2, I have mentioned the reasons for preserving the present order, and preferring the authority of Archbishop Newcome.

Having now been inaugurated by the waters of baptism, the testimony from heaven, the anointing of the Spirit, and the conquest over temptation, into his high office, the Messiah presents himself to his forerunner, who immediately hails him, as the atoning sacrifice for the sins of the world. John, as a prophet, spoke under the influence of divine inspiration : in no other manner could he have obtained power to make the declaration. As our Lord had come into the world for the express object of expiating the sin of man, there is an obvious propriety in the salutation of the Baptist. It seems to mean, that as far as man was concerned, all the other offices, characters, and attributes of the Holy One of God, are of comparatively inferior moment, unless he be considered as the spotless lamb, that should die for mankind. The testimony of the ancient prophets had but gradually revealed the various perfections of the Messiah ; and the hope and faith of man had been continually excited and cherished by the wise and merciful ordinance, which appointed a succession of prophets, each of whom added some additional information respecting Him who was to come. This sa. lutation of the Baptist was the completion of all prophecy. From this time the voice of prophetic inspiration, under the law of the old covenant, utterly ceased. The Messiah had come, and he was before them. The Lamb of God was preparing himself for the fearful sacrifice.

In support of the doctrine of the atonement, there is more authority than for any other revealed in the Jewish or Christian Scriptures. It was taught in the beginning of the patriarchal dispensation, the first after the fall, in the words of the promise, and in the institution of sacrifices. It is enforced by the uniform, concurrent testimony of the types, prophecies, opinions, customs, and traditions of the Jewish Church. It is the peculiar foundation and principal doctrine of the Christian Church in all ages, which has never deviated from the opinion that the death of Christ on the cross was “the full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, obla. tion, and satisfaction for the sins of the whole world."-See particularly Archbishop Magee on the Atonement, with the notes and dissertations appended; the commentators; Qutram; and the principal authors referred to by Archbishop Magee. Dr. P. Smith's Sermon also on the Atonement is a valuable tract.

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