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this too. With one consent a veil is thrown over what occurs, and no count is taken of the dead. So alive are the Hadji themselves to the danger of detention, that they conspire to conceal the deaths. There are comparatively few in the passage to Alexandria, while the pilgrims are yet fresh and unwearied; but they are numerous on the return passage, when they all are worn out. We were told, that, in one way or other, one-third of those who leave home upon this pilgrimage perish by the way; and cases were recited to us of men dying on the deck, and being pushed by their neighbours into the sea the moment they had ceased to breathe, and of the dead being sat upon as bags for the purpose of concealment.
But the crew of the vessels engaged in this traffic are subjected to still greater temptations than their commanders. Each pilgrim pays about £I for his passage from Tangier to Alexandria. The agent at Tangier gets a good per-centage, and the captain a smaller one, on all the passage-money collected. As he never sees them after he takes their dollars, the agent tries to crush into the ship as many as the captain will admit. And we should have had one or two hundred more aboard, if that Hebrew at Tangier had had his will. But our captain was a humane map, and was not to be influenced by the prospect of a little additional gain to himself. I know, indeed, that he, and others like him, would inost willingly forego their commission, in order, by limiting the number, to put this trade on a more satisfactory basis. But how fares it with the common sailors, upon whom, without any addition to their pay, the trouble and extreme annoyance of managing a ship whose deck is covered with such a kind of cargo are thrown? It can easily be imagined in what a false position toward each other the five sailors who, in our ship, constituted the one watch, and the six who constituted the other, stood to the five hundred Mohammedans who were continually in their way, hindering all free movement. No means of communication existing between them, there was nothing for it but shoving the Moors aside in a way naturally creating irritation. But that was not the worst of it. Soon after leaving Tangier, a dollar was slipped into the hands of one of our cabin passengers by one of the Hadji. We could not at first imagine what the object of the poor fellow was, but soon found out that it was offered as a bribe to induce the receiver to do what he could to procure some additional comfort for the donor. Such bribes are offered to the sailors; and it is not unnatural, hindered and hampered as they are in their work, that they should be ready enough to remunerate themselves for the extra trouble, by taking all they can get, without being very careful as to the return rendered. But it is equally natural, that, if money be thus taken, and nothing be done for it, the givers should get angry, and materials thus accumulate for serious strife. One night, as we lay in the harbour of Malta, an affair broke out between the sailors and the pilgrims of a very threatening aspect, and which, had we not been so placed that the police could be and were called in to quell it, might have been most disastrous in the issue. A party of the pilgrims alleged that they had given to the sailors a considerable sum of money, to let them, during the rest of the voyage, into their
berths on the forecastle; but that, after having occupied them for a day or two, they were turned out to make room for others, from whom a like remuneration on like conditions was to be obtained. The sailors denied the charge; the Hadji affirmed it. The quarrel grew serious; knives and swords were drawn. The mate interfered, and put one •of the Hadji in irons. But for the circumstance that the police of Malta were at hand, and that our captain, on his return to the vessel, dealt fairly by the Hadji, who evidently had been wronged, the matter might have had a very different result. But is it right to subject our sailors to the demoralizing influences of a system which has such a tendency to turn them into extortioners and tyrants ?
As the sun went down in the evening, the Moors engaged in their devotions. These were generally performed beside us on the quarter-deck, and were thus frequently and closely observed. They had all the aspect of sincerity, solemnity, adoration. As we watched the bulk of the deck passengers, with rows of beads (their rosaries) in hand, running through their prayers, it was evidently, with most of them, a mere formal, mechanical, superstitious performance; but it was not so with our friends of the quarterdeek, and I have seldom felt more impressed with the idea of a true worship of the Unseen than when witnessing their devotions. A knot of six or eight of them assembled; they spread a rug upon the deck, took off their slippers, went through the form of washing hands, and feet, and body; then one of them, a little in front of the others, acted as the spokesman or leader, reciting aloud passages of the Koran, intermixed with short prayers and praises, in which all joined. When they stood and bowed together, dropping upon their knees, then, stretching out their hands, bent them and their bodies, till, between their extended palms, nose and forehead touched the deck, and their prostrate forms appeared in such lowly attitudes, it was dificult to resist the impression that it was the creature reverently humbling himself to the dust before the great Creator.
