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Mark iii. 18.

whom he would, and they came unto him : Mark iii. 13. and of them he chose twelve,

Luke vi. 13. And he ordained twelve,

Mark iii. 14. (whom also he named apostles,)

Luke vi. 13. that they should be with him, and that he might Mark iii. 14send them forth to preach,

And to have power to heal sicknesses, and to Mark ii. 15. cast out devils :

Simon, (whom he also named Peter,) and An- Luke vi. 14. drew, his brother,

And James the son of Zebedee, and John the Mark ii, 17. brother of James: and he surnamed them Boanerges, which is, The sons of thunder : and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Mark iii, 18. Thomas, and James, the son of Alphæus, And Judas

Luke vi. 16. Thaddæus,

Mark iii. 18. the brother of James, and Simon

Lake vi. 16. the Canaanite, called Zelotes; and Judas Iscariot, which also betrayed him.

And he came down with them, and stood in Luke vi. 17 the plain ; and the company of his disciples, and a great multitude of people, out of all Judæa and Jerusalem, and from the sea-coast of Tyre and Sidon, which came to hear him, and to be healed of their diseases;

And they that were vexed with unclean spirits : Luke vl. 18. and they were healed.

And the whole multitude sought to touch him : Luke vi. 19,
for there went virtue out of him, and healed them

Mark iii. part of ver. 13. ver. 16. and part of ver. 18.
13 And he goeth up into a mountain, and calleth unto him--
16 And Simon he surnamed Peter.
18 -and Simon

LUKE vi. part of ver. 14, 15, 16.
14 - James and John, Philip and Bartholomew,
15 Matthew and Thomas, James the son of Alphæus-
16 - And Judas Iscariot, which also was the traitor.

Luke vi. 15.
Mark ii, 19.


The Sermon on the Mount 42. MATT. V. vi. vii. viii. 1. Luke vi. 20, to the end. Matt. v. I. And seeing the multitudes, he went up into a

mountain: and when he was set, his disciples. came unto him :

42 A brief statement of the reasons which induce me to follow the opinion of Archbishop Newcome, Lightfoot, Pilkington, Michaelis, Bishop Richardson, and others, contrary to the authority of Doddridge and Bedford, may be found in Archbishop Newcome's notes to the Harmony. Michaelis (a) observes, “ that the Sermon on the Mount recorded by St. Luke, is no other than that recorded by St. Matthew, appears from the events which immediately follow it. Both evangelists relate that Jesus after the sermon went into Capernaum, and healed the servant of a centurion ; a cure attended with such remarkable circumstances, that I can hardly suppose it happened twice, and that too in the same city.”

It is objected by Bedford and others, that the discourse in Matthew is different from that in St. Luke, as the former is delivered by our Lord while sitting on a mountain, but the latter standing on a plain, Matt. v. 1. compare with Luke vi. 17. But Dr. Clarke, on this latter place, has suggested “that Jesus might retire from them again to the top of the hill.” And Dr. Priestley observes, " Matthew's saying that Jesus sate down after he had gone up the mountain, and Luke's saying that he stood on the plain when he healed the sick before the discourse, are no inconsistencies (6)."

St. Luke principally relates those parts of this discourse which were more peculiarly addressed to the disciples. It is remarkable that he has mentioned only two of the beatitudes. Markland (c) supposes that the discourses were the same, and delivered at the same time; but one evangelist chose to mention one part, and one, the other, as is done in various other places. These two beatitudes mentioned by St. Luke, were delivered to the disciples as such ; in which view, though we cannot certainly tell how the parts were connected by our Saviour when he spoke it, yet it may be supposed to have been something like this. Happy are ye, though ye be very poor, (Luke,) especially those who are poor in spirit, (Matthew.) - Happy are ye, though ye be hungry now, (Luke,) especially those who hunger and thirst after righteousness, (Matthew.).

