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Ezrahite, and Jonal, Tsal. cxvi. 3. and Ixxxvii. 6—-16. Jonah ii. 2. – 3. This inay be argued from the justice of God. If there is a God, le must be believed to be just; and if there is a just God, there must be a future state of punisiment; and, indeed, the disbelief of these commonly go together. It is centia there is a God; and it is as certain that God is righteous in all his ways, and holy in all his works; and will render to every man according to his works. Now it is certain, that justice does not take place, or is not so marit: sily displayed in this world; it seems, therefore, but just and reaco 22!!e, that there should be a change of things in a future state, when the saints wi? be comfortexi, and the wicked tormented: it is but a righteous thing with God to reader tribulation to wicked men hereafter, who have had their flow of worllly happiness, and abused it. God is a Göd of vengeance, and he wil show it, and it is pro. per he should. - 4. This is abundantly evident from divine revelation, from the books both of the Old and the New Testament. David says, The wicked shalt be turned into hell, Psal. ix. 17. And our Lord speaks of some sins which make men in danger of hell-fire, and of the whole body being cast inco hcii tor dicin; and of both body and soul being destroyed in hell, Matr. V. 22–30. But these, and such like passages, will be considered hereafter. – 5. This may be farthar confirmed, froin the examples of persors that already endure the pur.ishment, at least in part; as the fallen angels, who, when they had sinned, were cast down from heaven, where was the first abode of them, to Tartarus, or hell, a plice of darkness, where they are delivered into chains of darkness, and held by them; and though they may not be in full torments, yet they are not without thein, and are reserved unto judgment, which, when over, they will be cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, Rev. xx. 10. Another instance is, the inen of the old world, who, by their sins, brought a flood upon it; and not only their bodies were destroyed by the flood, but the spirits, or souls of these men, who were disobedient in the times of Noah, were laid up in prison, that is, in the prison of hell, where they were when the apostle Peier wrote his episce, i Pet. ij. 19, 20.
The men of Sodoin and Gomorrahı, had not only their bodies and their substance burnt, in the confiagration of their cities: but their souls also are now suffering the vengeance of eternal fire, Jude, verso 7. So Korah and his company, not only went down alive into the pit of the earth, that opening and closing upon them, but perished in their souls; since wicked men are said to perish, in the gainsaying of Korah, for the suine sins; and in like manner, though not temporally and corporally; but in soul, and eternally, Jude, verse 11. The case of the wicked rich man, who lift up his eyes in hell, being in torment there, though it be a parable, relates to a fact, and ascertains the truth of it, and which yet some take to be an historical fact.
II. I shall not consider the names, words, and phrases, by which the place and state of future punishment are expressed; which will still give a further proof of it, and lead more into the nature of it.
1. Thena'mns of the pl:re; I call it a place and not a state only; thongh sonic speak of it only as such; but the scriptures make mention of it as a place of torment, Luke xvi. 28. and Judlas is said to go to his own place, to which he was appointed, being the Son of perdition: and a place sceins necessary, especie ally for bodies, as after the resurrection; though where it is, or will be, is hard to say: soine make it to be in the vir; others the bly of the sun ; some the fred stars; others the earth, either the centre, or the cavities of it, or under it; since the l.. ?sen is represented as higi., and this as low; and sometimes called hell beneats. But it should not be so much our concern to know where it is, as how to escape it, and that we come not into this place of torment. – 1. It is called destruction, or Abaddon, which is the name of the king of the bottomless pit, Rev. ix. 11. which signifies a destroyer, and is rendered destruction in Job
xxvi. 6. Prov. xxvii. 20. wliere hell and destruction are mentioned together, as signifying the same thing, the one being cxplanative of the other. Indeed the grave, which the word used for hell sometimes signifies, is called the pit of destruction and corruption, because bodies laid in it corrupt and waste away; but here it seems to signify the place of the punishinent of the wicked, where body and soul are destroyed with an everlasting destruction; which is not to be uoderstood of an extinction of soul and body; for this is contrary both to the immortality of the soul, which cannot be killed, and to the resurrection of the body, which, though it rises to damnation, and everlasting contempt, yet dies not again; and to what purpose should it be raised, if it becomes immediately ex. tinct? hell, or a state of punishment, follows upon death, and the resurrection, and is connected with them; it follows upon the death of the body; the rich man died, with respect to his body, and in hell he lift up his eyes; that is, he found his soul in torinent, and therefore not extinct. And when the body is raised and united to the soul, and has passed the general ju lginent, and received its sentence, both will go into everlasting punishment; and therefore neither of them extinct. Besides, there would otherwise be no meaning in those words of Christ, It had been good for that man if he had never been barn, Mait. xxvI. 24. since for a inan to be extinct, or to be in a state of non existence, and not to be born, are the same; at least, if a man is extinct, it is as if he had never heen born; and therefore no comparison can be made between them; nor bet er nor worse be said of them. But when hell, or the punishment of the wicked in it, is called destruction, it does not mean a destruction of the being of a persun, but of all happiness to hirn; he is deprived of all, both in soul and body; no liglu of joy; but darkness, horror, and distress; nothing but indignation and and wrath, tribulation and anguish. 