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in Sweden; but in America the repre- everything that is a hinderance in the sentation must have occasioned unfa- way of infidelity and licentiousness. A vourable thoughts of the Swedish people, book, with the same design, by the Gerwithout answering any other use than man Bergman, (the man belongs to the the pecuniary gain sought after.*
extreme rabble of the lowest rationalThe Methodist Preacher's position ism,) was translated, it is said, by a had now become false, t when he pur- Clergyman, who thus manifested that posed to continue his exertions among a zeal is blind. Mr. Scott was shame. people whose national feeling he had lessly pointed at, mimicked on the stage, wounded. He experienced, also, un- insulted in the very act of his service. pleasantness beyond all measure. Among It was in this peculiar way, that, on the the more respectable steps taken, the Rec- spot, all that he had said about Swedes tor Ekdabl renewed his memorial in the in another part of the world was not Consistory of January 11th, 1842; and also refuted, but established; in truth, a produced a letter to the same by gracious disgrace much more difficult to obliterate command from the Minister (pro tem.) than anything he has affixed. When for Ecclesiastical Affairs, of February 3d, Mr. Scott, who for a time closed his in which the Consistory is required “to chapel, resolved to resume his Swedish report without delay how far, in the ex- preaching, and gave notice to the Goercise of his office by the Preacher ap- vernor, this was denied him by a senpointed to the Wesleyan chapel here, tence dated April 5th, 1842. After any such departure from the require having appealed from this decision to the ments of the laws, or the preservation King, he departed at once for England. of due order, has appeared as may have By the Methodist Conference, which demanded the attention of the Consistory, therefore approved of his behaviour here, or may be considered claiming that atten- he was afterwards appointed Superintion.”* But there must be reckoned what tendent of a Circuit in his own land. beyond this took place.
The news- His return here is in consequence not to papers showed in this case, as often, a be expected. want of moderation in their complaints. S As the desired investigation never Tracts assailed, not only Methodism, but took place, we know not if Methodism Christianity, pious institutions, and has made proselytes here ; for as such we
* Extensive aid for Bible and tract distribution, Sailors' Missions, City Mission, and the like, was obtained ; and of course the necessity for such operations had to be shown.--G. S.
+ That the Missionary's position was “ false,” in a manner, he was made painfully to feel, from the time when he began his labours in the Swedish language, and long ere any representations as to the religious state of Sweden, such as those made in England in 1837, and America in 1841, were thought of. The truly God-fearing, among whom the excellent Archbishop deserves to be included, understood and appreciated the Missionary's motives from the beginning. But a large number of the Clergy, perhaps the greater part of them, considered those labours an undeserved reproach cast upon them, as if they had been deficient in their duty: and the worldly-minded Pharisees of the Lutheran Church, accustomed to boast of the purity of doctrine, comprehensiveness and uniformity, which in their estimation distinguish that Church as superior to all others, and especially of the fact, that their nation sent forth a Gustavus Adolphus to defend oppressed Protestantism in Germany, could not endure their land being considered as a field for Missionary effort, and regarded every manifestation of this being done as an insult not to be forgiven. A variety of other influence had also for years been operating, in direction of stirring up the wrath of the unspiritual ; and the real state of the case was, as a well-informed and much-respected Clergyman, who stands high in the esteem of the Archbishop, wrote: “ The persecution of Scott, and the friends of the word who have been edified by him, is a painful sign of the times; but by no means unexpected in my eyes. I called Scott's attention to it while the chapel was building. The American journey has only hastened the outbreaking which sooner or later must have come.”—G. S.
