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When two questions are united in one sentence, and connected b the conjunction or, the first takes the rising, the second the falling ii flection : as, “ Does his conduct support discipline', or destroy it."
The rising and falling infections must not be confounded with em phasis. Though they may often coincide, they are, in their nature perfectly distinct. Emphasis sometimes controls those infections.
The regular application of the rising and falling inflections, confer so much beauty on expression, and is so necessary to be studied by the young reader, that we shall insert a few more examples to induce hir to pay greater attention to the subject. In these instances, all the ir fleetions are not marked. Such only are distinguished, as are ma striking, and will best serve to show the reader their utility and impo, tance.
“ Manufactures', trade', and agriculture', certainly employ moi than nineteen parts in twenty of the human species.”
“He who resigns the world has no temptation to envy', hatred", ma lice', anger' ; but is in constant possession of a serene mind : he wh follows the pleasures of it, which are in their very nature disappoint ing, is in constant search of care', solicitude', remorse', and confusion'.
* To advise the ignorant', relieve the needy', comfort the afflicted are duties that fall in our way almost every day of our lives.'
" Those evil spirits, who, by long custom, have contracted in th body habits of lust' and sensuality'; malice', and revenge ; an aversion to every thing that is good", just', and laudable', are naturally season ed and prepared for pain and miscry.”
“I am persuaded, that neither death', nor life; nor angels', no principalities', nor powers'; nor things present', nor things to come nor height', nor depth'; nor any other creature', shall be able to se parate us from the love of God.”
The reader who would wish to see a minute and ingenious investiga tion of the nature of these inflections, and the rules by which they are governed, may consult Walker's Elements of Elocution.
Manner of reading Verse. WAEN we are reading verse, there is a peculiar difficulty in making . the pauses justly. The difficulty arises from the melody of verse which dictates to the ear pauses or rests of its own: and to adjust aan compound these properly with the pauses of the sense, so as neither to hurt the ear, 1.or offend the understanding, is so very nice a matter that it is no wonder we so seldom meet with good readers of poetry There are two kinds of pauses that belong to the melody of verse : on is, the pause at the end of the line; and the other, the cæsural pause in or near the middle of it. With regard to the pause at the end o the line, which marks that strain or verse to be finished, rhyme ren ders this always sensible; and in some measure compels us to observe it in our pronunciation. In respect to blank verse, we ought also te read it so as to make every line sensible to the ear: for, what is the use of melody, or for what end has the poet composed in verse, if, is" reading his lines, we suppress his numbers, by omitting the final pause and degrade them, by our pronunciation, into mere prose? At the same time that we attend to this pause, every appearance of sing-song ane tone must be carefully guarded against. The close of the line where it makes po pause in the meaning, ought not to be marked by such a
be as is used in finishing a sentence ; but, without either fall or eletion of the voice, it should be denoted only by so slight a suspenon of sound, as may distinguish the passage from one line to another, ithout injuring the meaning. The other kind of melodious pause, is that which falls somewhere tout the middle of the verse, and divides it into two hemistichs; a fuse, not so great as that which belongs to the close of the line, but Al sensible to an ordinary ear. This, which is called the cæsural tuse, may fall, in English heroic verse, after the 4th, 5th, 6th, or 7th lable in the line. Where the verse is so constructed, that this cæsu. I pause coincides with the slightest pause or division in the sense, the de can be read easily; as in the two first verses of Pope's Messiah
" Ye nymphs of Solyma''! begin the song;
But if it should happen that words which have so strict and intimate connexion, as not to bear even a momentary separation, are divided om one another by this cæsural pause, we then feel a sort of struggle etween the sense and the sound, which renders it difficult to read ich lines harmoniously. The rule of proper pronunciation in such ases, is to regard only the pause which the sense forms; and to read he line accordingly. The neglect of the cæsural pause may make the ine sound somewhat unharmoniously ; but the effect would be much Forse, if the sense were sacrificed to the sound. For instance, in he following line of Milton,
- What in me is dark,
the sense clearly dictates the pause after illumine, at the end of the third syllable, which, in reading, ought to be made accordingly; though, if the melody only were to be regarded, illumine should be connected with what follows, and the pause not made till the fourth or sixth syllable. So in the following line of Pope's Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot,
" I sit, with sad civility I read.” the ear plainly points out the cæsural pause as falling after sad, the fourth syllable. But it would be very bad reading to make any pause there, so as to separate sad and civility. The sense admits of no other pause than after the second syllable sit, which therefore inust be tiro only pause made in reading this part of the sentence.
There is another mode of dividing some verses, by introducing what may be called demi-cæsuras, which require very slight pauses; and which the reader should manage with judgment, or he will be apt to fall into an affected sing.song mode of pronouncing verses of this kind. The following lines exemplify the demi-cæsura.
• Warms' in the sun", refreshes' in the breeze,
Sprends' undivided", operates' unspent."
INTRODUCTION Before the conclusivil of this introducrion, the fronpiler takes the Scriv 10 recommend to teachers, lo ejercise tveir poils in discover ing sold axplwinjine ile: emphatic words, and the wropier tones and pau ses, of every portion ..signed them to read, promivusly to their bring culled out to the personance These preparalo !2... s, in world they should be regularly examined, will injorose broir in ime:11 am tusie ; pilievent in practice of reading .ittivist at....jes te lire subject and establis!: a habit of radily discovering the use ohessage force, w beauty, of very sentence they perusk
4. Motives to the '10'N of gentleness,
sessor, . . . . . .
selves, · · · · · · · ·
VECT 1. Cicero against Verres, . .
2. Speech of Adherlal to the Roman Senatc, imploring
Their protection against Jugurthia,