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the sea, and contain animal remains. The beds of the secondary and tertiary classes must, therefore, have been formed before the creation of man, and during that period which intervened between the creation of the earth and the beginning of the six days.” pp. 148, 149.

« Immediately after the creation of the earth, time began. Matter was endowed with certain laws: these laws immediately began to act; and the same causes and effects were as active at that moment as they are now.” p. 151.

“ The earth being prepared as the habitation of organized creatures, God creates, on the fifth day, all that moveth in the waters and in the air. On the sixth day He completes his work by the creation of all living creatures that inhabit the earth, * cattle, and creeping things, and beasts of the earth.' Then. God created man in his own image; in the image of God created he him.'

" We have thus hastily reviewed the work of the six successive days of creation, in order to show the perfect concord of this history with the view we have taken of the former verses. Moses,' says Dr. Buckland, who is an authority of the highest class,

does not deny the existence of another system of things prior to the preparation of this globe for the reception of the human race, to which he confines the details of his history; and there is nothing in the proposition inconsistent with the Mosaical declaration of the creation.' But it is not sufficient to say that Moses does not contradict the supposition ; for if the view taken of his history be correct, he supports and establishes the opinion.

“ But, whatever may be the fate of human opinions, one principle can never be disproved, that, God being the author of both the Bible and the world, the testimony of both, when accurately read, must correspond. How disdainfully soever, the Divine testimony may be treated by some who are ardently engaged in the investigation of nature, all theories that oppose its statements have error as their basis, and must fall to decay.” pp. 165, 166.

We will only add, that if the undevout astronomer is mad, much more so is the infidel geologist.

VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS. The nation, we have reason to bless him justly obnoxious to all well-disposed God, is in a state of comparative tran- persons of every name, lay and clerical, quillity, after the great excitement of the Church and Dissenting. last few months. The chief topic of do- The Cholera has, through the mercy of mestic interest continues to be the elections God, for the present abated; and in many for the next Parliament, it being known places a day of solemn gratitude has been that the present is not intended to meet kept for its removal, on which occasion again. It is stated on every side, that the the shops have been generally closed, and returns are by no means likely to be of the places of Divine worship wellattended. that exceptionable and revolutionary cha- Should the calamity be removed from our racter which many persons apprehended; shores, we trust that the civil and ecclebut rather that the successful candidates siastical authorities of the land will apwill, to a large extent, be persons of weight point a day of general thanksgiving for so and character in their respective vicini- great a mercy. After having prayed pubties. We confess we have never seen licly for a blessing, and received it, we any reason why it should be otherwise, ought publicly to express our national unless the great mass of British house- gratitude. Should any unnecessary obholders have deplorably degenerated from stacle be interposed, as in the case of the their wonted principles. In some in Fast-day, to prevent this national act of stances strong efforts, we rejoice to say, Christian duty, the influence of the reliare being made to introduce men of high gious part of the public, we trust, will character and religious principles in the not be remiss in urging it, in such ways place of others, who have forfeited their as may appear suitable, whether by pertitle to public confidence- particularly in sonal representations to those in power, the instance of the important metropolitan or by means of the press, or by petition county of Middlesex, where a candidate to the throne. But we should hope, that of sound and religious principles, and of if the occasion, in the mercy of God, unexceptionable character and qualifica- arrives, no such obstacles will occur ; tions, Lord Henley, is making head but that those to whom it belongs to reagainst Mr. Hume. We heartily wish gulate the matter will rejoice spontanehis Lordship success, and we make little ously to direct the national gratitude into doubt of it, if right-minded and Christian such a channel. electors will do their duty. Mr. Hume's The threatened rupture with Holland ultra-Radical politics, his abetting the is a very melancholy anticipation; and cause of blasphemy and West-India should blood be shed, we can scarcely slavery, and other offences, have rendered view it otherwise than as virtual murder,

