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Matt. xxvii. 12.

John xviii. 37. Pilate therefore said unto him, Art thou a king Jerusalem.

then? Jesus answered,
Mark xv. 2. and said unto him,
John xviii. 37. Thou sayest that I am king. To this end was I

born, and for this cause came I into the world, that
I should bear witness unto the truth. Every one

that is of the truth heareth my voice.
John xviii. 38. Pilate saith unto him, What is truth ? And

when he had said this, he went out again to the

Jews, and saith unto
Luke xxiii. 4. the Chief Priests and to the people, I find no fault

in this man,
John xviii. 38 I find in him no fault at all.
Mark xv. 3. And the Chief Priests accused him of many

things : but
when he was accused of the Chief Priests and

elders, he answered nothing.
Matt, xxvii. Then said Pilate unto him, Hearest thou not

how many things they witness against thee?

And he answered him to never a word.
Mark xv. 4. And Pilate asked him again, saying, Answerest

thou nothing? Behold how many things they
witness against thee.

But Jesus yet answered nothing :
Matt. xxvii. insomuch that the governor marvelled greatly.

MATT. xxvii. part of ver. 2. and 11. 2 --and delivered him to Pontius Pilate the governor. 11 -And Jesus said unto him, Thou sayest

MARK xv. part of ver. 1, 2, 3, 5. 1 -and carried him away, and delivered him to Pilate.

3 And Pilate asked him, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he answering - Thou sayest it.

3 -he answered nothing.
5-so that Pilate marvelled.

13.

Matt, xxvii. 14.

Mark xv. 5.

1

Acts, observes, on the occasion of the Sanhedrim granting letters to Paul, to go to Damascus, that the power of life and death was not yet taken from the Sanbedrim. Selden is of opinion, that the power of the Sanhedrim to punish capitally was only much interrupted and disused at the time of the crucifixion. Krebsius, quoted by Rosenmüller, is of opinion that the power of inflicting capital punishments, in cases of offences against religion, was left to the Jews; but in civil offences it was taken away-in criminibus autem aliis, e. g. seditionis, tumultus, perduellionis, et ad læsam majestatem Cæsaris pertinentibus, illud jus iis non fuisse concessum. Kuinoel has adopted also this conclusion of Biscoe-Mihi perplacet Augustini et Chrysostomi ratio, etiam Semlero probata, qua Judæorum verba v. 31. ad diem referuntur hoc sensu: “nobis non licet quenquam supplicio afficere ob religionem diei festi;" erat enim napaokevY) Toő táoxa, xix. 14-42, quam eamdem ob causam, neque prætorium ingressi erant coll. v. 28.-Kuinoel in Joan. 19. 31.

Jerusalem.

LUKE Xxiii. part of ver. 1. ver. 3. and part of ver. 4. 1 -and led him unto Pilate.

3 And Pilate asked him, saying, Art thou the King of the Jews? and he-an-
swered him, and said, Thou sayest it.
4 Then said Pilate to-

JOHN xviii. part of ver. 33.
33 --and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews ?

SECTION XI.
Christ is sent by Pilate to Herod.

LUKE xxiii. 5–13.
And they were the more fierce, saying, He stir- Luke xxiii. 5.
reth up the people, teaching throughout all Jewry,
beginning from Galilee to this place.

When Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked whether Luke xxiii. 6. the man were a Galilæan.

And as soon as he knew that he belonged unto Luke xxiii. 7. Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who himself also was at Jerusalem at that time.

And when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceeding Luke xxiii. &. glad: for he was desirous to see him of a long season, because he had heard many things of him; and he hoped to have seen some miracle done by

him.

11

Then he questioned with him in many words ; Luke xxiii. 9. but he answered him nothing.'.

And the Chief Priests and Scribes stood and Luke xxfil. vehemently accused him,

And Herod with his men of war set him at Luke xxiii. nought, and mocked him, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe, and sent him again to Pilate.

And the same day Pilate and Herod were made Luke xxiii. friends together : for before they were at enmity between themselves ".

11.

14 Some time before this reconciliation, Pilate had dedicated some shields of gold to Tiberius, and placed them in the palace of Herodium. The Jews, under the sanction of Herod, petitioned Pilate for their removal, but in vain. They determined therefore to appeal to Tiberius, and for this purpose sent a deputation to the emperor, at the head of which were the four sons of Herod. This act seems to have been the cause of their difference, as it was regarded by the Jews and by Herod as a violation of their religion: and Herod was not reconciled to Pilate till the Roman Governor, desirous not to assist the Jews in the condemnation of our Lord, acknowledged the power of Herod, by sending to his tribunal at Jerusalem the holy Jesus.

Dr. Townson justly observes, that it is probable both Pilate and Herod occu

13.

Luke xxiii.

14.

SECTION XII.
' . .

** Jerusalem. , Christ is brought back again to Pilate, who again declares Him

innocent, and endeavours to persuade the People to ask Bas rabbas, MATT. xxvii. 15—21. MARK XV. 6–12. LUKE xxiji.