# This was answered by a decided negative, so far as the Consistory knew or believed.-G. S.
§ An example from each of the two leading papers. The Allehanda says, April 11th, 1842: “ Scott denies that he has made any proselytes : how is this now so decided? We guess that he has at length received a dispensation from the all-powerful Conference to venture a falsehood on this subject : such dispensations are not uncommon in those so-called religious societies.” The Altonblad, about the same time: “ The Prelates protect Methodism : why? Because the proper definition of Methodism is, a Popish reality under the name and semblance of Protestantism. The dissemination of this religious madness among the people is the best means of keeping them under an unconstitutional exercise of power. This plan to encourage Methodism has not fully succeeded ; and it may be well to take care. During the time of John III., the famed Kloster Lassie had no better success than his re-appearance, Scott, has now. The then reigning branch of the royal house was rendered so hateful by the favour shown this man, that the son of John III. must needs resign his lawful throne. This was not the design, but the result, of the protection afforded Kloster Lassie; and it would appear that the protectors of Scott design a repetition of the fate of Sigismund.”-G. S.
cannot enumerate the many who were means sufficiently active in promoting edified by Scott's preaching, nor yet the their objects. This forbearance inspired few who might turn to hiin in the con- the friends of the Swedish Church with cerns of their souls. These latter were confidence for the man. But possible it doubtless referred to in his expression in is, certainly, that after he had obtained the Stockholm Clerical Society, that he a firmer standing, and in obedience, perhad the care of souls among the Swedes. haps, to further exhortations from home,
To the Conference, his chief authority, he might have extended his exertions he has in reports declared that he aimed further, and within the borders of our at the reviving of the Swedish Church, Church. Righteousness, equity, grati. not to draw its adherents from it. By tude require us, however, to declare,* private communications from England, that he by his residence here has benelong previous to any disturbance in the fited our Church, and the pious instituland, the author knows that Methodists tions in the land. in England considered Scott by no
FIRST NOTICE OF TRAFFIC IN COAL._About the end of the twelfth century a notice of coal first appears as an article of traffic, and as a staple element in the social comfort of our own country. In the Leges Burgorum, enacted at Newcastle about 1140, the especial privilege of not being distrained but for their own debts, is granted in Scotland to the inbringers of fuel, which is described to be a wood, turves, and peits.” With respect to coal there is a complete silence, from which it has been somewhat hastily concluded, that though coal must have been known, it was not used as fuel. The first legal notice we have of this mineral is a grant, made in the reign of William the Lion, by Wil
liam de Ventereponte, to the Monks of Holyrood, of a “ tenth of his coal at Cariden ;” and in the Chartulary of Newbottle, there is a grant in 1189 to the Monks by De Quincey, Constable of Scotland, of the coal between Whiteside and Pinkie, which is also confirmed by King William. In 1239, Henry III. granted a charter to the inhabitants of Newcastle to dig for coal, which is the first legal mention of the fuel in England. -Bernan's History and Art of Warming and Ventilation.
DIMENSIONS OF THE PRINCIPAL EUROPEAN CHURCHES.—The Roman Advertiser, of December 26, in an article compiled to show the impossibility of St. Peter's at Rome being ever crowded,
* One of the Professors of Theology at Lund, Dr. Reuterdahl, a man of extensive learning, and high literary standing, with whom the Missionary never conversed, and who was of a different mind on Gospel subjects, he being supposed at least to lean towards rationalism, speaks thus in a review of the pamphlet, “ The Religious Condition of Sweden,” above noticed : “To some it might appear
bad sign that Scott has not hitherto found many defenders; but he may, notwithstanding, have friends, who either lack courage to defend him in a question so delicately affecting the national honour; or have no desire to contend with such adversaries as those arrayed against him; or they may be without the needed information. That no friends speak out, is no evidence either that he has no friends, or that his cause is a bad one.” After citing from the pamphlet, he proceeds: “ These sentiments come from a pious and honest disposition,-a disposition full of love to Sweden. We cannot conceive that a man who so unweariedly, so seriously, and so unostentatiously has laboured, without any prospect or design for personal advantage, as Mr. Scott has done, a man who so constantly has fellowship with holy and divine things, can be a 'hypocrite,' a designing liar,' and backbiter.' We need not know more of Mr. S. than his pamphlet to deliver him, in our eye, from all intentional falsehood; from all degrading backbiting; from the insidiousness and malice which, if they cannot destroy life, would murder honour and character. In this book we see a man with an open and noble bearing, a clear and enlightened glance; we hear there a voice which neither bullies, nor shouts, nor trembles. We hear quietness and peace, so far as these can be heard ; we see piety and righteousness, so far as they can be seen. But we know more of Scott than his pamphlet. We know his operations during many years in Stockholm; we know something of his sermons; we have the testimony of many persons who have looked deeply into his cards, or, more properly, been convinced that he has no hidden play. And all this knowledge has not given us the slightest occasion to see in Mr. Scott a liar or deceiver. We believe that Swedish honesty calls us to give this testimony in favour of the stranger Scott, at a time when other Swedes are not ashamed to hurl against this stranger tho most dishonouring charges."-G. S.
