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Luke xxii. 20. This cup is the new testament in my blood, which Jerusalem. •
. is shed for you :
sent or signify) the children of the kingdom : the tares are (i. e. signify) the children of the wicked one," &c. In John vii. 36. we find Tís’ESTIN oúros o Loyos: What is this saying ?" (that is, its signification.) In John X. 16. " They understood not what things they were," Tiva HN, (that is, their signification.) Acts x. 17. “ Ti àv"EIH rò papa, " What this vision might be ;" properly rendered by our translators, “ What this vision should mean." Gal. iv. 24. “ For these are the two covenants," aŭral yàp 'EIXIN ai dúo člankai, these signify the two covenants. Luke xv. 26. “ He asked (ri'eih raūta) what these things meant." And very many others might be quoted to the same purpose. These passages appear to be so evidently parallel with that before us, that we conclude they are to be interpreted in the same manner, and that our Lord therefore intended, when he took the bread, to say, “this bread represents, or signifies, my body ;" and consequently that the conclusion of the Romanist, who supposes that the bread is changed into the real body, and the wine into the blood, of Christ, is founded on error. To give an idea of the many dogmas that necessarily attend the doctrine of transubstantiation, I transcribe the eighth lesson of the “ Catechism for the Use of all the Churches in the French Empire," published in 1806, with the bull of the Pope, and the mandamus of the Archbishop of Paris : which is exactly a counterpart to all that have been published from time immemorial, in the popish churches.
Q. What is the sacrament of the Eucharist?
A. The Eucharist is a sacrament which contains really and substantially the body, blood, soul, and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, under the forms and appearance of bread and wine.
Q. What is at first on the altar, and in the chalice? Is it not bread and wine?
A. Yes: and it continues to be bread and wine till the priest pronounces the words of consecration. · Q. What influence have these words?
A. The bread is changed into the body, and the wine is changed into the blood of our Lord.
Q Does nothing of the bread and wine remain ?
A. Besides his body, there is his blood, his soul, and his divinity ; because all these are inseparable.
Q. And under the form of wine ?
Q. When the forms of the bread and wine are divided, is Jesus Christ divided ?
A. No: Jesus Christ remains entire under each part of the form divided.
for many for the remission of sins.
Matt.xxvi. 28. Verily I say unto you, I will drink no more: Mark xiv. 25. henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day Matt. xxvi.29. when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom ; in the kingdom of God.
Mark xiv. 25.
A. No: he always continues at the right hand of God, his Father, till he shall come at the end of the world, with great glory, to judge the living and the dead.
Q. Then how can he be present at the altar?
A. By the Almighty power of God.
A. No: it is Jesus Christ, whose word is employed in the sacrament.
A. Yes, undoubtedly; for this body, and this blood, are inseparably united to his divinity.
The Priest, in giving the consecrated wafer to the Communicant, says, “ Behold the Lamb of God! Behold him who taketh away the sin of the world !" Then he and the communicant repeat thrice,“ Lord, I am not worthy thou shouldst enter my roof; speak, therefore, but the word, and my soul shall be healed," the communicant striking his breast in token of his unworthiness. Then, says the Directory, having the towel raised above your breast, your eyes modestly closed, your head likewise raised up, and your mouth conveniently open, receive the holy sacrament on your tongue, resting on your under lip; then close your mouth, and say in your heart, “ Amen, I believe it to be the body of Christ, and I pray it may preserve my soul to eternal life."-Ordinary of the Mass, p. 33. May God grant that such absurd superstitions may never again become a part of the religion of England !
This note has been principally collected from Dr. Cudworth's learned Treatise on the Lord's Supper, at the end of the Intellectual System, 4to. vol. ii. . See also Dr. Adam Clarke's Discourse on the Holy Eucharist; and Lightfoot on the Divine Origin of Sacrifice. And on the typical meaning of the Passover, the Abridgment of the learned Witsius's Remarks, in Horne's Critical Introduction, 1st. edit. vol. 1. p. 150–154.