13—20. JOHN xviii. 39. Luke xxiii. 9° And Pilate, when he had called together . Matt. xxvii.

the Chief Priests and the rulers and the peo- 23.
ple,

Said unto them, Ye have brought this man
unto me, as one that perverteth the people : and,
behold, I, having examined him before you, have
found no fault in this man touching those things
whereof ye accuse him :

No, nor yet Herod : for I sent you to him; and, lo, nothing worthy of death is done unto , ..

him. Luke xxiii. I will therefore chastise him, and release him. :

P Now at that feast the governor was wont to RLul

release unto the people
Mark xv. 6. 'one prisoner, whomsoever they desired.
Matt. xxvii. And they had then a notable prisoner, called

Barabbas,
which lay bound with them that had made insur-
rection with him, who had committed murder in

the insurrection.
Mark xv. 8. And the multitude crying aloud began to de-

sire him to do as he had ever done unto them. .

Luke xxiii. 15.

16.
Matt. xxvii.

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15.

16.

Mark xv. 7.

pied different parts of the palace called Herodium, which some time before had been built by Herod the Great. It consisted of two distinct spacious buildings, one of which was named Cæsareum, and the other Agrippeum: it stood near the temple (a).

15 Hottinger has written a treatise on this passage, “ De ritu dimittendi reum in festo Paschatis;" which is bound up in the thirteenth volume of the Critici Sacri. He opposes the opinion of Whitby, that a prisoner was released only at the feast of the passover. He considers the custom (quoting Grotius and Ger. Vossius,) as contrary to the stern inflexibility of the Mosaic institutions; “Erat siquidem divina per Mosen -Jata lex xwpic oirtipuñv, sine omni misericordia, Heb. x. 28. Nec cuiquam homini data ignoscendi potestas, non Regi, non Synedrio, non populo," sect. x. and xx.

This deviation from their established law is a proof how much the Levitical institutions had been relaxed from their appointed rigour and severity. The origin of this emancipation is unknown.

(a) Philo leg. ad Caium, vol. ii. p. 589. ed. Mangey ap Townson. See also Hales's Analysis, vol. ii. part ü.

Jerusalem

17.

(For of necessity he must release one unto them Luke xxiii. at the feast.)

Therefore when they were gathered together, Matt. xxvii. Pilate said unto them, ye have a custom that I should release unto you John xviii. 30. one at the Passover: Whom will ye that I release unto you? Barabbas, Matt. xxvii. or Jesus which is called Christ? will ye therefore that I release unto you the King John xviii. 30. of the Jews ?

For he knew that the Chief Priests had deli- Mark sv.10. vered him for envy.

When he was set down on the judgment seat, Matt. xxvii. his wife sent unto him, saying, Have thou no- 19. thing to do with that just man: for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of

him.

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9 John xviil. But the Chief Priests and elders persuaded Matt. xxvii. Aets iii. 14. the multitude that they should ask Barabbas, and

destroy Jesus.

And they cried out all at once, saying, Away Luke xxiii. with this man, and release unto us Barabbas :

(Who for a certain sedition made in the city, Luke xxiii. and for murder, was cast into prison.)

18.

MATT. xxvii. ver. 18.
18 For he knew that for envy they had delivered him.

MARK XV. part of ver. 6. and ver. 9. 11. 6 Now at that feast he released unto them

9 But Pilate answered them, saying, Will ye that I release unto you the King of the Jews ?

11 But the Chief Priests moved the people, that he should rather release Barabbas unto them.

SECTION XIII.

Pilate three times endeavours again to release Christ.

MATT. xxvii. 21-23. MARK Xv. 12–14. LUKE Xxiii.

20—23. JOHN xviii. 40.
Pilate,
the governor,

Mat.xxvii. 21. therefore willing to release Jesus,

Luke xxiii. answered,

Mat, xxvii. 21. [and] spake again to them,

Lukexxii. 20

Luke xxiii. 20.

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Mat.xxvii.21. and said unto them, Whether of the twain will ye Jerusalem..

that I release unto you? They said, Barabbas. John xviii. 40. Then cried they all again, saying, Not this * Acts iii. 14.

man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a rob

ber.
Mark xv. 12. And Pilate answered and said again unto them,

What will ye then that I shall do
Mat. xxvii.22. with Jesus which is called Christ?
Mark xv. 12. unto him whom ye call the King of the Jews ?
Mark xv. 13. And they cried out again, Crucify him,
Mat. xxvii.22. and they all say unto him,
Luke xxiii.21. Crucify him! crucify him!
Mat.xxvii, 21. Let him be crucified.
Mark xv. 14. Then Pilate said unto them,
Lukexxiii.22. the third time, Why, what evil hath he done? I

have found no cause of death in him: I will

therefore chastise him, and let him go. Mark xv. 14. And they cried out the more exceedingly, Crucify

him.
Lukexxiii.23. And they were instant with loud voices, requir-

ing that he might be crucified. And the voices
of them and of the Chief Priests prevailed.

MATT. xxvii. part of ver. 22, 23. 22 Pilate saith unto them, What shall I do then

3 And the governor said, Why? what evil hath he done? out the more, saying, Let him be crucified.

But they cried

MARK XV. part of ver. 14. 14 -Why, what evil hath he done?

LUKE xxiii. part of ver. 21, 22. 21 But they cried, saying22 -and he said unto them

16 It is very probable that the chief priests and elders who “persuaded the multitude that they should ask Barabbas, and destroy Jesus," (Matt. xxvii. 20.) had placed their own creatures and dependents as near as they might legally approach (John xviii. 28.) the door of the judgment-hall, that they might obtain the release of Barabbas, and secure the destruction of Jesus; for immediately after, they clamorously demanded the crucifixion of Christ; so anxious were the chief priests for the immediate condemnation of our Lord, and so fearful lest his innocence should protect him from their malice.

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