2. Another name of word by which it is expressed, is Sheol, which is often rendered the grave; as in Gen, xlii. 38. and should be where it is soinetimes translated hell, as in Psal. xví. 10. yet in some places it seems as if it could not be understood of that, but of the state or place of punishunent of the wicked; as in Psal. ix. 17. The wicked shall be turned
into, hell: now to be turned into :he carth, or to be laid in the giare, is not per culiar to wicked men; it is the common lot of all, good and bad; it is the house appointed for all living, but to be inveloped with all darkness, and consumed in a fire, not blown, and an horrible tempest rained on them, is the peculiar portion of wicked men from God. Besides, the phrase being turned into it, de. notes indignation, contempt and shame ; and is the same with the New Testament-plırase, so often used, of being cast inte hell, Matt. y. 29, 30. so when this word is used of the adulterous woman, and her ways, that her steps take hold of hell, and her house is the way to it; and that her guests are in the depths of it, Prov. v. 5. and vii. 27. to understand it of the grave, seeins not to be strong enouglı, and to give too low a sense of it; an:l does not sufficiently express the danger persons are in through her; and into which they are brought: as well as it is not ascribing enough to the way of life, above to the wise, that it secures a person from the grave beneath ; and which yet it does not; but rather that it delivers him from the punishment of hell, Prov. xv. 24. in like manner, whet? it is said of hardened and desperate sinners, that they with hell are at an agreement; they seem to out-brave, deride, and bid defiance to niore than death and the grave; even to mock at hell, an:l its torments they give no credit to. It has its name, Sheoi, forme, because it asks and has, and is never satisfied; and applied, whether to the grave or hell, denotes the insatiableness thereof. --- 3 Another name for hell is, Tophet; which was a place in the vallev of the son of Hingom, where the Israelites burnt their sons and their daughters in the fire, sacrificing them to Molech; and that the cries of the infants inight not be heard to affect their parents, cruins, or obrats; were beat upon during the time ; and from hence the place the name of Tophet, Tropu signifying a drum, or ta-, bret; Jer. vii. 31, 32. and diis seens to be used of the place and state of the punishment of the wicked; Tophet is ordained of old, c. Isai. **S. 33. which the Targum interprets of bie!', prepared iron aos past for he sins of men; and whicii words, Calvin on the text, understands of ihe miserable condition, and extreme torments and punishments of the wickel; and, inderci, they seem fiils to describe them: Topliet was gruined of old, as hell is from eternity; and is that condemnation wiched men were of old orilaineid unto: it was prepared for the KING; so everlasting fire is prepared for the devil and his angels, for the prince of devila, and all his subjects: it is made dier and large; so hell is the bottomless pit, large enough to hoki the whole pose of, cicvils, and all the wicked from the beginning to the end of the world. The pile, the fuel, for the twe, is much wocd, wicked men, comparalle to thorns and briers, straw and stubble, withered branches of vines, and dry trees; a fiic kindled, and biown up by the breath of the Lord, at whose blast, and the breath of his nostrils, inen perish and are consumed; a fire, not blown by inen, but by the breath of the Almighty : like a stream of brimstone, such as destroyed the cities of the plain. - 5. I'roin Gehinnoin, the valley of Hinnom, where Tophet was, is the word used in the New Testament, pe:W2Matt v, 22-30. Mark ix. 43-47. for the fire of
hr": there", as just observel, children is burnt with fire, and sacrificed to Molech; # sich bruilottom the Israelites borrowed from their neighbours the CanaanDar, or the sins; and who cried it into their several colonies, and particula to Carthage; wherr, a Dinorus Siculus relates!, the inhabitants had a suite of Summer, the same with Llech, whose hands vele put in such a position. that hea children were put into thein, they rolled down, and fell into a chasm, or ot hie; a nt einbein of the fire of hell, often called in scripture a