Holland and Belgium were united in diating powers have become so involved political matrimony as one kingdom, in the adjustment that no party thinks it at the general peace, by the allies, ac- right to withdraw; and as Holland will cording to the policy of Lord Castle- not yield the contested points, France and reagh and other statesmen of that day; England are ostensibly preparing by land neither party wishing for the union, and and sea to force her into submission. If Belgium being strongly averse to it. The they carry their design into execution, and two nations differed in religion, in habits, are speedily successful, the matter may in language, and in their commercial and blow over, and the peace of Europe be political interests ; but their union was preserved; though we must still think thought necessary by their neighbours, for that every bomb that shall fall upon the public security of Europe, as a barrier Antwerp from a British vessel is labelled against the aggressions of France. They with injustice and murder. But if the jangled during the whole time of their reverse--if Holland does not speedily forced connexion, till, encouraged by the yield, or the accidents of war turn out in late French revolution, Belgium threw her favour-then Russia, Austria, and off the yoke. The duty of England, we Prussia, with the Lourbons, the Ferdithink, was most clear,-not to interfere nands, and the Miguels, may rally and in the dispute—that is, as parties, or be fight the battle of legitimacy upon the yond friendly suasion--but to leave the plains of Belgium, while the popular side litigants to themselves ; and, even if the marshals the ranks of liberalism, and conneighbouring continental powers took a federacies, constitutions, and revolutions part in the contest, still to prevent this are springing up on every side from Moscountry being involved in it; more es cow to Madrid. The result would be the pecially as it was essentially a war of shedding of torrents of blood, and the enopinion- a struggle between the old and actment of scenes of strife, which, whether new policy-and was likely, in the end, to they ended in republicanism or despotism, involve all Europe in a flame.

cannot be thought of without horror. We The duke of Wellington, who was then do not, however, seriously anticipate this, in power, viewed the question differently because we cannot believe that either the He considered, that after what bad taken English Government, or even the French, place in France, and with a succession of would venture to provoke such a contest. revolutions springing up on every side, it We cannot believe that they really mean was necessary for England to throw the to bombard Antwerp; but they hold out weight of her intluence to adjust the scale; the threat, expecting that more will not as otherwise France was ready to take a be requisite in order to coerce Holland, part in the matter, and would have and thus prevent that general outburst of speedily united Belgium to her own terri. European war and commotion which must tory. To re-unite Belgium and Holland probably result if once Holland and Belwas impossible; France would not permit gium commence hostilities. This doubtit, and the attempt to have done so would less appears to them the path of policy have aroused the revolutionary elements and expediency; but to reconcile this supof Europe and kindled a general flame. posed expediency with justice and moThe duke of Wellington therefore con- rality, is evidently a point which has sented to a disunion, and to an acknow. caused the English Government some perledgment of the independence of Belgium. plexity; and Earl Grey, we should think, Earl Grey's governient found the matter must repent that he ever embarked inthus agreed upon when it entered office; or rather, that his predecessor, the duke of and the five great powers set themselves Wellington, involved him in--this intriin conference to adjust the details of the cate negociation. We still think that Engarrangement. The English and French land ought to stand aloof, rather than go to cabinets inclined to what is popularly war with Holland. called the liberal side ; Russia, Prussia, If our government has made any stipuand Austria, to wbat is popularly called lation, either with France or Belgium, by the side of legitimacy; all, however, unit. which it feels bound to proceed to hostiing in the principle of Belgian independ. lities in case Holland does not consent to ence; and, with the consent of all, Prince the terms of the allies, such a stipulation Leopold was appointed king. But the would be iniquitous and gratuitously abking of Holland refused to be a party to surd, deserving the impeachment of its the articles of the proposed arrangement; authors. But if there be no such treaty, and nothing but the force of united Europe why bombard Holland ? Why not say at will even now induce him to recognise once, We have done all we can for peace; the independence of Belgium, of which he and we will have nothing more to do with considers himself forcibly and unjustly the matter. If Holland attacks Belgium, dispossessed. And why, we would ask, and France fries to its rescue, and Russia, if the matter were to be decided over Prussia, or Austria intermix in the fray, again from the first, should England force and universal war arises, this we cannot him, or unite with France for that pur- help ; nor ought we to strive to help it pose? But so it is, that, after two years by an unjust step, that of attacking conferencing and protocoling, the five me. Holland, which has never injured Eng

