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which immediately succeeded it, when the traditions of their ancestors were most venerated, and when the storms which desolated the country attached the compilers most fondly to the very words and phrases of their learned Rabbis (a).
Impressed with such considerations, I have sometimes availed myself of these sources of illustration. Though I may appear to have wandered too far from the strict performance of the task which I had assigned myself—the arrangement of the New Testament, I would not refuse myself the pleasure of perusing, and incorporating in my notes, many of the principal remarks of the learned and laborious Schoetgen. It is indeed to be regretted, that the works of this divine are not sufficiently appreciated. He was imbued with the true spirit of theological criticism. Undertaking his work in the fear of God, and with a sincere desire to serve the Church, he never commenced his diligent reading without fervent prayer that his exertions might be useful." Firmly convinced of the inspiration of the New Testament, he had no hypothesis to serve—no theory to defend-no novel nor ingenious paradox to assert. Knowa ing that some degree of reputation would follow his diligent researches; he guarded himself carefully from vanity and self-conceit; and rejected much of which the benefit was equivocal, lest the reader should imagine he desired only to display his learning. He apologises for the very appearance of affectation, when his discussions might be thought unnecessarily prolix. Every where acknowledging his obligations to Selden, Wagenseil, Braun, Witsius, Vitringa, Edzard, Lightfoot, and others, he still confesses the possibility of erroneous conclusions, and his utmost care to avoid them.
(a) I entreat the attention of the theological student to the Preface to Schoetgen's Horæ Hebraicæ, which is now before me; and to Lightfoot's Works, of which a new edition is just completed, as well as to Wetstein's New Testament. The honour of opening to the world the fountains of talmudical learning, I rejoice to say, belongs to one of our own countrymen. To use the quaint expression of Schoetgen, nisi Lightfootus basset, multi non saltassent.
His language is perspicuous, rather than elegant; and his great work will ever be esteemed by all who desire to understand fully and satisfactorily the peculiarities of the New Testament. I trust that some theological labourer will soon devote himself to the task of explaining the whole of the sacred volume, from the same sources, which so much amused and delighted Schoetgen, Selden, Lightfoot, Drusius, and Gill.
In selecting notes from these sources, an additional interest was unavoidably excited for the wonderful people, to whom so much of our Scriptures was addressed. To them many notes are exclusively written. Though various circumstances persuade me, that the mass of the Jewish people is altogether indifferent to the exertions which many benevolent and good men are daily making on their behalf,— though they at present despise, for the most part, the idea of a spiritual Messiah-we who are Christians well know that Palestine is the land of Emmanuel. We know that the Most High so continues to govern the nations of the world, that their power, and wealth, and greatness, whether they arise from good polity, from war, or from commerce, shall all tend to the accomplishment of his prophecies. Of the unfulfilled prophecies of God, the most splendid, the most numerous, and apparently the most easy of execution, are those which relate to the Jews. They will again plant the vine and the olive upon their native hills, and reap their harvests in the valleys of their fathers. The history of the future age must develope the means by which this great event will be effected. We know not whether they will be borne back to Palestine in triumph in the ships of a powerful maritime nation : (and if so, may God grant that England, and not America, nor Russia, nor any other power, may be so honoured by the Almighty)-or whether in their behalf the age of miracles will return, and a great simultaneous effort be, therefore, made in their favour, on the part of the sovereigns of Europe-or whether, by the exertions of
pious individuals, the mass of the community will be so leavened, that all people shall unite to restore them to the Holy Land. We know not, whether they shall obtain their political re-establishment from the confederated rulers of the great Republic of Europe—or by an easier devotion of that wealth which is daily making them the principal agents of the commerce of nations, purchase the right of the soil from its present feeble and divided possessors—or whether the future agitations and contentions of sovereigns, may render it desirable that an important boundary power should be reestablished in Palestine; and a formal surrender of their territory should be therefore made to their nation; as in times past the policy of Persia restored their ancestors to Jerusalem, in consequence of its defeat by the Greeks; and of the treaty which forbade the Persians to come within a certain distance of the coast-or whether they will be restored to their own now unoccupied, uncultivated, unregarded land, the central spot on earth, where the metropolitical Church of God may be most suitably established (6), and