-- 5. Sometimes this place is called the deep abyss, ci bottomless pit: 'Hindiston they came out of the man, in whom was a legion, besorghe Cristil tulei sot order them to go into the deep, which seeins to be their f'ace ci id torrent, since they cleprecated going into it, Like viii. 31. and is the same with the boitomless pit ihalon is king of, and into which, Satan when berod, will be cast, R:.in. I 11. and xx. 3. - 6. Anoiher naine it has in the New Testauren, is Frades, ishich mifies an invisible stite, a state of durku.ess. Some derive it irm the werd Adamah, earth, from whence the first Alam; so that to go down to blads, is no other than in return to the earth, fron: whence inan was; ani che vord ma signify the grave, in Rev. i. 18. and XX. 13, 14. U:r it cannot be un! , in Luke xvi. 23. when the rich man dial, kas buried, and lis body lai i in the earth, it is said, in Hades, in hell be lift up Iris cyes; "..ch can never le meant of the grave; it is spoken of as distinct from that; and as elsewhere, it is said to be a place of torment; whereas the grave is a place of ease and rest; between this, and where Abrahan and Lazarus kere, was a gulf, that divile i tliein from one another; whereas in the grave z!! le promiscuously: so the gates of heil, in Matt. xvi. 18. must mean SO...g else, and not the gates of the grave. -- 7. Another word by which is is espressecl, is Tarurus; and this also but in one place, and comprehended in a vesly there useri, 2 let. ii 4. God spared not the angels that simied; but, Tagrasweis, cast them down to tartaru, or hell; which word, though only used in this place, yet that, with others, belonging to it, is to be met with frequently in heathen-writers, who speak of the Titans, and others, that rebelled against the gods, much in the same language as the apostle does of the angels, as bound and cast down to Tartarus; which they describe as a dark place, and as distant tro:n the earth, as the earth is froin the heaven a': and, indeed, the story of the Titans, seeins to be hammered out of the scriptural account of the fallen angels; and so Platon speaks of wiched inen, guilty of capital crimes, as cast into Tartarus, or hell; and also of a place where three ways met two of which leads, the one to the islands of the blessed, the others to Tartarus °. Soine derive this word from a Greek word, which signifies to trouble, it being a place of tribulation and anguish: and others from a Chaldean word, which signifies to fall,
1 Biblioth. I. 90. p. 754. In Apollodorus dc Denr. Orig. l. 1. p. 2. 4. Phurnutus de Nat. Deor. p. 11.39. go to 15 54,572; ov nezera, Homer. Iliad. 8. v. 13. Tartaró tenebricuso Hygisha faba 146. vid. iab 150.
a in Phædone, p.84. • lu Gorgia, p. 357. vid. Virgil. Æneid. 6. v.549. &L. Sociates a pud Plutarch, de Consol. ad Apoil. p. 121,
to subside, to go to the bottom, as being a low, inferior place; hence called heil froin beneath.
11. There are words and phrases by which the future punishment of the wicked is expressed; and which may serve to give a further account of the nature of it. - 1. It is represented as a prison; so the fallen angels are said to be cast into hell, as into a prison, and where they lie in chains, and are reserved to the judgment of the great day. And the spirits that were disobedient in the days of Noah, are expressly said to be in prison, 2 Pet. i. 4. Wicked men are not only criminals, but debtors; and whereas they have not with which to pay their debis, and no surety to pay them for them, to prison they must go till the uttermost farthing is paid, which never will be, Matt. v. 26. So Plato P speaks of Tartarus as a prison of just punishment; for ihose who have lived unrighteously and ungodly. - 2. It is spoken of as a state of darkness, of blackness of darkness, Jude verse 13. of the grossest, thickest darkness that can be conceived of; of outer darkness, Matt. viii. 12. those in it being without, shut out of the kingdom of light, the inheritance of the saints in light; and so like the darkness of the Egyptians, and such as might be felt; when the Israelites had light in all their dwellings; or, like the kingdom of the beast, said to be full of darkness : all which sets forth the very uncomfortable condition of the wicked being without the light of God's countenance, and the joys of heaven. 3. It is set forch by fire, Matt. v. 21. than which nothing gives more pain, nor is more excřuciating ; by a furnace of fire, Matt. xiii. 42, 50. like that which Nebuchad. nezzar caused to be heated seven times hotter than usual, for Daniel's three companions to be cast into, who refused to worship his image, than which' no. thing can be convinced of more dreadful; and by a lake of fire, and of brim, stone also, which enrages the fire, and increases the strength of it, Rév. xx. 10, 15. in allusion to the sulphureous lake. Asphaltites, where Sodom and Gomorrah stood: all which serve to give an idea of the wrath of God, poured out op the wicked like fire, and the quick sense they will have of it. - 4. It is ex. pressed by a worm that never dies, Mark ix. 44-48. to die such a death as Herod did, to be eaten of worins, to have a man's flesh gnawn off of his bones by them till he dies, mușt be very dreadful, but what is this to the continual gnawings of a guilty conscience. This continued consciousness of guilt, and feeling of divine wrath for sin, are but faintly expressed by the heathens, by vultures feeding on the heart of Tytius in hell; or by a serpent eating out his liver, which grew again 9 as fast as eaten. - 5. This is what is called the second death, Rev. xxi. 8. of which good men shall not be hurt, and on whom it shall have no power, but wicked men will ever abide under it, shall not become extinct, neither in soul nor body, though they may wish for it. This is death eternal, 80 called, not from a defect of life; nor from the quality of living, being always
? In Gorgia, p. 356. & Socrales-apud Plutarch. de Consol, ad Apoll. p. 131. - Apollo doris de Deor. Orig. p. 10. Hygin. fab. 55.