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arrived at the result that the milk of the of the most uncertain composition, acevening is richer by 3 per cent. than that cording as it is the first or last milk of the morning, the latter containing drawn. If the former, it will be exceedonly 10 per cent. of solid matter, and the ingly poor in cream, &c.; and if the former 13 per cent. On the other hand, latter, exceedingly rich.-Dr. Hassall. the water contained in milk diminishes by 3 per cent, in the course of the day; in INFLUENCE OF THE GULF-STREAM. the morning it contains 89 per cent. of -Doubling the Cape of Florida, the Gulfsater, and only 86 per cent. in the even Stream (that is, stream from the Gulf of ing. The fatty particles increase gradu- Mexico) flows north-east in a line almost ally as the day wears on. In the morning parallel to the American coast; touches they amount to 2.17 per cent. ; at noon, the southern borders of the banks of Newte 263; and in the evening to 342 per foundland; and thenee, with increasing ant. This circumstance, if true, would width and diffusion, proceeds across the be rery important in a practical point of Atlantic, till, in the region of the Azores, view. Let us suppose a kilogramme of it spreads out into two great branchesmilk to yield only the sixth part of its one curving southwards towards the equaweigbt of butter; then the milk of the tor, and the other flowing north wards, evening may yield double that quantity. impinging in its course against the westThe caseous particles are also more abun ern coasts of Europe, and ultimately dant in the evening than in the morning losing itself in the waters of the Arctic -from 2-24 they increase to 270 per Ocean The length of this great oceancent., but the quantity of albumen di- river, from its commencement to the minishes from 0-44 to 0-31. The serum Azores, is 3,000 miles, and its greatest is less abundant at midnight than at breadth about 120 miles. When it leaves Doon, being 4:19 per cent in the former the Strait of Florida its velocity is about case and 4.72 in the last.- Times.

4 miles an hour; off Cape Hatteras, in In my report on the adulteration of North Carolina, it is reduced to 3 miles ; milk, published in the Lancet" in 1851, on the Newfoundland banks it is further I gave the results of the analysis of a reduced to 1} miles; and this gradual mmber of samples of morning and after- abatement of force continues with its Doon milk, obtained from different cows; diffusion across the Atlantic. A similar and from these it appeared, that, while decrease takes place in its temperature, ten samples of morning milk furnished the maxinum of which in the Strait of collectively 774 percentages of cream, the Florida is 86 degrees, or 9 degrees above average of the whole being 7, the same that of the ocean in the same latitude. number of samples of afternoon milk Off Newfoundland, in winter, it is said to taken from the same cows gave 96} per- be from 25 degrees to 30 degrees above centages, the average being 9}. The the water through which it flows; in midcard in the first series of samples amounted ocean, from 8 degrees to 10 degrees; nor to 693, and in the second to 810 grains. is the heat wholly lost when it impinges

Thus I have found the difference to be against the shores of Western Europe. even greater than that stated by Dr. The Gulf-Stream is thus, in reality, a Bordecker.

great thermal ocean-river, incessantly Bot, further, at the period referred to flowing from warmer to colder regions, I made the somewhat singular observa- diffusing warmth and moisture along its tion, that the composition of milk varies course, and tempering the climates of still more at different periods of even the countries that lie within its influence. same milking, the milk last drawn from Compressed, as it were, at its commencethe udder being always much richer than ment, between two areas of colder water, its that brst abstracted. Thus, while eight deep-blue warm current rises in convexity samples of the afternoon milk first drawn above the surrounding ocean; but as it furnished 61 percentages of cream, that proceeds it cools, becomes diffused, aslast removed amounted to no less than sumes the ordinary level, and partakes of 1414 percentages.

the greener hue of northern waters. It These facts are pregnant with practical sets a limit to the southward flow and in portance. Upon this part of the sub- chilling influences of the Arctic iceberg, jert I must not enlarge, but will merely that melts away in its warm stream, and refer to the common practice which pre becomes at the same time the great vails for invalids to procure their glass of natural barrier between the life of the milk direct from the cow. The milk Northern and Southern Atlantic.-David thtas obtained must, as we have seen, be Page, F.R.S.E.


“ The thing that hath been, it is that which shall be.....

Is there anything whereof it may be said, See, this is new?
It hath been already of old time, which was before us." (Eccles. i. I, 10.)
WHEN first the Pair in Paradise, reclined

At eve, survey'd the kindling firmament,
'T was new ;- but, as the contellations shined

On them, so still those countless eyes are bent

On us, with awful gaze, and beams unspent.
Those watchers witness 'd when), across the plain,

Lot and his family from Sodom went ;-
They saw the Red Sea parted, and the slain,
When God let loose the waves on Pharaoh and his train.

