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and afterwards the temple of Solomon, and dwelt upon the mercy-seat.* This glory or divine presence was withdrawn as a punishment, (1 Sam. iv. 21,) as Cain for a like reason was banished from it. This showed the inferiority of the second temple. It appeared again under the New Testament. It appeared to the shepherds, (Luke ii. 9,) accompanied by a multitude of the heavenly host. It appeared also at the transfiguration, and once more enveloped in light him who dwelt in it at the east of Eden, and in the wilderness. To this appearance St. Peter alludes, (2 Pet. i. 17,) “ when there came such a voice to him from the excellent glory,—when we were with him in the mount.” This was the cloud which received our Lord in his ascent to heaven. This also appeared to St. Paul at his conversion; and from thence the Lord spoke to him. We shall have occasion to observe, as we go on, that these communications and these appearances, often took place on the sabbath, so far as we have any means of discriminating the precise day.
Having proved above, that before the fall of man, and at that time, as well as immediately after, the Divine WORD was the medium of communication with man, we might conclude, à fortiori, that he continued the same gracious office after the fall, when he had undertaken man's redemption and the government of his mediatorial kingdom. However valid and legitimate such conclusion might be, we are not left to depend on it, but have more particular proof.
Therefore, in the few remaining pages, which I shall dedicate to this topic of the early mode of communication
between God and man, I shall notice such proofs, as show that the person mentioned is the eternal Son of God. · My readers will please to recollect, that in the Old Testament, whenever the word LORD is in our translation printed in capital letters, the word in the original is 6 Jehovah.” And as the word Lord has many, and, of course, ambiguous meanings, it is to be wished that our translators had, for the sake of distinction, used this proper name of God; as I shall do in the remainder of this topic in any quotations I shall have to make.
In what mode communications were made to Noah, we are not informed; and therefore it is probable that the symbol of the divine presence continued to be used. But as to the divine Person who communicated with him, and through him, for a hundred years to the corrupt antediluvian generation, we can have no doubt, as we are expressly informed by St. Peter,* (1 Pet. iii. 18, 19, 20,) that it was Christ.
With Abraham, there were different modes of communication, sometimes in visions, sometimes by angels, either in angelic or in human form. But it appears that in many, if not in all the cases, our blessed Saviour was the person who communicated with him. For he himself says, that “ Abraham saw his day, and was glad.” In Gen. xv. I, “ After these things, the Word of Jehovah came unto Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram, I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward.” And again, (verse 4,) “ The
* As that text of St. Peter is often misunderstood by common readers, I give the following as its true sense and meaning, by merely varying the position of the words, which in our translation adhere too closely to the order in the Greek. “ Christ put to death in the flesh, but quickened in the spirit, in which, in the days of Noah, he went and preached, while the ark was a preparing, to those, who were at that time disobedient, and who now are among the spirits in prison.”
Word of Jehovah came unto him ;” and, (in verse 7,) “ said unto him, I am Jehovah that brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees, and gave thee this land to inherit it.” Therefore it was the Word of Jehovah that led him out of Chaldea, and gave him the land of Canaan. And in Gen. xvi. 7, when Hagar fled from Sarah, “ The angel of Jehovah found her in the wilderness. And the angel of Jehovah said unto her, I will multiply thy seed. And she called the name of Jehovah that spake unto her, Thou God seest me.” This person, then, was the angel of Jehovah, and Jehovah himself.
And in Gen. xviii. 1, “ Jehovah appeared unto him in the plains of Mamre: and lo! three men stood beside him.” One of those three was Jehovah in human form; for, (verse 22,) 6 the men turned their faces from thence, and went toward Sodom ;” (two only, as appears, xix. 1;) “but Abraham stood yet before Jehovah.” And the two who went to Sodom, say, (xix. 13,) “ Jehovah has sent us to destroy it.” And when Abraham (Gen. xxii. 2) was about to offer up his son, “ the angel of Jehovah," preventing him, said, “ I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son, from me.” And the angel of Jehovah called unto Abraham out of heaven the second time, and said, “ By myself have I sworn, saith Jehovah.” But the angel of Jehovah, and Jehovah himself, were one and the same, as appears from xxiv. 7: “ Jehovah the God of heaven, which took me from my father's house, and from the land of my kindred, and which spake unto me, and that sware unto me,” &c.
And at Sinai, (Exod. xxiii. 20, &c.) the Lords says, “ Behold I send an angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared. Beware of him, and obey his voice, provoke him not, for he will not pardon your transgressions, for my name is in him :..... for mine angel shall go before you and I will cut them off. And ye shall serve Jehovah your God, and he shall bless thy bread and thy water, and I will take sickness away from the midst of thee.” This angel, therefore, having the power of pardoning sin, and the divine name being in him, must be Jehovah, as appears also from the constant interchange of person so remarkable in the above quotations. And in the remainder of this chapter, the first person is used, and God applies to himself what he had before applied to the angel. And in Exod. xxxiii. 14, he says, “ My presence shall go with thee;" that is, the cloud and the glory. And Isaiah (lxiii. 9) says, “ In all their affliction he was afflicted, and the angel of his presence saved them : in his love and in his pity he redeemed them: and he bare them, and carried them all the days of old."
From the above passages it appears that the word of Jehovah and the angel of Jehovah are the same with Jehovah himself. And it appears from other passages of scripture, that the person here spoken of, who was to lead them to the promised land, was Christ. St. Paul, speaking of the Israelites in the wilderness, (1 Cor. x. 4,) says, “ For they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them, and that Rock was Christ;" and, (verse 9,) “ Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed of serpents.” In Hebrews, (xi. 24, 26,) also, it is said, that Moses, by faith, “ refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter, esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures of Egypt.” And Stephen, (Acts vii. 38,) speaking of Moses, says, “ This is he that was in the church in the wilderness with the angel which spake to him in the Mount Sinai.” What is here said of the angel, in Exodus is said of God. It appears also from many other passages of Scripture, that the angel of Jehovah is Jehovah himself. Compare Numbers xxii. 35, with 38; Judges ii.
1; also vi. verses 11, 20, 21, 22, compared with 14, 16, 23, also xiii. 21 first verses, compared with the 22nd and 23rd.
It is time now at length to come to the question. But many of my readers will not object, previous to entering into the strife of controversy, however necessary, to have had their minds calmed by divine contemplations, calculated to show forth the glory of the Saviour, so clearly manifested in the above passages of Scripture.
WHETHER THE SABBATH WERE KNOWN BEFORE THE TIME
The first of the arguments, used to show that the sabbath was not a general commandment given to all mankind, of which I shall take notice, is, that the sabbath is never mentioned in the patriarchal ages; from whence a conclusion is drawn that the sabbath was then unknown. This is asserted by Heylyn, Bramhall, and Barrow, but not directly by the Archbishop. On the contrary, his Grace affects to think it probable that they had some sabbatical observance; but, in effect, he supports the same conclusion, by endeavouring, in unison with those others, to undermine the strongest proof of such observance; and in this case acts like a man, who might say that it was probable I had a right to a certain property, while at the same time he should endeavour to destroy the title deeds, by which I held it.
The great proof of its observance from the earliest times