gives the following curious statistics as to the comparative capacity of the most celebrated churches in Europe :
Persons. Square yds. St. Peter's
54,000 13,500 Milan Cathedral..... 37,000 9,250 St. Paul's, at Rome 32,000 8,000 St. Paul's, at London 25,600 6,400 St. Petronio, at Bo. logna
24,400 6,100 Florence Cathedral... 24,300 6,075 Antwerp Cathedral 24,000 6,000 St. Sophia's, at Con
stantinople... 23,000 5,750 St. John, Lateran... 22,900 5,725 Notre Dame, at Paris 21,000 5,250 Pisa Cathedral
3,250 St. Stephen's, at Vienna
12,400 3,100 St. Dominic's, at Bologna
12,000 3,000 St. Peter's, at Bologna
11,400 2,850 Cathedral of Siena... 11,000 2,750 St. Mark's, Venice... 7,000 1,750
its narrower limits, not comprising the porticos or the Piazza Rusticucei, 474,000 crowded, and 138,000 in military array, to the quadrate metre.
PUNCTUATION.- Caxton had the merit of introducing the Roman pointing, as used in Italy; and his successor, Pinson, triumphed by domiciliating the Roman letter. The dash, or perpendicular line, thus : was the only punctuation they used. It was, however, discovered that the “ craft of poynting well used makes the sentence very light." The more elegant comma supplanted the long uncouth 1 : the colon was a refinement,
“showing that there is more to come ;” but the semicolon was a Latin delicacy, which the obtuse English typographer resisted. The Bible of 1592, though printed with appropriate accuracy, is without a semicolon; but in 1633 its full rights are established by Charles Butler's English Grammar. In this chronology of the four points of punctuation, it is evident that Shakspeare could never have used the semicolon ; a circumstance which the profound George Chalmers mourns over, opining that semicolons would often have saved the poet from his commentators. D'Israeli's Amenities of Literature.
The piazza of St. Peter's, it is added, in its widest limits, allowing twelve (persons) to the quadrate metre (square yard), holds 624,000; allowing four to the same, drawn up in military array, 208,000. In
WESLEYAN MISSIONS :
OR, INTELLIGENCE ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE OPERATIONS OF THE WESLEYAN MISSIONARY SOCIETY, AND
ALSO OF THE STATE AND PROGRESS OF THE GOSPEL IN VARIOUS PARTS OF THE WORLD UNDER THEIR DIRECTION : EXTRACTED CHIEFLY FROM THE MISSIONARY NOTICES," AND FROM OTHER SOURCES PUBLISHED
* BY THE AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARIES.
It is a pleasure to us occasionally to publish the letters of Missionaries newly arrived at their sphere of labour. Their impressions on their first view of their work, and of the Heathen to whom they are sent, it may be granted, are of less weight than the testimony of those
* Our readers are earnestly requested to avail themselves of the opportunity to procure the entire copy of the “ Wesleyan Missionary Notices,” published by the Secretaries of the Society, and sold at the Centenary-Hall, Bishopsgate-street, and at 66, Paternoster-row, London. Our selections from this invaluable record of the progress of the Gospel in heathen lands must, of necessity, be brief : we are therefore very desirous that the “ Notices” should receive an extensive circulation among all classes of the religious public.