The sun had set, and the prayers were over. But why was it that every face was turned now so intently in the one direction? We looked along the deck, and there was one sea of faces with eyes all fixed upon the westen skies. We had never seen the heavens so searched by so many keenlypeering human eyes; and we wondered what all this could mean. We were soon enlightened. This was the night when, with the appearance of the new moon, the month during which the fast of Rhamadan was kept expired, and with the next day the feast of Bairam began. It was for the Dew moon they all were looking so eagerly. For a time she did not appear : we remembered that she was but two days old, -an age at which she is not large enough to be visible with us; and we imagined that they were going to be disappointed. But they knew better than we did about their own moon. A few minutes more of that ardent gazing, and then a shout, and the pointing with a finger here and there, proclaimed that the wished-for object had been seen ; a moment or two more, and the clapping of liands
and the gleaming brightness of every eye proclaimed that all had caught the sight. We looked, and could at first see but a star or two shining faintly in the heavens; at last there showed itself a slight thread-like ar of faintest silvery light. It grew upon our eye in distinctness, but only to increase our wonder at its exceeding slenderness ; a wonder springing out of the fact, that, at the same age, the moon is not visible in our skies.
MILITARY HOSPITALS AND PRISONS.
A chief instance of reform in the army is the advance of the religious principle, as distinguished from the old exclusive ecclesiastical. Gradually, in obedience to the demands of equity, and in accord with a more enlightened policy, “ Divine worship ” in the army becomes not so much a ceremonious observance conducted by the ministers of state-established churches, as the performance of a sacred duty, common to the members of all churches. We do not say that the arrangements and custoins of the service have yet been made to harmonize with this high principle; but it is our duty to acknowledge that the principle is recognised. It was recognised, for example, when the army appointments of the last Conference were received by Her Majesty's Minister for War, transmitted by his Lordship to the Field-Marshal commanding-in-chief, and to the General commanding the forces in Ireland, and by these high authorities notified to the general officers commanding on the several stations to which Wesleyan ministers were appointed.
How much this recognition may imply has not yet been defined ; but, certainly, it conveys explicit sanction.
This paper will not contain an account of public relations with the army, or with the Government; but will relate, exclusively, to pastoral visitation prosecuted in circumstances widely differing from such as prevail in general society. What civilian congregations are, everyone knows; how various—how mingled-how free. The military congregation is altogether different. It comes when ordered. It does not come if the order is countermanded. The men march, rank and file. No one has any choice in the matter, beyond a choice previously made by each man for himself to be of this religion or of that. Women and children are not so marched, but every soldier's wife or child is entitled to receive religious care and instruction from some one of the clergymen among whom such duty is divided.
All persons on the strength of a regiment or a garrison are classified, whether in routine of duty, or for the purposes of religion. The wives are to be found in their “married quarters,” and it is hardly possible to meet them collectively; or they are seen by their chaplains, who regularly visit the women's hospital. The children, a most important class, are easily accessible. By a regulation of the War-Office, they quit their schools on one or two days every week, go to places appointed, and receive religious instruction from their own chaplains. This instruction, if heartily given,
is heartily received and well repaid. Very much might be written on this one subject of military classification ; but we confine our attention to two very conspicuous classes,--namely, the sick and the prisoners. We speak first of the Hospitals.
If the men of any corps on service in the United Kingdom, or in a healthy colony, had remained in their homes, and were as healthy as they now are, few among them would acknowledge themselves to be sick, or appear to be so. Being all of them young men, or men in the prime of life, well fed, sufficiently clothed, lodged comfortably, and having plenty of exercise, they would seldom think of calling for medical assistance. But so great attention is given to the soldier's health, that on occasion of the slightest ailment, if complained of or discovered, he must go to hospital, wear the blue gown, night-cap, and slippers, have his kit removed to the store, take possession of his bed ; and at the bed's head there hangs a card with his name, the description of his disease or hurt, note of his religion, order for his diet, and whatever else is necessary to be known. The medical officer sees to the body ; the chaplain cares for his soul. For the reason now stated, the men in hospital are a numerous class; as appears from the fact, that in England and Ireland, during the year 1860, the average of admissions into hospital was 1,053 to every thousand men, and the average of daily sick was 54.72 per thousand of mean strength.