The general interpretation of the word poor in St. Luke, is usually considered to be given by St. Matthew. It seems more probable that our Lord used the words ól a Tűxoi, and ól TELVÕVTES, kai būVTES, and that St. Matthew wrote the expressions in their metaphorical, and St. Luke in their literal sense. Markland, however, supposes that our Lord used the words mentioned by St. Matthew, τω πνέυματι, and και δικαιοσύνην, and I have united on his suggestion the words of both Evangelists.

As the High Priest, passing through the holy place when he went up to

(a) Marsh's Michaelis, vol. iii. part i. p. 85. come's Notes to Harmony, fol. edit. p. 19. jectures, p. 204.

(6) Harm. p. 83. NewAp Bowyer's Critical Con

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the holy of holies to consult the oracle, heard the voice as of a man speaking from the mercy-seat, so in contemplating this portion of the New Testament, we seem to have passed on to the most spiritual communication of God to man. Freed from the types and shadows of the Mosaic law, and rescued from the cloudy traditions and perversions of the Pharisees, the light of the sun of truth breaks forth in all its splendour. We hear, from an infallible oracle, the utter overthrow and refutation of all the false glosses and rabbinical corruptions, which had so long perverted the spirit of the divine law. To enter into a long and laboured examination of the various precepts contained in this address, would be merely to transcribe the commentaries of Whitby, Lightfoot, Grotius, and others. The plan of this work precludes me from entering at length into the interpretations of a more general nature. It may, however, be useful to remark a circumstance which has not been much discussed by these commentators ; and that is the thorough contrast between the Messiah and the worldly teachers of the Jewish people. The Rabbis were accustomed to prefer as their pupils and disciples, the talented, the learned, the refined, and the wealthy: Christ selected the rude and unlearned, the unpolished and the poor. The Rabbis scorned to associate with the despised and hated publican; Christ enrolled the neglected and hated publican among his chosen disciples. The wickedness of the nation increased, in spite of the learning of their teachers, because those teachers were corrupt, and proud, and worldly; the Church of Christ was established in holiness, because its first teachers, though ignorant and rude, were disinterested, humble, and spiritual. Rites and ceremonies had usurped the place of the prayer of the heart, and the homage of a holy life; Christ enforced the meaning of the law, and exalted devotion and virtue above vows and sacrifices, and all the observances of superstition. The priests were endeavouring to make the law worldly, the Messiah made it spiritual. They would have changed the law of God into an encouragement of the propensities of the animal or inferior nature of man; Christ taught them that the entire conquest of this nature was required by their Father in heaven. The priests encouraged, under the appearance of strict obedience to the law, ingratitude to parents, revenge, facility of divorce, and other evils ; Christ commanded them to honour their parents, though they had vowed the dedication of their substance to God, Matt. xv. 5. he commanded love to their enemies, and self dominion over the most powerful passions. He offended at the same time no prejudices-he taught them to pray in a selection from their own liturgical services: he exhorts them to the fulfilment, even to the very letter, of their ritual law. He taught in plain and simple language, such as his hearers instantly understood, and the most ignorant and unlearned in this age (with but little exception, arising from the passages particularly referring to the Jewish customs,) can still thoroughly comprehend. Our Lord has here given a code of laws to the world, obedience to which will for ever annihilate all superstitious dependence upon every other mode of aspiring to the favour of the Almighty, than by aiming at spirituality of motive, and holiness of life. Not even the blood of the atonement will save that man from the effects of evil, who professes to believe and hope, without repentance, and anxious exertion.

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Matt. v. 4.

Matt. v. 5

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Luke vi. 21.

Matt. v. 7.

Matt. v. 9.

Matt. v. 2. And he opened his mouth, and taught them, Declaration

saying, Luke vi.20. Blessed be ye poor: Matt. v. 3. Blessed are the poor in spirit: for their's is the

kingdom of heaven.

Blessed are they that mourn ; for they shall be comforted.

P Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit p Psa. xxxvii.

the earth. Luke vi. 21. Blessed are ye that hunger now: Matt. v. & Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst

after righteousness : 4 for they shall be filled. Isa. Ixv 13.

Blessed are ye that weep now: for ye shall laugh.

Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain

mercy. Matt. v. 8. "Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall r Psa. xxIv. 4.

see God.

