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John xii. 36. While ye have light, believe in the light, that Jerusalem.

ye may be the children of light. These things
spake Jesus, and departed, and did hide himself

from them.
John xii. 37. But though he had done so many miracles be-

fore them, yet they believed not on him : John xii. 38. That the saying of Esaias the prophet might be

fulfilled, which he spake, & Lord, who hath be- g Isa. liii. !. lieved our report? and to whom hath the arm of

the Lord been revealed ? John xii. 39. Therefore they could not believe, because that

Esaias said again,

bHe hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their h Matt. xiii. heart; that they should not see with their eyes, nor understand with their heart, and be converted,

and I should heal them. John xii. 41. These things said Esaias, when he saw his glory,

and spake of him.
John xii. 42. Nevertheless, among the chief rulers also many

believed on him: but because of the Pharisees
they did not confess him, lest they should be put

out of the synagogue : John xii. 43. For they loved the praise of men more than the i Ch. v. 41.

praise of God.

John xii, 40.

John xii. 44.

John xii. 45. John xii. 46.

Christ declares the object of his Mission.

JOHN xii. 44. to the end.
Jesus cried and said, He that believeth on me,
believeth not on me, but on him that sent me. ::

And he that seeth me seeth him that sent me. **

* I am come a light into the world, that whoso- k Ch. iii. 19. ever believeth on me should not abide in darkness.

And if any man hear my words, and believe not, I judge him not: 'for I came not to judge i Ch. iii. 17. the world, but to save the world.

He that rejecteth me, and receiveth not my words, hath one that judgeth him : m the word m Mark xvi. that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day.

For I have not spoken of myself; but the Father which sent me, he gave me a commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak,

John xii. 47.


John xii. 48.

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John xii. 49.


And I know that his commandment is life ever- John xii. 50. lasting : whatsoever I speak therefore, even as the Father said unto me, so I speak.

Christ leaves the City in the Evening, and goes to Bethany.

MATT. xxi. 17. MARK xi. 11.
And when he had looked round about upon all Mark xi. 11.
things, and now the even-tide was come,
he left them, and went out of the city, into Be- Matt. xxi. 17.
unto Bethany, with the twelve,

Mark xi. 11. and he lodged there.

Matt xxi, 17.

Monday-Fourth Day before the Passover-Christ entering Jeru-

salem, again curses the barren Fig Tree'.

MATT. xxi. 18, 19. MARK xi. 12—15.

Matt. xxi. 18. on the morrow,

Mark xi. 12. in the morning,

Matt. xxi. 18.

7 If we regard this fig tree, as a mere emblem, or type, we shall find a beautiful and perfect harmony throughout the whole narrative. The religion of the Jews had now become merely external, it flourished only in appearance : it possessed the leaves, but not the fruits of holiness. The fig tree, therefore, became the most apt representation of the state of the Jews at that time, and of their consequent destruction, or withering away. Had it been the season of figs, and the fruit already gathered, the tree would not have been so appropriately the object of a curse, or so expressively a type of the Jewish nation. In this, as in many other instances, our Saviour predicted the future by a significant action, or sign, before he judged it expedient to declare it publicly. The parable of the fruitless fig tree (Luke xiji. 7.) bears the same signification.

Another illustration is given of this parable, in reference to the first establishment of the Levitical Priesthood. When an opposition was made to the divine ordination of Aaron, the Levitical Priesthood was ratified and confirmed by the miracle of a dry rod, which in one night budded, blossomed, and brought forth fruits. Now, when it was about to be removed, because it had ceased to flourish, or to yield its appointed produce, its fate was prefigured by a contrary miracle, by an apparently flourishing tree reduced as it were, in one night, to a dry rod, for ever barren.

The choice of this tree, as an emblem, corresponds with other parts of Scripture, Jer. xxiv. 2. Luke xiii. 6. Micah vii. 1. Cant. xi. 11-13.

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Mark xi. 12. when they were come from Bethany,
Matt. xxi. 18. as he returned into the city, he hungered.
Matt. xxi. 19. And when he saw * a fig-tree in the way,
Mark xi. 13. afar off, having leaves,
Matt. xxi. 19. he came to it,
Mark xi. 13. if haply he might find any thing thereon : and

when he came to it,
Matt. xxi. 19. and found nothing thereon, but leaves only,
Mark xi. 13. for the time of figs was not yet 8.
Mark xi. 14. Jesus answered and said unto it, No man eat

fruit of thee hereafter,
Matt. xxi. 19. and he said unto it, Let no fruit grow on thee

henceforward for ever. Mark xi. 14. And his disciples heard it. Matt. xxi. 19. And presently the fig tree withered away.

MARK xi. part of ver. 12, 13, 14. 12 And-he was hungry: 13 And seeing a fig tree-he came—he found nothing but leaves 14 And—for ever-disciples heard it.

Christ again casts the Buyers and Sellers out of the Temple'.

MARK xi. 15–18.
Mark xi. 15. "And they come to Jerusalem: and Jesus went n, Matt xxi.

into the temple, and began to cast out them that

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8 The words kalpos cúkwy, (" the time of figs,'') signify the time of gathering, i.e. the fig harvest. Wetstein's observations are worthy of notice : he says, that if Christ, when approaching a fig tree at the season when figs are ripe, had found nothing but leaves, this would not have afforded a decisive proof that the tree was barren, and deserving of a curse : for had it been ever so fruitful, all the figs might have been previously plucked off. But since before the fig harvest it had abundance of leaves, it might be justly expected to have figs also. Lightfoot remarks, that this cursing injured no one, since, as we learn from St. Matthew, the tree grew by the way side.

