# An Intermediate Logic

W.B. Clive, 1911 - 513 páginas

### Contenido

 CHAPTER I 1 Indirect Establishment of Hypotheses 3 SECTION 4 Origin and Function of Logic 7 CHAPTER II 13 CHAPTER III 19 SECTION 20 SECTION 25
 CHAPTER XXV 287 Unity of Nature i Origin of Principle 291 ii Meaning of Principle iii Scope of Principle 292 Function of the Concept of Causation 294 Nature of Causation 297 Axioms of Causation 301 The Basis of Science 306 PAGE 307

 Connotative and Nonconnotative Terms 26 Positive and Negative Terms 33 CHAPTER IV 39 CHAPTER V 46 Formation of Definitions 55 FALLACIES OF DEFINITION 58 CHAPTER VII 71 Principles of Logical Division 77 Special or Artificial Classifications 83 Descriptions 84 Limits of Classification 91 v The Fourfold Scheme of Propositions 102 Kinds of Propositions 104 iii Quality and Quantity 108 The Classinclusion View 115 Misinterpretation of Categorical Propositions 121 CHAPTER XII 128 The Square of Opposition 135 Eductions of Hypothetical Propositions 154 Analysis and Synthesis 161 Rules of Method 171 Nature of Inference 177 CHAPTER XVI 183 Ignoratio Elenchi 189 CHAPTER XVII 197 CHAPTER XVIII 203 The Dictum de omni et nullo 204 General Rules or Canons of Categorical Syllogisms i Derivation of Rules from the Dictum 205 ii Examination of the Rules of the Syllogism 207 iii Corollaries from the Rules of the Syllogism 213 Definition of Proposition 215 CHAPTER XIX 217 Special Rules of the Four Figures 218 Determination of Valid Moods 221 The Mnemonic Lines 222 Strengthened and Weakened Syllogisms 223 Examples of Valid Moods 224 The Representation of Syllogisms by Diagrams 226 Pure Hypothetical Syllogisms 231 Pure Disjunctive Syllogisms 233 i Nature 241 Mixed Disjunctive Syllogisms 249 ii Rebutting a Dilemma 257 Sorites 267 Validity of Syllogistic Reasoning 273 CHAPTER XXIV 279 Basis and Aim of Induction 283 Enumeration of Instances Analysis of Phenomena 284 Method of Induction 285
 Simple Observation Inference Selection 309 Danger of Bias CHAPTER XXVI 311 Scientific Instruments OBSERVATION 312 Observation by Experiment 313 Aim of Experiment 319 Fallacies incident to Observation i Nonobservation 321 b Neglect of Operative Conditions 324 ii MalObservation 325 CHAPTER XXVII 328 Value of Testimony 329 Criticism of Testimony 331 Criticism of Indirect Testimony 335 CHAPTER XXVIII 338 Origin of Hypotheses 341 Testing of Hypotheses 343 Descriptive and Working Hypotheses 344 Conditions of Validity of Hypotheses a Statement of Conditions 345 b Examination of Conditions 346 Extension of Hypotheses 348 Crucial Instances 350 CHAPTER XXIX 353 Enumerative Induction 355 Analogy 359 i Nature ii Force iii Fallacies incident to Analogy 361 CHAPTER XXX 366 Direct Development of Hypotheses 369 CHAPTER XXXI 400 i Method of Agreement 401 The Silkworm Disease 407 ii Method of Exclusions PAGE 328 329 330 335 409 Argon 413 Henry VIII and the Parliament of 1529 421 10 428 CHAPTER XXXII 431 Methods of determining Magnitude 437 Nature of Explanation 443 Generalisation 449 QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES 461 13 473 205 501 215 503 216 504 219 505 292 506 Kinds of Syllogism 201 507 224 508 325 509 Reduction of Pure Hypothetical Syllogisms 234 235 236 236 238 240 510 458 512

### Pasajes populares

Página 64 - The only proof capable of being given that an object is visible, is that people actually see it. The only proof that a sound is audible, is that people hear it: and so of the other sources of our experience. In like manner, I apprehend, the sole evidence it is possible to produce that anything is desirable, is that people do actually desire it.
Página 173 - General observations drawn from particulars are the jewels of knowledge, comprehending great store in a little room; but they are therefore to be made with the greater care and caution, lest, if we take counterfeit for true, our loss and shame be the greater when our stock comes to a severe scrutiny.
Página 484 - It would be no less impracticable to think of wholly annihilating the popular assemblies in which these lawyers sit. The army, by which we must govern in their place, would be far more chargeable to us; not quite so effectual ; and perhaps, in the end, full as difficult to be kept in obedience. With regard to the high aristocratic spirit of Virginia and the southern colonies, it has been proposed, I know, to reduce it, by declaring a general enfranchisement of their slaves.
Página 486 - Matters of fact, which are the second objects of human reason, are not ascertained in the same manner; nor is our evidence of their truth, however great, of a like nature with the foregoing. The contrary of every matter of fact is still possible; because it can never imply a contradiction, and is conceived by the mind with the same facility and distinctness, as if ever so conformable to reality.
Página 68 - No reason can be given why the general happiness is desirable, except that each person, so far as he believes it to be attainable, desires his own happiness. This, however, being a fact, we have not only all the proof which the case admits of, but all which it is possible to require, that happiness is a good : that each person's happiness is a good to that person, and the general happiness, therefore, a good to the aggregate of all persons.
Página 272 - It must be granted that in every syllogism, considered as an argument to prove the conclusion, there is a petitio principii. When we say, All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, therefore Socrates is mortal...
Página 42 - Guido, with a burnt stick in his hand, demonstrating on the smooth paving-stones of the path, that the square on the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.
Página 187 - Some mechanicians attempt to prove (what they ought to lay down as a probable but doubtful hypothesis*) that every particle of matter gravitates equally : 'why?' 'because those bodies which contain more particles ever gravitate more strongly, ie are heavier :' ' but, (it may be urged,) those which are heaviest are not always more bulky...
Página 451 - In a given state of society, a certain number of persons must put an end to their own life. This is the general law; and the special question as to who shall commit the crime depends of course upon special laws; which, however, in their total action, must obey the large social law to which they are subordinate. And the power of the larger law is so irresistible, that neither the love of life nor the fear of another world can avail anything towards even checking its operation.
Página 188 - We may be quite sure that the acquirement of those classes of facts which are most useful for regulating conduct involves a mental exercise best fitted for strengthening the faculties. It would be utterly contrary to the beautiful economy of nature if one kind of culture were needed for the gaining of information and another kind were needed as a mental gymnastic.