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land. The king of Holland may possibly that he frequents horse-races, and follows be obstinate, or short-sighted, but that is the hounds; which, they say, renders no reason why we should blockade his them doubtful as to his competency to coasts and destroy his ships. We trust teach them the way of salvation, and to he will yield the disputed points; it is for watch over their souls." If the patron the general peace of the world that he objected to this reason, we would have should do so; but we have no right to the appeal regularly argued and settled force him with bomb or bayonet to submit upon well-regulated principles, till we had to our award.

acquired such a practical code of church The momentous question of Church discipline as would cut off at least the Reform engrosses public attention; and grosser class of offences. We would also lists of interrogations have been sent to render patronage more responsible by the bishops and chapters, and to the making it less a marketable article. Why clergy generally, by the ecclesiastical com- should it be saleable at all? Why should missioners, with a view to collect full the right to watch over the souls of a information respecting the church re- parish be put up to auction, any more venues. We will not re-open this great than the office of a judge or of a bishop ? and complicated question at present: Good men, we know, have purchased especially as we have already touched upon advowsons, and put in good ministers; some items in our review of the Bishop and we thank God that he has sometimes of Lichfield's Charge, in the present Num- brought good out of evil; but the system ber. In that review we have alluded to itself is venal, simoniacal, and anti-christhe importance of subjecting the exercise tian. See what a handle the Dissenters of church patronage to some degree of make of it! see how they have paraded responsibility. What that responsibility in their publications, this very month, the should be, requires mature consideration : following disgraceful paragraph, which certainly not popular election, or even they profess to copy from an advertising giving the parishioners a veto-though circular :we would allow them an appeal from a “Sale of Church Property at the Auction patron's nomination, if they can shew Mart.- Very valuable church patronage, solid cause for their unwillingness : in including the perpetual advowson and which case they ought to be relieved; the next presentation to the Vicarage and for it is an abomination so to frame or sinecure Rectory of Lyminge, a pleasant interpret the law of patronage, as that a village, about five miles from Hythe, Folk, patron shall be allowed to force on a stone, and Sandgate, Kent. The tithes parish a clergyman of proveable bad are taken in kind.” It is added, as an incharacter or unscriptural doctrine. The ducement to purchase, that “ the duty question, we admit, is full of difficulties; which necessarily pertains to these chapels but far greater restraints ought to be in- is, eight times a year to Paddlesworth, terposed than at present exist. Even and twelve times a-year to Standford. the bishop dares not now reject a patron's This is the yearly return, which has always clerk, because, forsooth, patronage is pro- been satisfactory to the Archbishop of perty. We would at once place the Canterbury. The rector, it should seem, curate and the applicant for an incum- from the original writings, paid uniformly bency upon a level in this respect ; not by 301. a-year for the duty connected with extending to the latter the irresponsible these chapels. The present rector, who power by which a bishop may refuse to is also the incumbent of the vicarage, has license à curate without specifying an done the duty himself, and greatly exoffence or assigning a reason (under which ceeded the number of times which could tyrannical and eaves'-dropping system legally be required.” many most excellent and exemplary cler- Yet, disgraceful as is such an advergymen in days past were arbitrarily sent tisement, it is not, to our minds, half so into exile and starvation, for what some disgraceful as if, instead of this valuable bigot chose to think Methodistical pro- preferment ” being a “ sinecure ” (we pensities; and which, had it applied to doubt, after this public notice, whether it bishops as well as to curates, the late Dr. will be suffered long to continue so), it Sutton would have taken ample care had contained twenty thousand souls : should have deprived the church of the though even the few souls at Lyminge episcopal services of such of its ornaments are too many to be put up to auction to as Dr. Ryder), but by placing both the the highest bidder. We speak not invicurate and the nominee to a living under a diously of this or any other particular fair system of judicial allegation, defence, instance, but of the system. Our public and appeal; so that nothing may be done men are afraid to whisper the word paarbitrarily or secretly, but every thing tronage in the same breath with church after a solemn and accountable manner. reform, because it is PROPERTY. A man This alone would tend to render the ex- is infamous for life for selling a cadetsbip ercise of church patronage more respon- or an appointment to a clerkship, yet ad. sible. We would allow the bishop to vowsons and presentations are matters of say, for instance, to the patron, “ I cannot daily sale and purchase. While such a institute your clerk to that living, because traffic is legally allowed, we blame not the parishioners allege, and have proved, those individuals-for many such there

