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11.664 inches. He also found the foot of Cossutius to be :967 parts of the English foot, or 11.604 inches. Several other measures of the Roman foot have been obtained, varying from one another, of which that of .971 of the English foot has been generally received.

The Attic mina before Solon consisted of 72 drachmæ, or 6 in the ounce. They were possibly at that time only lamine argenti, small and long pieces of silver, which, agreeably to the original meaning of the word drachma, might be grasped in the hand. But whatever might have been the form of the Athenian money before Solon, the mina or pound of 72 drachmæ, by his celebrated Lecoé xdela, was altered to 100. In other words, Solon introduced a nominal pound instead of a real one; for the Athenian pound had no more than 84 drachmæ coined out of it for many ages afterwards.

The Romans from the beginning of their coining silver accommodated themselves to the Grecian practice; their pound of silver was made into 84 denarii, but in tale it was always 100.

It is probable that the different States of Greece had in use different weights and measures; for on the rise of the Achæan League, B.C. 280, it was agreed that the twelve associate cities should not only be governed by the same laws, but should be bound to uso the same money, weights, and measures (Polyb. 129). It is not to be expected that the weights and measures of ancient times would be made with the same exactness as in modern times, as the physical facts, by means of which extreme accuracy can be attained, wero either unknown or not taken into account.

The Roman pound of Byzantium, preserved in the British Museum, weighs 4995 grains Troy; and the pound of gold was made into 72 coins, nominally each of 69.4 grains, but really of 68 grains.

The Greek and Roman physicians above all others are likely to be the best judges of the relative proportions of the weights and measures used in their prescriptions. The Greek physicians, being in the highest repute at Rome, adopted as a weight the drachma instead of the denarius, as the latter was not long after applied to coins of a lower class, and lost its former estimate in weight. Scribonius Largus, a physician, who attended the Emperor Claudius into Britain, and recorded some circumstances in that voyage, “ Cum Britanniam peteremus cum Deo nostro Cæsare,” represents it indifferent whether prescriptions are made by the denarius or the drachma. And Galen has observed that in his time the denarius and drachma were but different names for the same weights. the rudeness and insufficiency of that foot. For besides that the length of it is somewhat too much (whatsoever Latinius, out of an observation made by Ant. Augustinus, Sighicellus, Pacatus, Maffeus, Statius, Agius, and Fulvius Ursinus, pretends to the contrary) there is never a digit that is precisely answerable to one another. Howsoever, it contains 1944 such parts as the English foot contains 2000.

“My next search was for the foot on the monument of Cossutius, in hortis Colotianis, from whence it has received its denomination (though it be now removed), being termed by writers Pes Colotianus. This foot I took with great care, as it did well deserve, being very fair and perfect; afterwards collating it with that Roman foot which Lucas Pætus caused to be engraven in the Capitol on a white marblo stone. I found them exactly to agree ; and therefore I did wonder why he should condemn this with his pen (for he makes some objections against it), which, notwithstanding, he hath erected with his hands, as appears by the inscription in the Capitol, CURANTE LU. ÞÆTO. It may be, upon second thoughts, he afterwards privately retracted his error, which he was not willing to publish to the world. Now this foot of Cossutius is 1934 such parts as the English foot containing 2000.”

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Galen discovered, by comparing the measures and the scale weights, that the horn used for measuring oil at Rome held one-sixth part less than the weight of the libra. The metrical horn was divided into twelve parts or ounces, like the libra ; and each of these divisions was commonly supposed to be equal to an ounce scale weight, and passed for such in estimation. Galen, as a physician, thought it requisite to interpose some caution; that, in prescribing oil, they ought to distinguish by what ounces they prescribed, whether the scale ounce or the metrical ounce: as the scale pound determined the weight of bodies, but the metrical only the contents, or the quantity of space they filled.

The pound of 100 denarii or 100 drachma was merely nominal, and employed for the purpose of trade. Both the denarius and the drachma, during the Consular and part of the Imperial Government, were only seven to the ounce. They began to lessen under Nero. What Pliny writes of the aurei is equally true of the silver coins, “Paullatim principes imminuere pondus." They probably did not coin 8 in the ounce till the time of Galen, about a century after Nero. A drachma has ever since been reckoned the eighth part of the ounce, and probably was so some time before. Thus the drachma reckoned at 6 to the ounce, gives 72 in the pound; at 7, gives 84; and at 8, 96 in the pound.

The congius of Vespasian supplies a method of discovering the true weight of the Roman pound. This congius was made A.D. 75, according to the standard of measure preserved in the Capitol, anů contains ten pounds, as the inscription upon it testifies: “IMP. CÆSARE VI. T. Cæs. Aug. F. IIII. Cos. MENSURÆ EXACTÆ IN CAPITOLIO. P.X.” It is commonly called the Farnese Congius, and is now preserved at Dresden. In 1824 Dr. Hase had it filled with distilled water and carefully weighed, and the weight of the water was found to be equal to 52037-69 grains Troy weight, giving 5203.769, or nearly 5204 grains to the Roman pound.

