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ALGEBRA, LESSONS IN : CIVIL SERVICE PAPERS: ENGLISH LITERATURE: GEOGRAPHY, LESSONS IN:

Adition of Powers-Sub-

The Customs

29

The Elizabethan Period:

Oceania and its Divisions-

traction of Powers-Mul.

Friendly Societies' Registry 29

Prose

45 Malaysia — Micronesia

tiplication of Powers 28

Inland Revenue .

29

The Elizabethan Period :

Polynesia

35

Division of Powers-Roots

Post Office.

30 The Drama

110 Australasia

99

-Powers of Roots. 60

Seaman's Register and Re-

The Elizabethan Åge:Shake- Map-making-Mercator's

Evolution.

107

cord of Seamen

speare

204 Projection

175

Saris and Radical Quanti- Stationery Office

101 Shakespeare (continued) 269 Construction of a Globe-

ties - Bedaction, Addi.

Conclusion. .

102

The Elizabethan Period:

Projection of a Small Part

tion, and Subtraction of

the Dramatists Ben

of the Earth's Surface-

Eatical Quantities . 155 COMMERCE, NATURAL HIS- Jonson - Beaumont and

Conclusion

231

Kaltiplication of Radical

TORY OF:

Fletcher.

293 MAPS AND PROJECTIONS :

Quantities

206

The Elizabethan Period :

Oceania East, with Sand.

Division of RadicalQuantities 278 VIII. The British Empire :

the Dramatists (continued)

wich Islands

36

Lercution of Radical Quan.

British Colonies and Pos.

-Massinger, Ford, Web-

Central Oceania

37

279

sessions

17

ster, and others

325

IX. Foreign Produce: Eu:

Erelation of Radical Quan-

Diagram of Mercator's

The Civil War ard the Com-

Projection

176

279 rope

49, 81, 113

monwealth : Prose. 364

232

Projection of Globe

Eetzetion of Equations by

X. Asia : Climate, Soil, Raw

Projection of Map of Scot.

Infontion and Evolu-

Produce.

145 FRENCH, CORRESPONDENCE

land

233

tion

279, 315

XI. The New World: North,

IN:

Adfected Qasdratic Equa.

Central, and South Ame.

Letters 35-38

GEOLOGY, LESSONS IN:

103

355, 407

rica

277, 209

39-43

150

Devonian or Old Rud Suud.

The Key to the Exercises

XII. Nature and Man as

4447

244

stone System.

7

in xey Lesson in Algebra

Agents of Change

241

4852

The Carboniferous System. 71

l be found at the end

5359

383

The Upper Coal Measures 135

of the best Lesson, or COMMERCE, TERMS USED IN: English Charter Party 301

Ceal.

196

Dest bat one.

Abandonment-Bank Credit 319 French Charter Party 301

The Permian System . 267

Banker-Bull

341 English Bottomry Bond” 383

The Triassic Group

268, 328

ASTRONOYY, LESSONS IN:

Bullion-DockWeight Notes 358

French “ Contrat à la

The Jurassic Formation-

The Solar System Compa-

Grosse"

Douceur-Joint Adventure, 404

383

Lias

392

natire Sizes and Distances

English Maritime Assurance 383 ILLUSTRATIONS :

-The Sun-Vulcan

1

French“ Police d'Assurance

A Coal Forest

137

The Planets (continued)-

EDUCATION, THE THEORY

AND PRACTICE OF:

Maritime”

334 Ideal Flora and Fauna of

Mercury – Venas -- The

the Triassic Period 328

Earth

69 Introduction

20 FRENCH, LESSONS IN:

Ideal Flora and Fauna of

The Moon: its Motiens 132 Faculties of the Mind

85 $$ 47. Paradigms of the Auxi-

the Permian Period 329

Var-The Miror Planets-

What to Tench

148

liary Verbs.

26

Ideal Flora and Fauna of

Jupiter.

193 Eminent Teachers, Practical

48. Regular Verbs(1st Conj.) 27

the Liassic Period 393

Jupiter (continued)— Saturn

and Theoretical

220

49. Remarks on the Pecu.

--Urasus-Neptune

GEOMETRICAL PERSPEC.

257 How to Teach

284

liarities of some Verbs of

TIVE:

Comets- Their Orbits-Re- Duties and Qualifications of

the First Conjugation . 78

markable Ones—Physical

Teachers-Conclusion 348

50. Regular Verbs(2nd Conj.)

Shadows cast upon Inclined

78

Planes

Constitution

51. Regular Verbs(3rd Conj.)

21

78

List of

of

Shadows Curvilinear

Known Comets

295 ELECTRI 'Y:

52. Remarks

79

53. Regular Verbs(4th Conj.)

Shooting Stars-Meteorites

79

Objects.