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are—who buy or sell conscientiously, tinue; and the Mauritius-that wholelooking at the spiritual welfare of the sale slaughter-house, that den of inhuparish, and who would not present or sell man cruelties-has defied the British Goto an irreligious man; but is such a sys- vernment; driven back Mr. Jeremie, who tem to be endured in a Christian country? was sent out as the protector of slaves; Let it be well remembered, it is no part and set itself fairly in a state of rebellion. of the regulations of the Church of Eng- The matter has thus come to a crisis.land : it is a mere matter of secular policy The cause has lost one of its earliest, warmwhich has been forced upon it.

est, and most powerful friends,—the veWe have much to say on the question of nerable Mr. Stephen. We forbear utterNegro slavery,but must defer our remarks. ing all we feel in regard to that much The colonies are hastening on its subver- loved and lamented philanthropist, as sion by their fatuitous conduct faster than we doubt not a more correct and ample the friends of the Negro by their remone account than we could furnish at the mostrances. The persecution and tarring ment will be given to the public. and feathering of missionaries still con

OBITUARY OF MRS. M. E. ROBERTS.

friends of Mrs. Hannah More, and for To the Editor of the Christian Observer.

some time past had been a principal prop As it appears to be part of your plan of her great age; but to go before her as to record the departures of eminent her herald was little expected to be her lot, Christians, and to propose their examples by those who but a few months ago saw to the imitation of their survivors, allow her in the full possession of her strong inme, with a faultering pen, to bring under tellect, with all her energies vivaciously your notice the death of Mrs. Mary Eliza- awake to the calls of charity, and to beth Roberts, of Clifton,who departed this the duties of the Christian character in life, at her house on Windsor Terrace, on these arduous times. Though she never the evening of Sunday the 30th day of married, her love and tenderness of heart, September last, after an illness attended no less than her prudence and counsel, with much suffering of body, endured had so wound her collateral relations with patient hope and trust in the pro- about her, that no mother of a family mises of God, and the purchase of the could leave at her departure a more wide cross of her Redeemer. I am sure of and sorrowful vacancy, or a more genuine the acquiescence of all who knew her house of mourning. The delight of our when I say, that the death of tbis Chris. eyes has been taken from us; but our tian lady is a public loss, although her sorrow is mingled with rejoicing, when humble and retiring spirit kept her too we think of her walk of faith, and her much from general intercourse. To the works of love. society of the rich and refined, with whom I should be afraid that part of this just she mixed sparingly, she carried unstudied and sincere tribute might be imputed to grace of manners, and a persuasive power the partiality of a brother, who has lived of edification. To the abodes of the poor, all his life in the closest companionship with whom her commerce was wide and and friendship with the subject of this inquisitive, she carried solace and refresh- eulogy, but that I know I am confirmed ment; to the old, the balm of cordial and by the tears and tender regrets of all who respectful assiduity; to the young, the knew her, and were capable of appreciatcharm of a playful benevolence, and a holying her worth. cheerfulness of manner; to the grave and When I retrace her course through the to the worm, a countenance at once ex- track of years during which it pleased Propressive of the tenderest concern for vidence to permit her to fill her part in this souls,and tbe noblest and purest thoughts; preparatory scene, I find comfort in the to the tribunal of Heaven, the summons reflection that no strange opinions or preto which she received with her lamp burn sumptuous theories, by which the minds ing, the testimony of a good confession, of so many pious persons have been more and the righteousness which comes from or less perverted, ever took hold of her imaa justifying faith in the Redeemer. gination, or drew her from the sober path

The writer of this humble tribute has of a humble and simple confession. Her seen and watched this flower through the career was never disturbed by controspring-time of its budding and blossom- versy, or her calm and settled trust dis. ing, and the period of its summer-strength lodged or shaken by metaphysical doubts and accomplished maturity; and, alas ! he or speculations; and this tranquil charachas seen it fade and wither; but never has ter of her Christianity kept her in conhe missed for a moment that sweet and stant equability and contentedness. characteristic odour which filled and de Various are the ways in which God tries lighted the privileged circle of her inter- the spirits of His servants; and perhaps course and influence.

part of her trial consisted in the favour in Through the greater part of her life which she stood with her fellow-creatures. she had been one of the most cherished The world seemed to invite her to come

