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87

EXERCISES FOR THE SLATE.

1. In 40lb. 8oz. 5dr. 1sc. 7gr. how many grains ?

2. How many pounds in 234567 grains ?

OPERATION.

OPERATION.

4 0 lb. 8oz. 5dr. 1sc. 7gr. 20) 2 3 4 5 6 7 gr.
12

3)11 7 2 8 sc. 7gr.
48 8 ounces.

8) 3 9 0 9 dr. 1sc.
8

12) 48 8 oz. 5dr.
3 9 0 9 drams.
3

40 lb. 8oz.
117 2 8 scruples.
20

Ans. 40lb. 8oz. 5dr. 1sc. 7gr. Ans. 2 3 4 5 6 7 grains.

3. How many scruples in 761b.?
4. How many pounds in 218883 ?
5. How many grains in 1441b. ?
6. How many pounds in 829440gr. ?
7. In 1211 83 33 17 18gr. how many grains ?
8. In 73178 grains how many pounds ?

9. In 73 63 27 of tartar emetic, how many doses of 20gr. each?

Ans. 188. AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. 89. Avoirdupois Weight is used in weighing almost every kind of goods, and all metals except gold and silver.

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88 How do you reduce pounds to grains ? The reason for the operation ? How do you reduce grains to pounds? The reason for the operation ? 89. For what is Avoirdupois Weight used ? Recite the table.

Note 1.- In cwt. the c stands for centum, the Latin for one hundred, and wt. for weight.

Note 2. — The laws of most of the States, and common practice at the present time, make 25 pounds a quarter. But formerly, 28 pounds were allowed to make a quarter, 112 pounds a hundred, and 2240 pounds a ton, as is still the standard of the United States government at the custom-houses.

Note 3. — Avoirdupois is from the French avoir du poid, to have weight.

NOTE 4. 1 pound Avoirdupois 7000 gr. Troy ilb. 2oz. 11 pwt. 16 gr. Troy; llb. Troy, or Apothecary 5760gr. Troy 13oz. 214 dr. Avoirdupois ; loz. Troy, or Apoth. 480gr. Troy = loz. 1195 dr. Av. ; loz. Av.

437čgr. Troy 18pwt. 5}gr. Troy ; Idr. Apoth. = 60gr. Troy 24dr. Av.; ldr. Av. = 272gr. Troy 1pwt 3.gr. Troy ; 1pwt. Troy 24gr. Troy =39% of a dr. Av.; Isc. Apoth. 20 gr. Troy= 14 of a dr. Av.

MENTAL EXERCISES.

1. How many drams in 3oz.? In 7oz. ? In 10oz. ? In 12oz. ? 2. How many ounces in 10lb.? In 15lb.? In 121b.? In 100lb.? 3. How many pounds in 2 quarters ? In 3qr. ? In 20qr. ? 4. How many quarters in 10cwt. ? In 16cwt. ? In 17cwt. ? 5. How many tons in 80cwt.? In 100cwt.? In 600cwt. ? 6. How many hundred weight in 16qr. ? In 48qr. ? In 96qr. ?

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89. How many pounds are now allowed for a cwt., and how many for a quarter of a cwt., in most of the United States, in buying and selling articles by weight? How many at the custom-houses? How do you reduce tons to drams? The reason for the operation? How do you reduce drams to tons ? The reason for the operation

3. In 16T. 19cwt. Oqr. 10lb. 1loz. 5dr. how many drams ?
4. In 8681141 drams how many tons ?
5. In 679cwt. how many pounds ?
6. In 67900lb. how many cwt. ?

7. What cost 17cwt. 3qr. 18lb. of beef, at 7 cents per pound?

Ans. $ 125.51. 8. What cost 48T. 17cwt. of lead at 8 cents per pound ?

Ans. $ 7816.00. CLOTH MEASURE. 90. Cloth Measure is used in measuring cloth, ribbons, lace, and other articles sold by the yard or ell.

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in. 21

qr.