87

Heating Effects of the Elec-

- Eclipses-Their Theory

54. Conjugation of a Pas-

Shadows caused by Artificial

tric Spark - How to fire

Solar Eclipses-Baily's

siye Verb

117

Lights-Conclusion 152

Beads--Red Flames 359

Gunpowder, etc. - Insu.

55. Rule

117 | GERMAN, LESSONS IN :

The Spectroscope--Exami-

lating Stool-Mechanical

56. Conjugation of Reflec-

36

SS 35. The New Declension

Effects-How to Pierce

mation of Red Flames by

tive Verbs

117

31, Rule for Adjectives 34

15

t-Lunar Eclipses-00-

Glass, etc.

57. Negative Form of the

32. Mixed Declension 36

Thunder House-Electrical

cultations- Astronomical

Reflective Verb

118

33. Rule for Adjectives 31

Instruments – Telescopes

Attraction--Epinns’ Con.

58. Interrogative Form of

32. Further Observations

-Transit Instrument

denser-Condensing Elec-

396

the Reflective Verb 118

on Adjectives

34

troscope.

40

59. The Reflective Verb con-

BOOKKEEPING, LESSONS IN: Atmospheric Electricity-

35. Comparison of Adjec-

jugated Negatively and

tives

86

Book

42 Franklin's Kite Experi.

Interrogatively. 118

SS. Euphonic Changes 85

Ikr Beer

ment-Crosse's Apparatus

60. Tables of the Regular

37. Deciension of Compa-

Istzret Account with the

-Lightning Conductors. 74

Terminations of the

ratives and Superlatives • 86

Caca Bank

91

Four Conjugations 118

38. Observations

87

Journal

122, 170 ENGLISH, LESSONS IN:

61.-1. Formation of the

39. Irregular and Defec-

Ledger

218, 250

Number (continued)

14

Tenses

119

tive Forms.

131

Iercice Book

14, 70

61.-2. Paradigm of the Uni.

40. Observations

131

Account Sales Book 299, 346

Adjectives

70, 138 personal Verb Avoir, to

41. Adjectives compared

Account Current Book 346

Numeral Adjectives

138

be there

119

by means of Adverbs 131

Letnaranda of Transactions 381

Simple Pronouns

138

62. Alphabetical List of the

42. Observations

BOTASY : LESSONS IN :

Compound Pronouns

Irregular, Defective, Pe.

43. The Numerals

131

CXIII. Lichens

195

Adjective Pronouns

culiar, and Unipersonal

33, 97

44. The Cardinal Numbers 131

Prepositions

CIIIII. Fangi 161, 239, 287, 567

195

Verbs-

45. Ordinal Numbers 186

The Verb: General Princi-

Abbatre-Boire

46. Distributive Numerals 186

CHEMISTRY, LESSONS IN :

ples

259

Bouillir--Coudre

47. Multiplicative Nume-

Aldehydes-Ketones-Acids 38 The Verb: Tense, Mood, and

Courir-Déteindre

rals

186

Bases and Essential Oils

323

Conjugation

Détenir-Ecrire. 310

48. Variative Numerals 187

Destructive Distillation

Variations of Verbs in Past

Elire-Faillir

366

49. Dimidiative Numerals 187

Dres-Vegetable Colour.

Form

324

Feindre-Mouvoir (se) 405 50. Iterative Numerals 187

ing Matters

164 The Verbs Have, Do, Will, KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN 51. Distinctives

187

Spectrum Analysis-Concla.

Shall, May, Can, Ought,

FRENCI.

52. Partitives or Frac-

dusien

223

Must

390 Ex. 155-157...79 | Ex. 158-160...407 tionals

187

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53. Indefinite Numerals 187 The Nervous System.

150

Areas of Irregular Figures, Rolative Pronouns-Inter-

54. Pronouns

187 Digestion

254 and Figures bounded by

rogative Pronouns

55. Table of the Pronouns 234

162

Our Foods—Their Qualities

Curved Lines-Areas of Demonstrative Pronouns-

56. Personal Pronouns 23+ and Uses

305

Circles, Sectors, and Seg.