Hence it is evident that the military chaplain has such a facility for conversing with sick or ailing members of his congregation as no Circuitminister could command ; and, considering that the regulations of the service require him to visit the hospitals “ once at least in the week, and more frequently when his presence is called for,” he can most certainly converse familiarly, at some time or another, with every Wesleyan soldier on the station, irrespectively of stated meetings in classes, and visits paid in barracks, and in the married men's quarters. During prolonged visitation of such as remain in hospital for weeks or months, he can arrive at a tolerably accurate estimation of their character, and adapt his advices and exhortations to their spiritual necessity. Often feelings are awakened, in the patients, of strong attachment to their minister, which attachment abides through years of travel, toil, and danger; and, if not at once issuing in conversion to God, helps them to cherish in their hearts the seed of imperishable truth, which may spring up and bear precious fruit at last.
Often, far too often, the soldier suffers from his own excesses ; and to deal with him in such circumstances might seem difficult. But it must be borne in mind, as we approach these wanderers, that they are probably followed by the prayers of devout and sorrowing relatives ; and that, whatever be their sin, they are placed under our exclusive charge ;-men for whose souls we must give account; persons who were, most probably, admitted by ourselves into the congregation of Christ's flock by baptism, there to be nurtured and admonished, there to be the objects of perpetual solicitude and love, and never to be disowned, never abandoned, never cast away into the arms of strangers, but sought out, followed, instructed, and, VOL. X.-FIFTH SERIES.
if possible, - but why not possible ?—won back to the fold from which they wandered, and restored, by the ministry of reconciliation, to the Saviour whom they rejected. So frequent a coincidence of duty and opportunity could scarcely occur in a parish, or in a circuit. The lads have gone astray. There is a significant record placed over the head of each. Incongruous as it may seem at first hearing, and until we recall the reason just now suggested, the venerated title, WESLEYAN, is written after his name, but not, as in the Class-Book, with a for penitent, or o for justified, or even q for doubtful: for the true state of this poor fellow is but too plainly discoverable. He is dead in trespasses and sins. We entreat him to hearken to the voice which wakes the dead ; and from these hospital-wards, more than from most other places, we gather members into our classes.
It may promote gratitude to God to review the steps by which we have been brought into full communication with the sick of our military flocks. Within the writer's memory, Garrison-hospitals were closed against our ministers, except by the unauthorized courtesy of officers, or by a pitiful and rarely occurring indulgence, when a patient had expressed a wish to see one of them. Sometimes the indulgence was given to the patient grudginglysometimes it was cruelly denied. Elder readers of this paper may, perchance, remember how a minister in London appealed against such a denial to the Duke of Wellington, and how his Grace was pleased to decide that the minister, being called for by the dying man, might see him. This admission was too highly valued at the time : for, perhaps, few persons
then ceived that such a favour was but a refined indignity, although not so intended. The truth is, that, in those times, religious liberty in the army was illegal ; at least, according to military law.
So far as relates to hospitals, this law remained unaltered until very lately. The first step toward its abolition was taken in May, 1859, on occasion of a complaint, sent up from Aldershot, that the writer of these lines had been permitted regularly to visit the hospitals in camp. There is reason to believe that the complaint was not welcome to His Royal Highness commanding-in-chief, who, not being called upon to change the law, could but enforce it. The Wesleyan minister at Aldershot was officially informed that he was not again to visit any patient in hospital, unless sent for. He obeyed, without reserve. Leaving the sick upon their beds, he wrote within the saine hour a most respectful but most earnest letter of remonstrance to the Duke. The remonstrance was honoured with prompt consideration ; and information was received from the Horse-Guards, that officers in command on military stations had been instructed to exercise their discretion in admitting “Dissenting ministers,” as it was worded, into the hospitals.
Another step was gained in September, 1862 ; when a memorandum from the Horse-Guards, in pursuance of a communication from the Secretary of State for War, directed the formation of a fourth class of religion in the army, to consist of “other Protestants,” not included under the heads of Episcopalian and Presbyterian ; and at the same time the War-Office issued