The spirit of pilgrimage, in lands remote,

Joys on believing it some trace hath found
Of worthies old. The rock that Moses smote,

The well of Bethlehem, or the sacred ground

Of Olivet,—what vision'd forms surround
Of might and majesty! Such scenes have ties

That link with the ancient Past thoughts onward bound.
Primeval splendours still, in evening skies,
We share with Eden's Pair, and see the same moon rise.
On earth, sin, shame, wrath, surrow, toil, and death,

When man rebell'd, were new ; and new the grace
Promised, unsought, before the flaming breath

Of cherubim had driven him from the place

His guilt defiled. Throughout all time his race
Inherit sin and death, with grace Divine,

So free, who will the mercy may embrace.
Thus that which “ hath been” “shall be," line on line,

Till Paradise, renew'd, with Jesu's glories shine.
Southport, December, 1863.




fusion of Christian knowledge, and an The appointment of the Right Ho advocate for the introduction of the nourable Sir John Lawrence, Bart., Bible into the native schools.

Let G.C.B., to the high and responsible earnest prayer be offered on his behalf, office of Viceroy and Governor-General for his personal health and safety, for the of India, excites to gratitude and hope prosperity of his government, and, above and prayer. We regard it as a favour- all, that he may have Divine help to reing providence to that large portion of tain the convictions he has repeatedly the liuman family under British rule in expressed, and to carry them out to practhe East, that, at this juncture, there tical conclusions. We remember the should be found a man every way fitted Minutes of Sir John, published in 1858, to occupy that position. The success on “ The Christian Duty of this Country, which attended the administration of in the Government of India." He stated government in those portions of India that, in his judgment, “the Bible ought formerly under his personal superintend not only to be placed among the college ince gives reasonable ground for hope libraries and the school books for the for the future. At all times he showed perusal of those who might choose to himself a Christian, a friend to the dif. consult it," as had hitherto been the


If we


neutral practice, 6 but also that it in England is one in geven and three should be taught in class, wherever we quarters.” have teachers fit to teach it, and pupils willing to bear it." Letters of gold

DURING the early part of this year would not sufficiently express the value

our street-preaching was very eneouragwe place on these words of the new

ing. Our congregations were large, our Governor-General. They were followed

discourses were listened to with interest by a manly, English, and Christian con

and a degree of earnestness ; a serious fession of political faith to the following spirit was manifested, and we frequently eliect : “ Sir John Lawrence has been

concluded with prayer. A great change, led, in common with others, since the

however, soon followed.

The swinging occurrence of the awful events of 1857, feast, the feast to the god of lust, and to ponder deeply on what may be the

several others, carried away the public faults and shortcomings of the British as

mind into a state of extraordinary exà Christian nation in India. In con

citement; the bitterest opposition to the sidering subjects such as those treated of Gospel was shown; the name of Christ in this despatch, he would solely endeavour to ascertain what is our Christian

was sometimes blasphemed in the inost

fearful manner, and the people seemed duty. Having ascertained that accord

to rave under powerful Satanic influence. ing to our erring light and conscience, he would follow it out to the uttermost, un

God now interposed in judgment. That

terrible scourge, the cholera, broke out deterred by any consideration.

in the end of February, and continued to address ourselves to this task, it may,

rage until the close of May. Nearly two with the blessing of Providence, not

thousand persons were seized by it, and prose too ditficult for us. Sir John

about one half of them died. The scenes Lawrence does entertain the earnest

presented in Mysore during these months belief that all those measures which are

never be forgotten by us.

The really and truly Christian can be carried

general terror of the people, the sacriout in India, not only without danger to

fices and prayers to Mari, the goddess the British rule, but, ou the contrary, of disease, the funeral processions, the with every advantage to its stability.'

processions of gods along every street, A new era will open on Invia when the

the everlasting rattle of tomtoms, and principles thus boldly proclaimed shall

the wild yells of the people at night, be carried into effect.

defy description. But the most distressNATIONAL EDUCATION IN INDIA.

ing part of the whole scene was, that,

instead of leading the people to repentUnder the title of “ National Educa ance, this fearful judgment seemed only tion in India," a very seasonable pam to make them more mad upon their phlet has been published in Madras, by idols. During this time of distress the Mr. John Murdoch, Indian Agent of Lord remembered us in special mercy. the Christian Vernacular Education So We were enabled to walk in the midst of ciety for India. He exhibits the NEED the pestilence unharmed, and not one of OF EDUCATION by stating that “the our native Christians was even sick for proportion of persons able to read varies an hour. When this became known, in different parts of India from about many of the heathen were astonished. one in 300 to 10 per cent."