Indefinite Pronouns

202

57. Remarks on the Per-

Organs and Process

of

ments of Circles, Circular

The Verb-Moods-Tenses

sonal Pronouns

234 Digestion

369 Zones, Rings, Lunes, and

- Participles and Gerunds

58. Possessive Pronouns 234

Ellipses--Solid Contents

-Conjugation

227

59. Indefinite Pronouns

235 ITALIAN, LESSONS IN:

of Cube, Parallelopipedon, Conjugation of the Auxiliary

60. Reflective and Re-

The Preposition Por

22 Cylinder, Cone, Sphere,

Verbs

262, 300, 330

ciprocal Pronouns 235

The

Prepositions Sopra,

Segment of Sphere, and Conjugations of Regular

61. Demonstrative Pro-

Sovra, Su

58 Solid Ring

236 Verbs

330

nouns.

285 The Prepositions Fra; Tra;

on the

The Key to the Exercises

62. Observations

Paradigm of the Three Con.

Infra, Intra

58

given in any Lesson in

jugations

362

Demonstratives

285

Adjectives.

83

Mensuration will be found

Reflective Verbs

• 394

63. Determinative Pro.

Auxiliary Verbs-Conjuga-

at the end of the next

The Passive Verb

394

nouns.

286

tion of the Auxiliary Verb

lesson.

64. Relative Pronouns

** The Key to the Exercises

286

Essere, to be

115

65. Observations

MUSIC, LESSONS IN :

in any Lesson in Spanish

on the

Conjugation of the Auxiliary

Relatives

will be found at the end

286 Verb Avere, to have

Examples of Minor Tunes-

154

66. Interrogative Pro- Exercises for Practice 182,

Conclusion

52

of the next lesson, or next

but one.

nouns

286 Regular Verbs

242, 275

OUR HOLIDAY :

67. Observations

on the

Reflective Verbs .

314, 349

Minor Ball Games :-

UNIVERSITIES, THE :

Interrogatives

286

Impersonal Verbs 350, 378 Rounder

7

Edinburgh

61

68. Verbs

334

Intransitive or Neuter Verbs 378 Feeder

7

St. Andrews

69. Participles

334 Exercises for Practice

Trap, Bat, and Ball 207

Glasgow

173

70. Auxiliary Verbs. 335

Fives

208

Aberdeen

The Key to Exercises in

228

71. Remarks on the use

Rackets.

each Lesson in Italian will

208

London: The Second B.A.

of Haben and Sein 335

Skating

be found at the end of the

79, 144

and M.A. Examinations, 277

72. Paradigms of Auxilia-

Tennis

ries of the First Class . 371

next Lesson, or next but

271 VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY :

one.

Discovery of Galvanism-

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN

Curling

Simplest Modes of pro-

GERMAN :-

LAND-SURVEYING, LESSONS PAINTING IN WATER-

ducing an Electrical Cur.

Exercises. Page. Erercises. Page,

COLOURS:

rent--Dry Pile-Bohnen-

148, 149 35

159

. 287

Use of the Chain and Cross-

Introduction Colours

berger's Electroscope

150, 151 87 160, 161 335 Staff-Determination of

Brushes Paper Flat

Action of Battery

104

152

188 162-169

372

Areas

260

Tinting.

Quantity and Intensity-

153-158

235

Examples of Simple Field-

Semi-tones

Different Forms of Bat-

Books—Theodolite, etc. . 332 The Use of the Brush 343 tery – Ring of Cups-

GREEK, LESSONS IN :

Field-Book and Survey of

Cruikshank's Wollas.

Contracted Verbs

READINGS IN GREEK:

Pure-

an Estate

385

ton's - Münch's-Smee's

Paradigms of Contracted ... The Key to Exercises in Herodotus

Bichromate Persul.

Verbs-Remarks on the

Lessons in Land-Surrey. Aristophanes

93

phate-Daniell's

129

Contracted Verbs

10 ing I, and II. will be

Homer

157 Forms of Battery (continued)

Contracted Pure Verbs 54, 106 found at the end of Les-

The New Testament

230

- Daniell's Grove's

Permutation of Consonants 172 sons II, and III.

291, 357 Bunsen's Callan's

Formation of the Tenses of

READINGS IN LATIN:

Crucible Battery - May.

Impure Verbs

LATIN, LESSONS IN :

198

Tacitus

50

nooth Battery-Grove's

Paradigms of Mute Verbs

The Defeetive Verbs.