9 Dr. Hales having taken for granted that the temple was cleansed on the Tuesday, and not on the Monday, has preferred the order of St. Mark, and made some minor alterations in the position of these events. The foundation of his reasoning is removed by the arguments of Pilkington, which are inserted in the note to section 3, p. 389.

In Matt. xxi. 13. when our Saviour drove the buyers and sellers out of the temple, he said to them, “ It is written, my house shall be called an house (not the house) of prayer, but ye have made it a den of thieves;" or, if it be read with an interrogation, "And have ye made it a den of thieves ?” 'Yueñc autòv itorijoATE SIIHAAION AHETON, then the indignation will be increased,


sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the
tables of the money-changers, and the seats of
them that sold doves;

And would not suffer that any man should Mark xi. 16. carry any vessel through the temple.

And he taught, saying unto them, Is it not Mark xi. 17. * Or, an written, My house shall be called * of all nations pruger for all the house of prayer? but ye have made it a den of


house of



The Scribes and Chief Priests seek to destroy Jesus.

MARK xi. 18. LUKE xix. 47, 48.
And he taught daily in the temple.
And the Scribes and the Chief Priests,

Like xix. 47.

Mark xi. 18.

from the opposition between “God” and “ye." The same is related by Mark xi.
17. with the same two words, orņlalov gsūv, and so by Luke xix. 46. It may
be asked, why the temple should be said by our Saviour to be made orýlatov
lysūv, a cave of robbers; was it because there were some who bought and sold
in it? or because the money-changers, or those who sold doves, sat there?
None of those persons could be called Xysai, latrones, or public robbers: nor
did their business lie in onņlala, speluncæ, dens or caves, so as to cause the
temple, in which they were, to be called on halov. St. John, however, in his
account of this matter, mentions a circumstance, without the knowledge of which,
the reason of this expression, orýdalov dysūv, in the other three evangelists,
and in Jer. vii. 11. whence it is taken, could not have been understood, and
very probably that is the reason why it is mentioned by him, chap. xi. 14, 15. L
" and (Jesus) found in the temple those who sold oxen and sheep, BOAS kai
II POBATA, and doves, &c. and when he had made a scourge of small cords,
he drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen.” Now it is
well known to those who are moderately versed in antiquity, that the Aporai
were wont to bring into their orýlala, or caves in the rocks, the oxen and
sheep which they had stolen. Such an one was Cacus in Virgil, Æneid. viii.
193. who stole Hercules' oxen,

Hic spelunca fuit vasto submota recessu, &c.
who is called by Propertius, iv. 10. metuendo Raptor ab antro, i. e. Xysis anò
Onglais. Hence onndalov Xysikdy in Heliodorus Æthiopic, v. 2. See
Plutarch in Sertor. p. 576. D. Josephus often in Bello Judaico, and in Antiq.
xiv. xv. p. 651. ed Huds. where he makes mention of Apsūv Tivūv &v On-
λαιοίς κατοικώντων. So that our Saviour had just reason to resent their profa-
nation of his Father's house; as if he had said, God hath declared in the Scrip-
tures, my temple shall be a place of prayer, have ye (supposing it to be read
with an interrogation,) the boldness to convert it to the use which robbers make
of their caves, and to turn it into a receptacle and stall for oxen and sheep ?

Luke xix. 47. and the chief of the people,

Jerusalem. Mark xi. 18. heard it, and sought how they might destroy him: Luke xix. 48. And could not find what they might do: Mark xi. 18. for they feared him, because all the people were

astonished at his doctrine, Luke xix. 48. and * were very attentive to hear him.

* Or, hanged on him. Acts xvi. 14.

LUKE xix. part of ver. 37. 47 – But the Chief Priests and the Scribes--sought to destroy him ;-,


Christ retires in the Evening from the City.

MARK xi. 19.
And when even was come, he went out of the

Mark xi, 19.


Tuesday-Third Day before the Passover. The Fig Tree is now

withered. Matt. xxi. 20—23. MARK xi. 20—27. Mark xi. 20. And in the morning, as they passed by, they . Matt. xxi.

saw the fig-tree dried up from the roots. Matt, xxi. 20. And when the disciples saw it, they marvelled,

saying, How soon is the fig-tree withered away! Mark si, 21. And Peter calling to remembrance saith unto

· him, Master, behold, the fig-tree which thou

cursedst is withered away! Mark xi. 22. And Jesus answering saith unto them, + Have , OT, Hlave

faith in God.
Mark xi. 23. For verily I say unto you,
Matt. xxi. 21. that if ye have faith, and doubt not, ye shall

not only do this which is done to the fig-tree, but

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But nobody, I imagine, could have known the meaning and propriety of the words ornalov and Aysūv, if St. John had not informed us that oxen and sheep were brought into the temple to be sold; whereby the prophecy of Jer. vii. 11. My othlalov Apsūv ó Oikos , (to which our Saviour alludes) was fulfilled ; for the temple could not have been called on jatoy dysūv, had not oxen and sheep been brought into it. See Bowyer.

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