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in an honest and good heart, and having heard Luke viii. 15.
Mark iv, 21. t Matt. v. 15. No man, when he hath lighted a candle, CO- Luke viii. 16.
vereth it with a vessel, or putteth it under a bed;
enter in may see the light. u Matt. x. 26. u For nothing is secret, that shall not be made Luke viii. 19.
manifest; neither any thing hid, that shall not be
If any man have ears to hear, let him hear. Mark iv. 23.
15 And these are they by the way-side, where the word is sown; but when they have heard, Satan cometh-and taketh away that was sown in their hearts.
16 And these are they likewise which are sown on stony ground; who, when they have heard the word
17 And have no root in themselves, and so endure but for a time-or persecution ariseth for the word's sake, immediately they are offended.
18 And these are they which are sown among thorns ; such as hear the word.
19 -of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lust of other things entering in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful.
20 And these are they which are sown on good ground; such as hear the
word—and bring forth fruit, some thirty-fold, some sixty, and some an hundred. *The word in 21 - Is a candle brought to be put under a * bushel, or under a bed ? and the original signifieth a not to be set on a candlestick ? less measure 22 For there is nothing hid, which shall not be manifested; neither was any x Matt. x. 20. thing kept secret, but that it should come abroad.
LUKE viii. part of ver. 12, 13, 14, 15. 12 Those by the way-side are they that hear; then cometh the devil, and taketh away the word out of their hearts
13 They on the rock are they, which, when they hear, receive the word with joy; and these have no root, which
14 And that which fell among thorns are they, which—and are choked with cares and riches—and bring no fruit to perfection.
15 But that on the good ground are they, which bring forth fruit
MARK iv. 24, 25. Luke viii. 18.
Luke viii. 18. how ye hear:
to you : and unto you that hear shall more be
given. Mark iv. 25, ** For he that hath, to him shall be given: and , Matt. xiii.
he that hath not, from him shall be taken away
even that which he hath. Luke viii. 18. even that which he * seemeth to have.
* Or, thinketh LUKE viii. part of ver. 18. 18 Take heed therefore-y for whosoever hath, to him shall be given; and y, Matt. xiii. whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken
that he hath.
Matt. xii. 24–54. MARK iv. 26–35.
man should cast seed into the ground;
Mark iv. 26
68 ON THE PHRASE " THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN." This phrase, “ the kingdom of heaven," is used in the New Testament to denote the various gradations of that dominion which the Messiah was about to establish. It sometimes alludes to its commencement, (Matt. iii, 2.) by the preaching, influence, and death of Christ; sometimes it refers to its gradual progress, and the consequent setting up and establishment of the Christian Church, Matt. xii. 47; sometimes it is used to express the future perfection and consummation of the happiness of mankind and of the Church in a future state. The word baorleia, ought frequently to be translated “ the reign," instead of "the kingdom."
“ Isaiah, Daniel, Micah, and others of the prophets, had encouraged the peo. ple to expect a time when the Lord of Hosts should reign in Mount Zion, and in Jerusalem, when the people of God should be redeemed, and made joyful in Messiah their king."-" This period was generally understood by the phrases βαισλεία τα θεά and βασιλεία των ουρανών; the first approach of which was preached by the Baptist, and afterwards by Christ." When the word therefore refers to the time, it ought to be rendered the reign of God, the reign of heaven; when to place, it should be translated kingdom (a).
We read also (Luke xvii. 21.) “ the kingdom of God is within you." There is a dominion over the passions and the inferior nature of man, which may be justly called the kingdom of heaven, or the reign of divine power within us. And it is of little consequence to us, personally and individually, what may be the nature, origin, progress, extent, and consummation, of all the plans of Providence, which shall establish the kingdom of God in the world ; unless obedience to God, and faith in God, and the peace of God, be so known to us, that our nature become changed before Himn. We may even assist to build up the
(a) Campbell's Preliminary Dissertations, vol. i. p. 140. VOL. I.
And should sleep, and rise night and day, and Mark iv. 27. the seed should spring and grow up, he knoweth not how.
ark which shall save a drowning world; but, without repentance and faith, we, like the builders of the ark, may be destroyed by the deluge.
I am aware that the original, Baouleia ToŨ O£& Èvròs úpõv ļotiv, may be translated the kingdom of God is among you, or, is now being established in the midst of you; and the tvrOS is so used by Xenoph. Cyrop. 1.1; and in the Anab. lib. 6. c. 5. $ 5. we read évtòs Tís pálayyos, intra spatium, in quo exercitus erat. The word is used twice only in the New Testament; in Matt. xxiii. 26, where it evidently signifies the inside of the cup, &c.; and in this passage, Luke xvii. 21, where it is contrasted with the outward pomp and show with which the Jews expected the reign of their Messiah would commence. The kingdom of God cometh not uerà aaparnpyoewg* Heinsius paraphrases the word “non venit præstolando, aut exspectando regnum Domini.” Schleusner qnotes from Suidas, &vróg: oi loycopoi kai év@vpňoelg kai távra td rñs yuxñs kivýuara ; and the Alexandrian version translates the word 27p in the last clause of ver. I, of Ps. ciii, by the word évtos, &c. "27p 531, where no other meaning can be assigned but that which is internal: that is, the thoughts and motives of the heart. The phrase also, Diawn niaba, was used among the Jews to denote the influence of religion within the heart (6).