19

Juvenal

Gas Battery-Hints as to

Liquid Verbs

339 Impersonal Verbs

91

Catullas

179

Working Batteries . 167

Deviations in the Forma-

Various kinds of Vervs,

Plautus

307

Mode of Connecting the

tions of some Verbs 380 Simple, Derivative, etc. 92

Terence

398

Cells together Ohm's

The Key to the Exercises

Verbs Transitive and In.

Laws-Mode of Convey.

in each Lesson in Greek

transitive

147 RECREATIVE NATURAL

ing the Current - The

will be found at the end of

Parts of a Sentence

214 HISTORY :

Earth acting as a Returu

the next Lesson, or next Syntax: Agreement 215, 282, 342 The Cocoa-nut Palm (con-

Wire - Short Circuits-

but one.

Syntax: Government. 402

tinued)

31 Galvanometer Wheat-

.*. The Key to the Exercises Sponge Gossip

94 stone's Bridge

HEAT:

Resist-

in any Lesson in Latin will Grasses, Reeds, and Rushes 158

ance Coil

200

Its Nature- Material and

be found at the end of the

201, 303, 401 Units of Force and Resist.

Dynamical Theories-Phy-

next Lesson, or next but Solitary Wasps and Bees 351 ance-B. A. Unit- Rheo-

sical and other Sources

one.

RECREATIVE SCIENCE:

stat-Effects of Electric

of Heat.

Effects of Heat-Expansion

Current-Electric Light

LOGIC, LESSONS IN:

Reflecting Tube and other

- Electric Lamp

225

- Modes

55

of Measuring

Optical Contrivances

Introduction-Mental Ope.

it-Trevelyan Instrument

Magic Designer-Distorted

Different Forms of Electric

rations - Terms - - Propo-

Portraits-Blue Beard's

-Change of State .

Lamp: Duboscq's, Ser.

337

sitions

183

Latent Heat of Water and

Closet

119

rin's, etc.- Properties of

Division-Generalisation

Electric Light

264

Steam-Influence of Pres.

Amusing Effects of Refrac-

Definition, etc.

215

tion-Dissolving Views

Power of the Electric Light

sure on the Boiling-point

184

Syllogisms: their Structure,

Refracting Instruments

-Way's Modification of

-Papin's Digester-Dew.

27

etc.

308

Point-Luminous Effects

The Microscope, Simple and

it-Light in Exhansted

Hypothetical Syllogisms 373

of Heat-Mechanical

Compound

Tubes-Heating Effects of

Reflecting

the Current - Mode of

Prism

311

Equivalent of Heat. . 410 MENSURATION, LESSONS IN:

The Microscope (continued) 375

Firing Ordnance-Fuzes 289

HISTORIC SKETCHES :

Introduction-Measurement

Modes of Generating Elec-

of Lines, Heights, and

SPANISH, LESSONS IN:

tricity by Heat-Thermo-

The Jews

3, 252

Distances

12 Orthography and Pronun.

Electric Piles-Effects of

Down with the Normans!”

Measurement of Sides and

ciation-Alphabet-Simple

Currents on Magnetised

65, 142, 180

Areas of Triangles-Radii

Vowels Consonants

Needle - Galvanometer-

The Fall of Jerusalem 317

and Diameters of Circles

Different Methods of

Reflecting Galvanometer

Councils

388

in and about Triangles

Spelling, etc.

5

Tangent Compass

and Regular Polygons 76 The Article-The Noun:

Chemical Effects

HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY :

321

Measurement of Circles--

Gender-Number - Case 44 Decomposition of Water-

The Osseous System. 63 Circumference - Chord-

Of the Adjective-Degrees

Voltameter-Theories of

The Thorax-pelvis-Arm--

Arc, etc.- Areas of Tri.

of Comparison

66,98 Decomposition Lead

Leg, etc.

126 angles,

Parallelograms,

Personal Pronouns

98 Tree-Modes of Decom-

The Muscular System. . 190 and Trapeziuns

Possessive Pronouns. 134 posing Salts

353

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LESSONS IN ASTRONOMY.-IX. a mile, will stand for Saturn; a full-sized cherry, three-quarters THE SOLAR SYSTEM-COMPARATIVE SIZES AND DISTANCES,

of a mile distant, for Uranus; and a plum, a mile and a quarter

off, for Neptune. On this scale the distance of the nearest THE SUN-VULCAN.