For the last four months our out-door “* In Mysore 23 per cent. is the pro- preaching has been again more pleasant portion of readers.” “In the richest and hopeful. In some places we can and most populous portion of the Pro- frequently obtain a hundred for a convince of Bengal there are about three gregation, who will listen well for an persons in every 100 under education." hour or an hour and a half; and, not

“ The expenditure by Government in withstanding the power and freshness of Bengal, on account of education, does idolatry in Mysore, and notwithstanding pot reach one-halfpenny per head per the fact that superstition is nursed in the annum."

palace by the old Rajah with the great** In 1861, the Government-aided est fondness, and is watched over with schools contained only one pupil in constant care by ten thousand Brahmins, 500 of the population."

“ The propor

the truth is making itself felt. This is tion of the people under Christian in seen in various ways. We hardly ever struction amounts to only one in 1760 !" meet with a man who will undertake to * The Government-aided and Mission defend idolatry. The glorious attributes schools contain less than one in 400 of and spiritual nature of God are becoming the population of British India."

widely known. Then among a certain ** The proportion under instruction class there is a re-action against idolatry ;

they are ashamed of its absurdity and in England would hlp us.- Rev. John foolishness; they are seeking refuge and Hutcheon, A.M., Mysore, October 23rd, happiness in Vedantism; and their numa 1863. ber is increasing every year.

The secular Brahmins, in Government employment,

CHINA. and the more intelligent merchants, forın At present five Missionaries are staanother class. They see the hollowness tioned here, and we labour in four or and wickedness of their religious teach five

apels and caching-places in the ers, the endless Babel presented by Hin city and its suburbs. The number of duism, and the moral and intellectual our church members is twenty-eight. degradation of the masses ; they have no Three schools are in active operation, faith in their own Vedas or Puranas; containing one hundred

and eighty they feel they need something to appeal pupils. We have four thoroughly good to their understanding and hearts; and dwelling-houses, three of which are freethey often confess that Christianity is hold, and one the leasehold property of true, and that it will soon become the the Society..... Four or five men at Canreligion of India. Those who have re ton will keep all going on that has buen ceived an English education form ano begun ; and, by the blessing of God's ther illustration of our statement. The Spirit, they will reap a rich harvest of study of history, of geography, and of souls. It will not be understood that the elements of English science, and we are the only Missionaries in Canton. their contact with the Bible, render it There are two other English and ten impossible for this class to be orthodox American Missionaries stationed here. Hindus. Their condition is one of great This is also a reason why we should trial and misery. They are ashamed to now look to the regions beyond, and seek be idolaters ; and they have not courage

to extend our labours to some of the to declare themselves Christians.

populous cities and towns lying at no You may be pleased to hear how we great distance from us. celebrated October 6th in Mysore. We Something has been done toward the did not forget that it was the Jubilee Fatshán Mission. In 1860, our Colday of our Missionary Society. We porteurs visited Fatshán, a town of improclaimed a general holiday in all our mense size, with a population of 400,000 schools ; and Mr. Marrat gave a long souls, removed from Canton only some address on the history and results of our twelve or fourteen miles.

There we Society, in the morning, to about forty have now a preaching-place, with a resiinteresting youths in our English school. dent Native Assistant; and a weekly At half-past eleven, A. M., which would visit, for the purpose of preaching, is be six P.M. in Leeds, we held a prayer paid by one of our number. The Conmeeting ; and felt it good to be there. ference of 1862, encouraged by the All our Christians met about six P. m. in noble donation of 1,500 guineas from an our little chapel; we then sang and old friend to the China Mission, given exprayed ; and I baptized a young man in the pressly for the establishment of a station presence of the company. I had arranged at this great emporium, appointed one to baptizetwo; but the courage of one failed man to commence the work there. The at the eleventh hour. The one who did last District-Meeting asked for the ap

had been attending my Sunday pointment of an additional man to Fatclass-meeting for about five months; and shán; and it is very obvious that no man he witnessed a good confession. As it ought to stand alone among 400,000) was a time of rejoicing with us, we called heathens. I hope the Conference which the new Jubilee disciple An indukı, which has just closed at Sheffield may have means “the joyful one A bijah, Mr.

been able to grant our request.