1 E. F.

1

4
yd.
1

3

12 E. E. 1

4

16 1 11

5

20 NOTE. — The Ell French is 6 quarters ; the Ell Scotch, 4qr. 1fin.

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MENTAL EXERCISES.

1. In 2 quarters how many nails? In 5qr.? In 8qr.? In 20qr. ? In 25qr. ? In 30qr.? In 40qr. ?

2. In 3 yards how many quarters? In 7yd. ? In Syd.? In 14yd.? In 19yd. ? In 100yd. ? In 200yd.?

3. How many quarters in 8 nails ? In 20na. ? In 48na. ? 4. How many yards in 20 quarters? In 40qr.? In 100qr.?

EXERCISES FOR THE SLATE.

2. In 765 nails how many

1. How many nails in 47 yd. 3qr. Ina.?

yards?

90. For what is cloth measure used ? Repeat the table. Is the ell French longer or shorter than the ell English ?: What makes an ell Scotch ?

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3. In 144yd. 3qr. how many quarters ?
4. In 579 quarters how many yards?
5. In 17E. E. 4qr. 3na. how many nails ?
6. In 359 nails how many ells English ?
7. In 126yd. Oqr. 3na. how many nails?
8. In 2019 nails how many yards ?
9. What cost 49yd. 3qr. of cloth, at $ 2.17 per quarter ?

Ans. $ 431.83. 10. What cost 144yd. lqr. 3na. of cloth, at 25 cents per nail ?

Ans. $ 577.75.

LONG MEASURE.

91. Linear or Long Measure is used in measuring distances in

any direction.

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90. How do you reduce yards to nails? How do you reduce nails to yards? The reason for the operation ? — 91. How is linear or long measure used ? Repeat the table.

Note 1. – 12 lines make 1 inch ; 4 inches, 1 hand; 6 feet, 1 fathom; of a degree of the circumference of the earth, 1 knot, or geographical mile, equal to 14 statute miles.

Note 2. — The yard is the standard unit of linear measure adopted by the United States government, and it is the same as the imperial yard of Great Britain. A metre, the unit of linear measure, as established by the French government, is equal to about 39187 English inches.

Note 3.- The English statute mile is the same as that of the United States, but that of other countries differs in value from it; as the German short mile is equal to 6857 yards, or about 31% English miles; the German long mile, to 10125 yards, or about 51 English miles; the Prussian mile, to 8237 yards, or about 41o English miles; the Spanish common league, to 7416 yards, or about 4} English miles; the Spanish judicial league, to 4635 yards, or about 2 English miles.

Note 4. A degree of longitude is glo of any circle of latitude. As the circles of latitude diminish in length, the degrees of longitude vary in length under different parallels of latitude. Thus, under the equator, the length of a degree of longitude is about 697 statute miles; at 25° of latitude, 6215 miles ; at 40° of latitude, 53 miles ; at 42° of latitude, 514 miles; at 490 of latitude, 45} miles ; at 60°, 341 miles.

MENTAL EXERCISES.

1. How many inches in 4 feet? In 10ft. ? In 12ft. ? In 20ft. ?

2. How many feet in two yards? In 5yd.? In 20yd.? In 18yd. ?

3. How many rods in 2 furlongs? In 8fur. ? In 1fur. ? In 30fur.? In 100 fur. ? In 200fur.? In 400fur. ?

4. How many leagues in 9 miles ? In 21m. ? In 81m ? In 144m. ? In 40m.? In 50m.? In 80m. ?

5. How many furlongs in 120 rods ? In 360rd.? In 1440rd. ? 6. How many yards in 99 feet? In 66ft. ? In 144ft. ? 7. How

many

feet in 108 inches ? In 144in.? In 1728 in. ?

EXERCISES FOR THE SLATE.

1. In 66deg. 56m. 7fur. 37rd. 12ft. 9in. how

many

inches ?

91. How many lines make 1 inch ? How many inches 1 hand ? How many feet 1 fathom? What is the standard unit of lincar measure adopted by the United States ? Is the value of the mile the same in all countries? How much is a degree of longitude under the equator? At 40° of latitude ? At 420 of latitude ? At 600 of latitude ?

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