fixed star would be about 7,500 miles. The stadent will by this time have become acquainted with As the sun is by far the largest of these bodies, we will many of the more important phenomena of the heavens : we treat of it first, and the question that immediately occurs to us will, therefore, proceed now to notice in detail the principal is, What is the distance of this body? The accurate solution facts relating to those of the heavenly bodies which are our nearest of this question is one of the most important problems in neighbours in space, and

astronomy, as this distanco which belong to the same

is taken as a measure for system, or family group, as

determining the distances does the earth.

and magnitudes of most The following is a list Saturn

Jupiter

other heavenly bodies. The of the principal bodies in

principle of the problem this group :- The Sun,

can easily be understood, which is the common cen.

though, of course, there tre round which they all

are many difficulties in the revolve ; Vulcan, Mercury,

carrying of it out. Sup. and Venus, which are dis

pose an observer, situated tinguished as the inferior

on the line BC (Fig. 16), planets, their orbits being

wishes to ascertain the disincluded within that of the

tance of an inaccessible earth; the Earth; and the

object A; let Ac be the superior planets, Mars, the

visual ray by which it is minor planets, or asteroids,

Fig. 15.

seen at c; at right angles Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus,

to this lay off another line, and Neptune. Several of these have satellites, or secondary BC, and from B‘measure accurately the angle CBA. We planets, revolving around them; and there are also several know then the distance B C, and the measure of the angles comets which are included as regular members of our system. at B and c; it is easy, therefore, to calculate the angle BAC These will be enumerated hereafter.

and the length of A C. As will at once be seen, the longer BC As we inquire more particularly into the movements of these is, the larger will the angle BAC be, and therefore the less the bodies, Fe ste many striking points of similarity. They all i risk of error in measuring it. When this angle is very small, an more round the sun in the same direction,

exceedingly minute error produces a great and in elliptical paths of no great eccen.

difference in the calculated length of C A. tricity. They are all likewise opaque

Now, in the practical application of this bodies like the earth, shining only by re

principle, the utmost base-line that can lected light; and all rotate on their axes,

be obtained is the earth's diameter ; and so as to produce the changes of day and

this is so small in comparison with the night. Their orbits, too, are all inclined

distance of the sun that the angle BAC to the plane of the ecliptic.

becomes too minute to be measured di. Orreries are frequently constructed, in

rectly with a sufficient degree of accuwhich the different planets are represented

racy. We are enabled, however, in an by different-sized balls moving at various

Fig. 18.

indirect way, to measure it, and thus solve distances round a central one. It

the problem. The planet Venus is, however, quite impossible to

travels round the sun in an orbit make these on a scale at all true

K
M

within that of the earth, and to natare. Fig. 15 illustrates A

hence, at certain intervals, passes ronghly their comparative sizes.

between the earth and the sun, The following, however, is a plan

Fig. 17.

and produces what is called a for obtaining a tolerably correct

transit of the planet. On these idea of their comparative distances B

occasions it is seen as a black and magnitudes, and the relative

spot on the bright disc of the sun, dimensions of their orbits :

and by means of observations Select a large clear space, and

Fig, 16.

taken at that moment the replace at one side a ball about two feet in

quired angle may be measured. diameter to represent the sun ; Vulcan will

Fig. 17 will render the mode of proceeding then be represented by a small pin's head 27

more clear. A B represents a base-line on feet from the globe; Mercury by a mustard-seed 82 feet | the earth's surface, and CD the sun, E being the planet distant; Venus by a pea at a distance of 142 feet; the Earth by Venus when passing between the two. To an observer at a slightly larger pea at a distance of 215 feet; Mars by a large B it will appear to travel across the sun's disc along pin's head at a distance of 327 feet; the minor planets by grains the line uk, while to one situated at a it will pass along of sand between 500 and 600 feet distant. An orange, about 2 FG. Now if Venus were midway between the earth and the inches in diameter, and 1,120 feet distant, will then represent sun, no advantage would be gained, as the angle MBL would Jupiter ; one about two inches in diameter, distant two-fifths of then be equal at A L B. The planet's distance from the sun is, VOL. V.

105

[graphic]

D

А

however, about two and a half times as great as its distance when the number is at a minimum; the surface being then free from the earth, and hence the angle to be measured is so much from them on more than half the days of observation. They greater.

then increase again in number for the next five and a-half years ; Now by accurately observing the times of the planet first and thus their period appears to be about eleven years. A most coming into contact with the sun's disc at n, and of again remarkable fact has been noted in connection with this, and emerging from it at K, we shall know exactly the length of Hk; that is, that the daily variation in the magnetic needle is found in a similar way, another observer can ascertain the length of to have a precisely similar period, and to increase or diminish the chord F G, and thus we can learn the exact length of the with the increase or diminution in the numbers of spots. line ML, and the measure of the angle M B L.