It will Marrat, and I now gave speeches on the thus be seen that we have already one design of the Jubilee, and the history and station partially opened at Fatshán, and blessed fruits of our Missionary Society the present effort to raise £1,000 ia throughout the world. Our people China, and as much more in England, is caught the inspiration, clapped their in hope that the Committee will feel hands for joy, and about fifty of us felt we warranted to undertake two other new never spent a happier evening. At the stations on the West River, and thus end, old John, a Sepoy, came up to us, establish a chain of stations reaching halfsaid he wanted to make a donation to way across this province towards the help to build our

new chapel, and next, namely, Kwangsi. volunteered to collect for it. I told It is at two places on the banks of this them in faith, if we prayed about it, and noble river that the District Vlecting did what we could, the Committee projected our next extension, and for



which we now seek to raise funds. Sai- the finest pieces of river network probanais, the nearest of these two places, is bly in the world. Thousands of rich about thirty miles farther up the river, alluvial islands, producing immense quanaltogether seventy-five geographical miles tities of rice, and everywhere covered from Canton.

with the mulberry-tree, which annually Sai-nam is about two miles south of sustains the life of millions of silkworms, the walled city of San-Shui, (which lies are formed by the intersections of these back from the river,) and, properly speak

A teeming population swarms ing, may be said to lie on the North in this most fertile part of the Canton River, but being just at the east end of a province. Shuntak, perhaps, contains singlar belt which binds the North and 30,000 or 40,000 inhabitants ; but other West Rivers together. It is the centre towns are reputed to have as many as of a trade from both rivers, and the seat 80,000 or even 100,000 inhabitants. The of some manufactures. The population whole region is one immense human is estimated at 20,000 or 25,000, which hive; rich in all material wealth, the prois not large; but the place recommends duce of a prolific soil, and of ever active itself to us on account of its central posi- industrious human hands. tion, and as an easy step to Shiú-king, Still, surely at no very distant day, the giving continuity to the chain from Can- rich silk districts will have a couple of ton to that place. A great centre of Missionaries, located at some commandpopulation could easily be found.

ing position, enabling them to preach the Shit-hing is the head city of a depart- Gospel of Christ to these multitudes. ment of the same name, embracing thir. What object worthier of a Methodist teen districts, and extending from the Missionary's efforts is there than to lamountains of Kwangsi to the sea-coast.

bour in such a sphere? What young The city of Shiú-hing, once the residence man will receive into his heart the necesof the viceroy of the two “* Broad” pro. sary baptism of the Spirit for such a vinces, is still a first-class city, though

work ? - Rev. George Piercy, Canton, many of its public buildings are sadly September 22d, 1863. dilapidated. Its population is estimated u 150,000, dwelling within the walls and

FIJI. in two extensive suburbs on the east and west of the city. On the north is a tine, On the 16th and 17th of March I met the fertile plain, with the high hills in the students. There have been only seventeen back-givund, and on the south flows the present during the year. The progress of river, one mile and a quarter broad, with the young men in reading, writing, arithlofty summits crowned by two pagodas metic, Old Testament history, and in a directly opposite the city. It is not knowledge of the doctrines of holy Scripbeauty of situation, however, that makes ture, was very manifest; and all were it so desirable that Shiú-hing should be clean, respectful, and of an excellent aceupied by our Mission, but its position spirit. on the great highway to three provinces, The tutor's house is plain and strong, and its central location in the departs and in a very elevated position. The ment. The trade or the West River at school-room is large aud good, airy and present is not so large as on the North healthy, but somewhat weak by being River ; but when the province of Kwang too high. si, Kwai-chau, and Yun-nán are again in The students' houses are tolerably good, a state of order, the timber, cassia, cotton, and their town is neatly laid out. The rice, and oil, with other productions of paths are straight, wide, and neat, showtheir mountains and plains, will again ing that the few students must have been pass Shiú-hing on the way to the great heavily taxed with hard labour, which markets of Fatshan and Canton. At must have interfered seriously with their some future day a busy traffic will be progress. resumed. There need be no hesitation in An establishment like this, of such affirming that Shiú-bing, next to Canton, importance to our very extensive work, is the most important post we can occupy to which one of our number is devoted, in the whole province.

must be supplied with more men. Fifty Shuntch, or, in the local dialect, Shun- could be conveniently accommodated in tak, is the head of a district of the same the school-room. Many of the lessons given name. It lies in a south-south-west would be of equal service to a large numdirection from Canton, at a distance of ber, without any extra effort on the part about forty miles, in the heart of a rich of the tutor; and, when divided into silk-producing country. It is on one of classes, he could be assisted by some of innumerable streams which form one of the advanced students, to whom such

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