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over to them, and to bring her graces and justice. May the gratitude which she endowments into the common stock ; but has left behind her grow in each of our her practical answer was, that she was en bosoms into a zealous imitation of her gaged, on the contrary, in the employment

The impression of her of bringing whom she could from that very loveliness of character had been greatly world to God; and very many, who are strengthened by the short interval of an now on their way to the heavenly Zion, imperfect recovery, which was permitted are ready to testify that her instrumenta- to take place between the stages of her lity was made available to their happy last illness, as if to shew her Christian change. From the highest to the lowest graces with a mellower and softer effect she spread the broad mantle of her sym- to her family and friends before her final pathy and fervent philanthropy, and the departure. At length the summons came, Negro slave may ere this have recognised and called her to her proper home, amidst his friend and benefactor in the sojourn tears which can only be thoroughly wiped of celestial freedom. To all the great away in that world where sorrow shall be topics of national interest she carried a no more. public mind; and the greatest interrup- Such a person ought not to be suffered tion of her peace arose from the godless to go hence without some memorial; and character of our national councils, and the I know not where more suitably to inmenacing growth of the Roman religion scribe that memorial than in the pages of among us.

To her generosity and the Christian Observer.
kindness towards her numerous relatives,

I am, &c.
I feel that my pen in vain strives to do

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WILLIAM ROBERTS.

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.
A. B. ; A CONSTANT READER AND SINCERE WELL-WISHER; A LAY Sister; Pur-
LANTHROPOS : J. M. W.; F.: SUPERANNUATED SEAMAN; M. J. M. ; M. G. H.;

M.; EBORACENSIS: G.; X. Z.; are under consideration.
We have been somewhat amused with the good-natured anxiety of Amicus. A corre-

spondent sent a paper to our Number for September, complaining of the apathy of
many congregations in making the responses, which he attributes in part to the
negligence of the Clerk, illustrating his remark by the case of a chapel in which a
clerk, chosen for his good voice, does not speak audibly. We have not the slightest
notion what chapel or what part of the country was in the writer's mind; and the

description would probably apply to at least five hundred or a thousand churches - and chapels. But Amicus fits on the cap, and complains that it has been awarded to a young man whom he recommended to a clerk's situation, and who was

observed the Sunday after that number came out to elevate his voice more than . usual, so that his friends asked the cause, and “ were of course referred to the

article in the Christian Observer ; ” which Amicus goes on to denounce as “ an unmerited and most inapplicable aspersion " upon his worthy friend. But does not Amicus see how misplaced is his displeasure ? 'for if the description is “ most inapplicable” to the case in question, why should he apply it? or suppose that out of all the towns, villages, and parishes into which the Christian Observer penetrates, its reprehensions were pointedly levelled at an unfortunate young man in some particular chapel which he happens to be acquainted with, the name of which we do do not even guess or suspect. If it was “inapplicable," then the taxing, “ like a wild goose, flies unclaimed of any man." We shall be glad to learn that some fifty other clerks, to whom it is applicable, have discovered themselves in it, and have raised their voices next Sunday accordingly. The Christian Observer, it seems, has the unbappy fate of the Clergyman who was accused of libelling sundry good people in a certain parish, where he happened, without knowing the character of any individual, to preach a sermon which he had preached twenty years before word for word in other parishes a hundred miles off, and which proved after all to be a sermon of Tillotson's. The Spectator was similarly accused. “This fellow cannot for his life keep out of politics : do you see how he abuses four great men ?asterisks do you call them ? they are stars, and he might as well have put garters to them. And pray do but mind the next two or three lines : Chếrch and p-dd-ng in the same sentence." The Spectator goes on to tell the story of the person who converted the Whole Duty of Man into a libel against “the squire, churchwardens, overseers of the poor, and all other the most considerable persons in the parish,” by putting their names in the margin opposite certain sins: so that “ there arose a current report that somebody had written a book against the squire and the whole parish; and the minister of the place having at that time a controversy with some of his congregation upon the account of his tithes was under some suspicion of being the author, until the good man set the people right by shewing them that the satirical passages might be applied to several other neighbouring villages; and that the book was written against all the sinners in England.” We likewise assure our anonymous and unknown Amicus, that we had no intention of libelling his

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