Other phenomena seem further to show that there is an inti. Of course, many of the details are omitted here, but the mate relationship between the movements of the magnetic student should make himself master of the principle of the needle and the sun. Whether or not future observations may calonlation, as being the key to all celestial measurements. So reveal to us more of the nature of this bond, we cannot say, great is the importance attached to this problem that at the but fresh discoveries on the subject are frequently being last transit, in 1769, several expeditions were sent out by made. Government to take observations at different stations.

These spots are usually accounted for by supposing the sun As a result of the most accurate observations, the sun's to be a dark opaque body surrounded by two atmospheres, the horizontal parallax--that is, the angle that would be subtended outer one highly luminous, and the inner one more denso. It is to an observer in the sun by the semi-diameter of the earth-supposed then that some powerful internal convulsion breaks is found to be about 8:93“, and the mean distance of the sun is through these layers, and thus reveals the dark surface of the therefore about 91,430,000 miles. Until quite recently the sun beneath. parallax was taken at 8:6", and the sun's distance set down at In addition to these dark spots, others of unusual brilliancy 95,000,000 miles, but subsequent investigations have shown an are frequently observed. These are termed faculo. Telescopio error in these measurements. The numbers given above must, investigations show that, besides these markings, the whole however, be taken as approximations only, subject to future surface has somewhat of a mottled appearance. According to correction. The next transit of Venus, which will occur in Nasmyth, it presents an appearance as if it were covered over December, 1874, is anxiously awaited to settle the question with scattered filaments shaped like willow-leaves. The whole decisively. It must be remembered that the distance given question of the physical constitution of the sun is, however, above is the mean, the difference between the minimum and the engaging the attention of many astronomers. A total eclipse maximum being about 3,000,000 miles.

of the sun presents good opportunities for the observation of Having ascertained the distance of the sun, and knowing its many points, and among the most remarkablo features in conapparent diameter to be about 32', it becomes a simple pro- nection with these phenomena is the appearance of red flames blem to ascertain its real magnitude ; and in this way we find or protuberances surrounding the dark body of the moon at that its diameter is about 853,000 miles, or more than 108 the moment of total obscuration. These have recently been times as great as that of the earth. The best idea we can give seen at other times also, and are believed to be connected with of this immense size, is to state that if the sun were hollow, the solar atmosphere. The symbol O is frequently employed and the earth were placed in its centre, there would be room in almanacks to denote the sun. enough for the moon to continue to revolve round it without We now pass on to notice the planets which revolve in ceasetouching the sun's surface, even if the moon's distance were less courses around this grand central luminary. Till recently, increased to nearly double what it is now. . The sun's volume Mercury was supposed to be the nearest planet to the sun. is so great that it would require 1,300,000 globes of the size of About ten years ago, however, the celebrated French astronomer, the earth to be rolled into one to equal it, and it is 450 times as Le Verrier, having very carefully examined the movements of large as all the planets that revolve around taken together. this planet, found in it a slight variation, which he could

Some idea can be formed of its light and heat when we only account for by supposing that the mass of the planet remember the enormous distance we are from its surface, and Venus was incorrectly ascertained, or else that there was a the degree to which, notwithstanding this, we feel its power. planet revolving round the sun in an orbit within that of Its light is computed to be equal to that of 5,500 standard Mercury. candles, placed at a distance of a foot from the surface to be These statements of his were published in the hope that some illuminated.

further light might be thrown on the matter. It must be reWe naturally want to know something more of the physical membered, however, that Mercury itself can only be seen at properties of this wonderful and stupendous orb, but we are to occasional intervals, and with difficulty, owing to its proximity a great extent baffled in this inquiry, though many great and to the sun; and that therefore a planet much nearer to the sun important discoveries have been recently effected by means of would never be far enough removed from that body to be clearly spectrum analysis. In this way it has been ascertained that many Almost the only opportunity, then, of observing it would of the metals present in the earth are also present in the sun. be when it was in transit.