Blessed are the peacemakers 43 : for they shall

be called the children of God. Matt. v. 10. Blessed are they which are persecuted for s 1 Pet. tit. 14.

righteousness' sake : for theirs is the kingdom of

heaven. Matt. v. 11. Blessed are ye, when men Luke vi. 22 shall hate you, and when they separate you from

their company, and shall reproach you, Matt. v. 11. and revile you, and persecute you, and shall say

all manner of evil against you * falsely, for my t1 Pet. iv. 14.

sake. Luke vi. 22. and cast out your name as evil, for the Son of

man's sake. Luke vi. 23. Rejoice ye in that day, Matt. v. 12. Rejoice, and be exceeding glad : for great is

your reward in heaven: Luke vi. 23. and leap for joy : for, behold, your reward is

great in heaven: for in like manner did their fa

thers unto the prophets. Matt. v. 12. so persecuted they the prophets which were before


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13 The meaning of the word lipnvonoloi in this passage, is thought by some to be-preachers of the new covenant, who reconciled the two dispensations; who were not to enter upon the obscure and useless discussions of points of the ceremonial law, but to preach the sublimer doctrines of the Gospel. In Ephes. vi. 15. and ii. 14. an allusion seems to be made to this idea. Vide Schoetgen, vol. i. p. 18.

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But, woe unto you that are rich! for ye have Luke vi. 24. u Amos vi. I, received your consolation. x Isa. Ixv. 13. Woe unto you that are full! for ye shall hun- Luke vi. 25,

ger. Woe unto you that laugh now! for ye shalls
mourn and weep.

Woe unto you, when men shall speak well of Luke vi. 26.

you ! for so did their fathers to the false prophets. Privileges and Ye are the salt of the earth 44: Y but if the salt Matt. v. 13. Christ's disci- have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be salted ? Mark ix. 50. it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast.

out, and to be trodden under foot of men.

Ye are the light of the world. 45 A city that is Matt. v. 14. set on an hill cannot be hid.

duties of

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· 44 Schoetgen has favoured the world with a laborious and learned treatise on this difficult passage. It was the peculiar characteristic of our Lord's teaching, that he drew his illustrations from common objects, which were either in all probability in the presence of his hearers when he addressed them, or were well known from their familiarity and frequency. This passage contains an allusion to salt which has lost its savour, and is afterwards trodden under foot as useless. Now salt, generally speaking, may be said never to lose its savour; neither can it be said to be trodden under foot. It is true, that Mr. Maundrell has informed us that, when he passed through the valley of salt, he broke off a part that had long been exposed to the rain and the sun, and it had perfectly lost its savor, though the inner part retained it, and we may suppose that this useless salt was trodden under foot. This, however, seems to be a much more recondite and abstruse meaning than we commonly meet with in our Lord's addresses to the people : neither would the poor and ignorant, whom he was addressing, immediately perceive the aptness of the allusion. The interpretation of Schoetgenius, therefore, appears much more probable. The people would be familiarly acquainted with every custom connected with the temple service, and any allusion to any part of it would be readily understood and remembered. There was a kind of salt used in Judea, which was principally composed of the bitumen obtained from the Asphaltite Lake. This salt, or bitumen, which had a fragrant odour, was strewn in great quantities over the sacrifices, both to prevent inconvenience to the priests and to the worshippers from the smell of the burning flesh, and to quicken the action of the fire, that the sacrifice might be more quickly consumed. Great quantities of this bituminous preparation lay in its appointed place in the temple, and was easily damaged. The virtue of the salt was soon lost by exposure to the effect of the sun and air, and it was then sprinkled over the pavement in the temple, to prevent the feet of the priests from slipping, during the performance of the service. Schoetgen. Horæ Hebraicæ, vol. i. p. 18-24.

45 Our Lord here confers on his apostles the same epithet as the Jews bestowed on their most distinguished teachers. That is, be had decreed that his apostles should take the place of the corrupt teachers of the Jewish law. The Messiah gave to his apostles, rude, ignorant, and despised fishermen and publicans, the

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