SI Various interpretations are given to this passage: some commentators suppose it was accomplished when Christ ate and drank with his disciples after his resurrection, Acts i. 4. X. 41. John xxi. 13. Luke xxiv. 30. 43, others that the word kingdom here signifies the Gospel-state. The most probable signification seems to be, that he will no longer commemorate this, or any other deliverance, till he celebrates together with his apostles the great day of redemption in the future world. The expression drinking wine indicates feasting, under which the future happiness is often represented in Scripture-Isa. xxii. 13. xxiv. 9. Matt. viii. 11. xxii. 4.
The wine is called new, figuratively expressing those unknown heavenly festivals prepared for man in his state of immortality. The kingdom of the Father here seems particularly to refer to the future state after the final judgment; for MATT. xxvi. ver. 27. and part of ver. 28, 29.
Jerusalem. 27 And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it:
28 For this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed29 But I say unto you, I will not drink ,
MARK xiv. ver. 22. and part of ver. 23. 25.
23 And—the cup-
LUKE xxii. part of ver. 19, 20.
John xiv. 3
John xiv, 1. Let not your heart be troubled : ye believe in
God, believe also in me.
it were not so, I would have told you. I go to
And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and receive you unto myself; that
' where I am, there ye may be also. John ziv. 4 And whither I go ye know, and the way ye
Thomas saith unto him, Lord, we know not whither thou goest ; and how can we know the
way? John xiv. 6. Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth,
John xiv. 5.
John xiv. 6.
then, and not till then, is the kingdom delivered up to the Father, 1 Cor. xv. 24. and xxii. 8. and in no part of the New Testament is Christ's kingdom between his resurrection and ascension, called the kingdom of his Father.
'Ad' apri, or better, arapri, omnino, I will not at all drink of the fruit of the vine, &c. &c. Aristophan. Plut. act. ii. scene 2.
Tog dečkas, kai oú povas,
απαρτί πλουτήσαι ποιήσω, gnavos et frugi homines OMNINO divites faciam. See v. 64. and Rev. xiv. 3. Jo. Alberti Not. Philol. Bowyer Crit. Conj. 124. and Hammond in loc. VOL. I.
and the life : no man cometh unto the Father,
If ye had known me, ye should have known John xiv.7. -
Philip saith unto him, Lord, shew us the Fa- John xiv, 8. ther, and it sufficeth us.
Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time John xiv.9.
Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and John xiv. 10.
Believe me that I am in the Father, and the John xiv. II. Father in me: or else believe me for the very works' sake.
Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth John xiv. 12. on me, the works that I do shall he do also; and greater works than these shall he do; because I
go unto my Father. * Matt. vii. 7. And whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that John xiv. 13.
will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the
If ye shall ask any thing in my name, I will John xiv. 14. do it.
If ye love me, keep my commandments. John xiv. 15.
And I will pray the Father, and he shall give John xiv. 16. you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever;
Even the Spirit of truth ; whom the world can- John xiv. 17. not receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him : but ye know him; for he dwelleth
with you, and shall be in you. *Or, orphans. I will not leave you * comfortless : I will come John xiv. 18.
Yet a little while, and the world seeth me no John xiv. 19. more; but ye see me: because I live, ye shall live also.
At that day ye shall know that I am in my Fa- John xiv. 20. ther, and ye in me, and I in you.
He that hath my commandments, and keepeth John xiv. 21. them, he it is that loveth me: and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him.
John xiv. 15.
John xiv. 22. Judas saith unto him, not Iscariot, Lord, how is Jerusalem.
it that thou wilt manifest thyself unto us, and not
unto the world?
me, he will keep my words: and my Father will
our abode with him.
and the word which ye hear is not mine, but the
Father's which sent me.
present with you.
whom the Father will send in my name, he shall
remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you. John xiv.27. Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto
you : not as the world giveth, give I unto you.
and come again unto you. If ye loved me, ye
ther : for my Father is greater than I.
that, when it is come to pass, ye might believe. John xiv. 30. Hereafter I will not talk much with you : for
the prince of this world cometh, and hath nothing
Father; and as the Father gave me command-
John xiv, 28.
Matt. xxvi. 30. MARK xiv. 26. LUKE xxii. 39.
mount of Olives; and his disciples also followed
39 From the expression, “Arise, let us go hence," it may be inferred that our Saviour now left the room, and went to the Mount of Olives, when the conversation and exhortations related in the following sections were continued.