When pieces of very dark glass are placed in front of the As soon as Le Verrier had made his statement, a French phy. eye-piece of a telescope, so as to screen the eye from the sician named Lescarbault stated that on the 26th of March, 1859, intense glare of the sun, its surface may be carefully examined, he had seen a small body pass.across the sun, but had not liked and is found to present an appearance by no means uniform. to announce the fact, no other observer having called attention Many dark spots (Fig. 18), termed maculce, are found at times to it. Le Verrier at once saw him, and carefully inquired into to exist upon its surface. The centre of these is usually of a the matter. At first he thought the whole affair was a delusion: very dark colour, and is surrounded by a ring much lighter in but after questioning the physician, and inquiring about tho appearance, which is known as the penumbra. These spots apparatus he used, he became convinced that he had indeed are very irregular in shape, and frequently change in size or discovered a new planet, which was then called Vulcan. From disappear altogether. At times, however, they remain per- this one observation no very decisive details could be drawn, manent sufficiently long to be traced disappearing at one edge so as to calculate its orbit accurately; its distance from tho of the disc, and after an interval appearing again at the sun was, however, set down at about 14,000,000 miles, and its other. We thus learn that the sun, like the other members time of revolution in its orbit at a little under twenty days. It of our system, is in constant rotation on its axis, and the was conjectured that a second transit might be observed in period of this rotation is found to be 25 days, 7 hours, and March, 1860; but though a careful watch was kept, it was not 48 minutes.

seen, nor has it been seen again up to the present time. Many, These spots are occasionally so large as to be distinctly on this account, treat the whole affair as a mistake. Instances observed by the naked eye. Some of them have been measured, have, however, been previously recorded of spots resembling and their breadth found to be more than 100,000 miles. Most planets being seen on the sun, and it may be that futare observaof them, however, are only visible with the aid of the tele- tions will show that the planet really exists, and that these have scope. Careful records have been kept of the appearance of been transits. We cannot, however, give definite statement these spots, and it is found that during some years there is either way, so we merely thus briefly state the fact of the alleged scarcely a day elapses without some being visible. They then discovery, and shall commence our next lesson with some acdiminish in frequency for about five or five and a half years, I count of Mercury, the next planet in order of distance.

seen.

HISTORIC SKETCHES. --XLIV.

a pure theocracy—that is, of a form of government in which

God is the central figure, the head from whom all orders emanate, THE JEWS.-I.

and to whom all accounts of orders executed are rendered. So intimately is the history of the Jews bound up with the As the representative of God, and the declarator of His word, Holy Seripture narrative, that few persons accustom themselves a prophet was to be obeyed implicitly whenever he spoke proto read the two as distinct. In one sense, of course they fessionally, his authority superseding even that of the king are not distinct. The Jewish history, like the rest of the old where the two conflicted. It was natural enough that the Testament, was written for our learning, and is profitable for statesman on the throne should dislike, and vehemently dislike, **instruction in righteousness."

this sort of imperium in imperio. So long as king and prophet It is the very groundwork, so to speak, of the Bible. Yet agreed, which they seldom did, upon the course of government, is it well sometimes to consider the remarkablo history of this all went smoothly, and the spiritual power came in with might remarkable people apart from its surroundings, to learn from to the aid of the temporal; but whenever there was a conflict, it the meaning of its intense individuality, and to see that it was war to the knife. Unfortunately for the people, they had no more been patent to the world than the marvellous were seldom on the prophet's side, inclining more frequently to series of facts from the delivery out of Egypt to the establish- take the part of the prince of this world—who, so long as they ment of Sanl upon the throne, men must have been led to the paid taxes and gave recruits for the army, allowed them to do conclasion that some special providence watched over the pretty much as they pleased rather than the part of the servant national life of the Jews, and that the Jews were a chosen of Jehovah, who, for all that he had brought them out of people, specially favoured of the Divine Ruler of the universe. Egypt, and blessed them in many things beside, was too highly Most of the earlier Jewish history is derived from the Bible, exalted out of their reach for them to have sympathy. with but the later portions are drawn from many sources from the Him, and who was also of purer eyes than to behold iniquity. histories of people who made a great figure in the world till Instances of conflicts of this sort are many and flagrant in the they bruised themselves against the rock of Jewish nationality course of the Old Testament Scriptures, from which it will and were overthrown by it-from the histories of peoples who also be seen that it was a natural tendency in the people to finally dispossessed the chosen people, and cast them forth as * start aside like a broken bow” whenever the yoke of the wanderers upon the face of the earth till the time of their Divine King was laid upon them for their good. It was in redemption shall draw nigh. It is proposed in this and one or consequence of this tendency that a temporal king became two sposeeding sketches, to portray the Jews as they appeared necessary. at distinct epochs in their history, with a view to directing Let us, before considering the constitution of the kingdom of attention to the special features of their case, and to induce Israel, sketch briefly the principal features of Jewish history our readers to pursue more closely for themselves the study up to the time when a king was demanded. Certain Arabs, of the most remarkable history known to the experience of the known to us in Biblical writings as the sons of Jacob, fed world.