The Jews had long spoken of, anticipated, and described the future reign of the Messiah by the phrase now in question. They had been taught by their ancient prophets to expect a Messiah, who should restore the true religion, reform the Jewish people, atone for their sins, and release them from a foreign yoke. The apostles and our Lord used only the popular language, when they adopted the term expressive of this dominion of the Messiah. That the expressions Baolela tê Oã-Baoileia tūv oupavūv-Baoileia Tê 'Indâ, did not refer only to the kingdom or dominion of Christ in the future world, is evident from the proclamation of the Baptist, Matt. iii. 2, ñyyle ydp i Baouleia, &c. and from the nature of the addresses of our Lord, such as in Matt. vi. 33, Enteita TPŪTOV Try Baoi elav rå oca, and those in the Lord's prayer, " thy will be done in earth," &c.
As the treatise of Schoetgen is bound up with his larger work, and is rarely to be met with, I have made an extract from his observations on this phrase.
The expression Sinun mabia, the same as ^ Baouleia tūv spavūv, frequently occurs in Jewish writers: in general it means the polity of the children of Israel under the old covenant, having God at its head. The kingdom of heaven is the same as the kingdom of God: in that kingdom the Jews were the subjects. Thus Josephus properly calls that government Ocorparia, $ 1 and 2.
To shew that Jewish writers used the expression in this sense, several quotations are brought, sect. 3. One is from Rabbi Schemoth: “ When they (the Israelites) came to Sinai, and received the kingdom of God," &c. Our author supposes this " receiving the kingdom of God," to imply a confession of faith,
Mark iv. 28. For the earth bringeth forth fruit of herself; first
the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in
the ear. Mark iv. 29. But when the fruit is * brought forth, immedi- * Or, ripe.
ately he putteth in the sickle, because the harvest
is come. Matt. xiii. 24. Another parable put he forth unto them, saying,
The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man
which sowed good seed in his field : Matt. xiii. 25. But while men slept, his enemy came and sowed
tares among the wheat, and went his way. Matt. xiii. 26. But when the blade was sprung up, and brought
forth fruit, then appeared the tares also. Matt. xiii. 27. So the servants of the housholder came, and
said unto him, Sir, didst not thou sow good seed
in thy field ? from whence then hath it tares? Matt. xiii. 28. He said unto them, An enemy hath done this.
The servants said unto him, Wilt thou then that
we go and gather them up? that may be repeated for the greater confirmation therein. He quotes Sohar Genes: “ When a man goes to bed, he ought first of all to take upon himself the kingdom of heaven, and then repeat one or more prayers," $ 4.
It appears that when a man used the prayer Krischma, it was necessary first, suscipere regnum cælorum, $ 5, in fine. This is the common meaning of the phrase, “ kingdom of heaven," among Jewish writers. Still they have used it (but rarely) in the sense of the times of the Messiah and the new dispensation. Targum, Micah iv. 17. “The kingdom of heaven shall be revealed unto them on Mount Zion, from this time to all eternity." But, independently of quotations from these writers, it may be shewn, that the Jews used the expression in this sense ; otherwise John the Baptist, the Pharisees, and the hearers, would neither have used the phrase, nor understood it. Thus a Pharisee (Luke xvii. 20.) asks, “When the kingdom of God should come,” 8 6.
The expression took its origin from that passage of Daniel, where it is said, “ Unto him was given a kingdom, &c. and his kingdom shall not be destroyed,"
In the New Testament, the expression i Baoulela Tă Deo, means the Christian Church, or dispensation. The Apostle (Rom. xiv. 17.) exhorts Christians not to condemn others about meats; “ for," says he, “ the kingdom of God is not meat and drink ;" that is, the Christian Church, under its king, the Mes. siah, is not bound by the ceremonies enjoined under the law, 8.
There is sometimes an ellipsis of τ8 θεά, or των έρανών; the word βασιλέια occurring alone. Thus Christ is said to have preached the Gospel of the kingdom, i. e. of the kingdom of the Messiah. The Jews are called vioi tñs Basideias, because the kingdom of Messiah was first sent to them, $ 9.
It also denotes subjection to the kingdom of Messiah, Mark x. 15. “Whoever does not receive the kingdom of heaven," &c. $ 10.
It is not denied that “the kingdom of heaven" is sometimes used to denote eternal life, $ 11.
But he said, Nay ; lest while ye gather up the Matt. xiii. 29. tares, ye root up also the wheat with them.
Let both grow together until the harvest: and Matt. xiii. 30. in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them : but gather the wheat into my barn.
Another parable put he forth unto them, Matt. xiii. 31. and he said,
Mark iv. 30. saying,
Matt. xiii. 31. Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God ? Mark iv. 30.
or with what comparison shall we compare it? z Luke xiii.
2 The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mus- Matt. xiii. 31.
But when it is sown, it groweth up, and becom- Mark iv. 32.
Mark iv. 32. a Luke xiii. Another parable spake he unto them; The Matt. xiii. 33.
kingdom of heaven is like unto leaven, which a The word in woman took, and hid in three * measures of meal, measure con- till the whole was leavened. aspeck anda All these things spake Jesus unto the multitude Matt. xiii. 34. abreleamore in parables ; and without a parable spake he not than a pint. unto them:
and with many such parables spake he the word Mark iv, 23. unto them, as they were able to hear it.
But without a parable spake he not unto them: Mark iv. 34. "
That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Matt. xiii. 35. 6 Ps. lxxviii. the prophet, saying, "I will open my mouth in pa
rables; I will utter things which have been kept
Then Jesus sent the multitude away, and went Matt. xiii. 36.
He answered and said unto them, He that sow- Matt. xiil. 37. eth the good seed is the Son of man:
The field is the world ; the good seed are the Matt. xiii. 33.
the Greek is a
hall, wanting a little more