VOL. III.- FOURTH SERIES.
who have borne the burden and heat of the day ; but still there is a truth and freshness about them, very satisfactory to contemplate ; their communications are just such as our readers themselves would make, could they be conveyed to the same localities, and witness the same scenes.
Mr. Walton in a very interesting style describes his first month's experience in the island of Ceylon. Much of the time was necessarily spent in travelling, that he might reach his appointed station. CEYLON.-Extract of a Letter from the Rev. John Walton,
dated Trincomalee, March 29th, 1847. AFTER a pleasant voyage, we landed in every part of the island. There are a in Colombo on the 24th of February. few Europeans here, who erected the As soon as our anchor was down, Mr. monument to Mr. Hole, which is rather Kessen came on board, and gave us a pretty. At one end there is a vacant hearty welcome to the shores of India. niche, ready to receive the letters and We were entertained with the greatest figures, which shall inform the traveller kindness and hospitality at the house of of the name and age of him who rests the Rev. D. J. Gogerly, the General beneath his feet. I walked a little Superintendent of our Missions in South farther, and found myself in the Fort, Ceylon. On the following Sabbath, we where I heard the clanging of chains. opened our commission ; Mr. Robinson I soon saw whence it proceeded : scores and Mr. Dickson preaching in the Bap- of human beings in fetters! The sight tist chapel in the Pettah, and I in our entered into my soul. It appears this own chapel in the Fort. We spent a island belongs to the Continent, and few days with the friends here, awaiting these are convicts from the Presidency of the departure of a vessel for Jaffna. Madras. Having spent two hours here, Admonished by the painful adventure of we returned to the beach to look for our Mr. Wallace, we had determined not to boat ; regained our vessel, and, favoured go in a dhoney, except in a case of by the land-breeze, were soon on our absolute necessity. Having heard of a way. native schooner, which was to sail on We reached Jaffna on Saturday eventhe ensuing Saturday, we took our pas- ing, having been seven days performing sage in her. The opportunity was ta
Mr. and Mrs. Percival vourable, as she was going round to were expecting us, and gave us a most Trincomalee, which, I had been informed affectionate welcome. On Sunday evenin Colombo, would be my station, and ing, I preached to the English congrenot Batticaloa, as I expected when I gation in St. Paul's chapel, and enjoyed left home; the brethren having felt it the service very much. A more attentive right to make this alteration, in order congregation I never witnessed.
The that suitable provision might be made chapel was nearly full; and the cause is, for the native work at the latter place. evidently, in a flourishing state. Mr. Mr. Stott is about to return to England, Percival preached in the morning to the and Mr. Gillings is to succeed him in native congregation in Tamul; and they the charge of that Mission.
appeared to receive with much avidity We went on board at six o'clock, P.M., "the word of life.” weighed anchor about midnight, once On Monday, I visited the schools. more to seek the wide ocean, confiding Here is a triumph to the position which in the “dear might of Him who walked asserts education to be a most important the waves.” A very short time sufficed branch of Missionary labour. The bear. to make us aware of the difference be. ing of well-managed schools tween a native craft and a first-rate East prosperity is here beautifully exempliIndianan. Here everything was native; fied. The present state of this Mission the ship, the crew, the cooking apparatus, is more conclusive than a thousand spethe sleeping accommodation, &c. We culations, and is decidedly in favour of went ashore at Ramisseram, and saw the educational effort. tomb of our late Missionary, the Rev. I had now witnessed the safe arrival Mr. Hole. The remains of several at their stations of Mr. Dickson and Mr. military officers repose around him. The Robinson, and felt rather anxious to be tombs are all white, formed, I believe, of settled at my own.