their flocks and herds in the country westward of Lower Egypt, * And all the people shouted and said, God save the king." and led the nomadic life of shepherds in a land barely fruitful It is a new cry in Israel. Up to that time the Jews had been enough to support them. This difficulty naturally increased content to live under the political guidance of spiritual chiefs, with the increase of population, and at times the chiefs seting for and in behalf of that Divine Ruler who had brought were straitened to know what to do for food. These chiefs then out of Egypt with a mighty hand and a stretched-out were non-elective heads of families, exercising despotic power sem. Now they wearied of the unseen King who never held over children and children's children, their authority being courts, nor entertained, nor showed himself, save in a figurative checked only by fear of physical resistance in their subjects. way, but who yet kept awful state in the midst of the people, They were what Tartar or Arab chiefs are in the present daybeing made manifest sometimes in the storm, sometimes in patriarchial rulers, governing not according to any fixed law, the whirlwind, and to those few who could understand Him in but giving judgment according to discretion upon each case as that guire, in the still, small voice. So “Samuel took a vial it arose. of oil, and poured it apon Saul's head, and kissed him, and It so happened that about the year B.c. 1706 a drought of unsaid, Is it not because the Lord hath anointed thee to be usual severity forced these Arabs to look yond their own imcaptain over his inheritance ?" and at Mizpeh Samuel collected mediate compounds for sustenance for themselves and their little the people and announced what he had done, reproaching them ones. Many of the cattle and sheep died, and it was becoming at the same time for having rejected the God “who himself a question of human lives also. .To the neighbouring land of sared you out of all your adversities and your tribulations,” Egypt the eyes of the Arabs were turned; the dread of famine od for having said, “Nay, but set a king over us. Saul overcame their repugnance to mix with people alien to them. was ancinted, the multitude shouted “God save the king,” and selves, and some of the great chief's sons were sent down by the first step was taken towards divorcing the State, not from their father to buy the necessary supplies in the fruitful land the Church merely, but from the Head of the Church, from God of Egypt. Egypt was the market in which they had been himself.

accustomed to sell the surplus of their own stocks. It was Those who may have noticed it as a curious thing, when already known to them commercially and by repate as one of reading the historical books of the Old Testament, that the the most flourishing and richest countries in. the world. Perifunctions of the prophet should have been allowed to clash odically it had been their practice to send down thither, and we with the functions of the king, and that what must often have have mention made in the Bible of some of these visits. looked like insolence was tolerated, in appearance at least, Generally, however, they did their business through agents, when it came from the month of a man of God, would do well merchants who came up expressly from Egypt to deal with the to call to mind the peculiar relationship in which prophet and wanderers, and returned with their purchases in a caravan. Το king stoed to each other. Historically considered, the prophet such dealers, a short while before the famine alluded to, the was the creator of the king, the ruler who had governed before sons of Jacob sold their younger brother Joseph, against whom eter the idea of monarchical government had entered the they had a jealousy; and from such dealers they would gladly mind of the Jewish leaders; the man who, having given, might have bought all the supplies of food they needed. But the be suppoked to have some power also to take away. The famine was so sore in the land that the merchants would not prophet was the avowed oracle of God; the king was a con- come up into it, and those who sought produce from Egypt cordion to the desire of the people-a desire which was er were therefore compelled to go down into that land and seek pressed in direct contravention of the will of the Almighty, it there. The sons of Jacob went down, under the circumThe Igelitish people could not remain satisfied with a system stances so familiar readers the Old Testament histo of government which differed in so remarkable a manner from and found “corn in Egypt.” This was sold to them by the that of the nations by whom they were surrounded, and, in governor of the province, who proved to be their own brother, site of Samuel's urgent advice, they persisted in asking for and whose excellent behaviour and able administration hadi sing. Still it must be borne in mind that, in spite of this won for him the rulership over many cities, and the right of est the principles of government which prevailed among entry into the joy of his lord. the Inselites from the time they came out of Egypt to the Political circumstances, which were stated at length in the period when they ceased to be a collective nation, were those of Historic Sketch of Ancient Egypt (Vol. IV., page 222), in

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