(6) Mr. King's remarks upon Palestine, considered as the centre of the millenian empire of Christ upon earth, are highly worthy of notice. “How capable this country is of a more universal intercourse than any other, with all parts of the earth, is most remarkable, and deserves well to be considered, when we read of the numerous prophecies which speak of its future splendor and greatness ; when its people shall at length be gathered from all parts of the earth unto which they are scattered, and be restored to their own land. There is no region in the world, to which an access from all parts is so open. By means of the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, there is an easy approach from all parts of Europe, from a great part of Africa, from America by means of the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, and the well known roads from thence; there is an approach from the rest of Africa, from the East Indies and from the Isles; and, lastly, by means of the Caspian, the lake or Sea of Bayhall, and the near communication of many great rivers, the approach is facilitated from all the northern parts of Tartary. In short, if a skilful geographer were to sit down to devise the fittest spot on the globe for universal empire, or, rather, a spot where all the great intercourses of human life should universally centre, and from whence the extended effects of universal benevolence and good-will should flow to all parts of the earth, and where universal and united homage should be paid, with one consent, to the Most High; he would
which seems to be waiting till the heir shall resume his claims, by some other way, which is known only to the God of their fathers-all this must be left to that history, which is the only right interpreter of our faith-preserving prophecy. The experience of the past ages may teach us the manner in which the pride and ambition of man pursue their own plans, and are successful, or are defeated, as the God of Christianity may please to appoint, for the accomplishment of his own designs.
Greece boasted of Marathon and Thermopyla-Greece was triumphant, and Persia was repulsed. Neither Themistocles nor Miltiades, nor his son, who completed their victories, nor Darius, nor Xerxes, nor his successor, could have believed, that their opposite continents were in commotion, and the whole world was agitated, that the poor and despised prophets of Judæa might be proved to have spoken truth; and the walls of Jerusalem be rebuilt after the predicted period of the Babylonish captivity (c). When Cyrus the younger advanced into the plains of Babylon, from the frontiers of Persia, with a well-appointed army of veteran Greeks, who returned to their own country after his unexpected fall, by a retreat which is still commemorated as the most renowned in history; neither Cyrus, Clearchus, nor Xenophon, could have imagined that they were preparing the way for the accomplishment of the prophecies of God; by pointing out to the Greeks of a subsequent generation, that when their forces should be united under one head, the kingdom of Persia was at their disposal ; as an obscure Jew
not find another so suited, in all circumstances, as that which is, with emphasis, called the Holy Land. These observations, perhaps, may not deserve great weight, but they ought not to be wholly neglected; especially when it is considered how many passages of Scripture there are which plainly declare, that the time shall at length come, when Zion shall be the joy of the whole earth."--Note to Hymns to the Supreme Being, p. 126. ap Hales Analysis of Chronology, vol. ii. p. 1351.
(c) See Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. ii. pt. 2. p. 482.
had predicted. They could not tell, that one reason, why Cyrus could not conquer Persia, with an army of the same people who should hereafter subdue it, might be—the prophecy of Daniel, that a Greek alone should become its conqueror.
Rome did not know that its gradual conquests should overspread the world, and the nations should imperceptibly conform to its government; and then that its factions should be extinguished, and compelled, whatever their republican indignation might be, to submit to one imperial ruler; in order that the words of the Jewish prophets might be fulfilled, and the world be at peace, when the Messiah should be born. But as we now look back upon these events, and see how the God of Christianity rides in the whirlwinds of war, and directs all the storms of human passions : so shall the generations which are yet to come, look upon the changes in England, which established that Protestantism which is the blessing of mankind-they shall look back upon the Revolutions of France, and the opposition of England to infidelity in religion, and anarchy in politics, and admire, in the unlimited consequences of the events of the last generation, the accomplishment of the prophecies of God. .. · Brethren of the house of Israel ! if any such may be induced to listen to a student of your own Scriptures, your rank among nations will still be high and splendid. The God of your fathers has now permitted you, for nearly two thousand years, to wander over the world, an oppressed, an insulted, and despised people, without a sovereign, a king. dom, or a church. God is a Being unchangeable, and wise, and good. You hold in your hands a collection of books which tells you of the glories of your ancestors—how they were separated from the rest of the world, neither because they were greater, nor wiser, nor better, nor braver, than the rest of men upon whom the rain descended and the sun shone: but because the love of God elected them, and gave