It seemed to me of coral, and amply shaded by the lofty some importance that I should see Mr. palmyra-tree which appears to abound Gillings before his departure for Batti
caloa. For two or three reasons I had to provide turches. After about one determined to go by land. I was tired hour and a half spent in altercation, of the sea, being a bad sailor. The partly by persuasion and partly by motion of a ship is something to which menace, but principally by assuring them my stomach will never be inured. I they had nothing to fear from the elewished also to see a little of the country, phants, and that I would ride before and of the people. But the great reason them, between the two men who carried was that, in all probability, the journey the flambeaux, and lead the way, they by land would be the more expeditious
consented to go.
We saw no elephant, of the two. The monsoon was about either that day or during the remainder changing, the winds variable, and, at of the journey, on account, perhaps, of this season, strong currents make it diffi- the noise which the coolies made, talking cult to get round. A vessel may perform and singing as they walked along; for the trip in three or four days, or—a fort- the tracks of several appeared, and we night. I hoped to arrive in Trincomalee, went through several lakes and rivers, by land, in four days, the distance being where it was evident this lord of the about a hundred and thirty miles. A forest was accustomed to slake his thirst. pony being offered me, belonging to the I was anxious to breakfast at Chundi. station at Batticaloa, I decided at once. kolam, twelve miles distant ; my plan Provisions and cooking utensils having being to reach Mullitevoe that evening, been secured, (Mrs. Percival performing to rest there on the Sabbath, and hold the same friendly offices for me here which some religious service. I was now com. Mrs. Gogerly had done in Colombo,) I pelled to walk a good deal, my pony engaged a few coolies to carry my lng- beginning to fail me, a bad saddle havgage, and prepared to depart.
ing chafed his back. them forward on Thursday, the 18th, At ten A.M. I was seated in the rest. directing them to sleep at a place where house at Chundikolam, looking over the the mail stops, (if an old phaeton de- visiters' book, worm-eaten and in tatters ; serves the name,) in order that they and I recognised with much pleasure might be ready for the journey on the the names of the Rev. Jonathan Crowther, 19th. I took my place in this convey- Rev. Peter Percival, and others of our ance at five in the morning, and had the Missionaries. The next stage was also mortification to pass my coolies, who twelve miles,-Martlau. On our way were only a few miles on the road, when we had a tremendous thunder-storm, surI expected they had been at the termin passing everything of the kind I ever nus of the regular road, —at least twenty witnessed. The rain came down in miles. These, however, were little dis- floods, and rolled on our path as I have appointments of which my friends had seen it in connexion with weirs in Engadvertised me. A planter who hap- land. We reached Martlau at five P. M., pened to be my travelling companion in wet through ; and there is no rest-house the mail, gave me an invitation to break- here. However, we found a Government fast, which I gladly accepted. At two official in the place; a poor man who o'clock the coolies arrived ; and when calls himself the Postmaster, and lives they had taken their rice, I mounted my on a salary of sixpence per day. He pony, intending to sleep at Pass Ba- told me he lived as servant with the sbuta.
Rev. James Lynch in Jaffna, who taught I was now entering upon scenes that him English, and to read the Bible. He were entirely new. The Government offered me a place in his hut, containing rest-house at this place is a commodious nothing but a table, a rude couch, and a building, and the keeper of it very ob- chair without a bottom! As the rain liging and civil; exerting himself to continued, I was thankful for any acprocure me milk, &c., though the hour commodation; and, having changed my was comparatively late. Having made clothes, I felt as comfortable as, under a hearty meal, I spread my matıress on the circumstances, I could expect. I the table, and lay down to rest, request- rode en to Mullitevoe early in the morning my servant to call me
at three ing, and was kindly received by H. Pole, o'clock. I was aroused at the proper Esq., ihe Government Agent there. time, but found the coolies very much I left Mullitevoe at one o'clock on indisposed to proceed. They were afraid Monday morning, not withstanding the of the elephants, which they said remonstrance of my coolies, who said it abounded in the jungle we were about was going to rain. We carried torches,
They also declared they could as usual ; but the path became so innot find the way in the dark. They distinct that it scarcely sufficed to assure were silenced on this head by my offering us that footsteps had been there before.