It has been remarked by Dr. Hussey (Essay on Ancient Weights) that “the ancient metallic weights in themselves are too unequal and inconsistent with each other to give any certain result.” He regards more favourably the two obtained from the excavations at Herculaneum—the only two large specimens which are perfect—one of 50 and the other of 100 Roman pounds. Of these, the former weighing 256564 grains Troy, gives a pound of 5131.28 grains; tho latter, weighing 518364 [grains, gives a pound of 5183-64 grains, which is between 20 and 21 grains less than that given by the congius of Vespasian. If the experiment with the congius had been made with water not distilled, the result would have shown a less difference. And so small a difference in the two calculations is no matter of surprise, when much greater differences are found between the old Roman weights themselves. The modern Roman pound contains 5236 grains Troy, and exceeds the old Roman pound, as given by the congius, by only 32 grains. This fact affords a strong presumption that the ancient and modern weights were identical, and that the difference is not greater than was likely to be found in the lapse of so many centuries.

The Roman pound libra, called also as, was divided into twelve equal parts, called unciæ (ounces); and for every number of ounces under 12, the Latin language has a distinct name.

The Anglo-Saxon weights and measures were established througlout the whole of England. The weight of the Saxon pound was not likely to be changed, as the same pound and the same division of the pound prevailed at that time over the greater part of Europe. This is certain of the common pound of Italy as early as A.D. 958, if not much earlier; for one of their records makes mention of an estate sold in that country for 60 pounds of 240 pennies to the pound. In the time of King Alfred the Saxon pound weight was 240 pennies, and was estimated by the mancus, making 8 to the pound, each of 30 pennies; and also by 48 shillings, each of 5 pennies.

The mancus (manu cusum) was probably derived from Italy, in the intercourse between that country and England after the friendly reception by Ethelbert of the mission of Augustine in 597. It appears the mancus was a name applied to a weight. Archbishop Ælfric, at the end of the tenth century, states that the mancus was equal to 30 pennies or 6 shillings.

It is recorded that King Edgar, 975 A.D., with the consent of his council, decreed “that one and the same money should be current throughout his dominions, which no man must refuse; and that the measure of Winchester should be the standard, and that a weigh of wool should be sold for half a pound of money, and no more.”

The Saxon coins were regulated by the pound weight brought from Germany, and afterwards known by the name of the Cologne pound weight. The precise weight of the Saxon money pound cannot be exactly ascertained from positive evidence, but there is strong presumptive evidence, first shown by Mr. Foulkes (“ Tables of Silver Coins,” p. 3, note), that it was of the same weight as that known for some centuries after the Conquest by the name of the Tower pound, and was so named from the fact of the principal mint of England being in the Tower of London. The Saxon pound was, like the Tower pound, divided into 12 ounces. If the supposition of the identity of the Saxon and Tower pound be correct, the Saxon pound contained

1 Mr. Clarke has given in his “Connection of Roman, Saxon, and English Coins," p. 24, the following weights of the ounce :

Grains, Troy. The Strasburgh ounce from standards made 1238 A.D.

The present Strasburgh ounce

The old Saxon ounce, from the Chamber of Accounts in Paris, about
the time of Edward III., after 1327, A.D.

451 76
The present Cologne ounce

451.38 The old Tower ounce, as taken from the accounts in the English Exchequer, 1527, A.D.

450.00 The small differences of these several ounces seem to suggest that all of them had the same origin. The immemorial usage of the Cologne or Strasburgh pound in Germany, and in Britain from the first arrival of the Saxons till the time of Henry VII., is evidence of its great antiquity.

Dr. Arbuthnot makes the Greek ounce to consist of 455.33 grains Troy, which is nearly identical to the present Strasburgh ounce. The Saxon writers refer the origin of their nation to the Getæ, to whom the Goths and Germans were related as kindred clans. The near agreement of the Greek ounce and the German ounce may form a ground for the presumption that the Greeks and the Germans may have descended through different branches from the same people. This presumption derives some probability from the similarity of usage in the Greek and Saxon languages of the article, the double negative, and the formation of proper names.

Ovid, in some pieces written during his exile in Pontus, noted an affinity between the Greek and and Getic tongues, and remarked that though the Getic tongue was disguised by a barbarous pronunciation, there were evident marks of its Greek original.—Ovid, Trist., v. 7, 10.


5400 grains Troy, and this weight of silver coins was a pound sterling. The pound of silver was always reckoned by account at something more than the number of pennies which were struck out of it at the mint. It was a Roman as well as a Saxon custom.! When the Romans coined 8 denarii to the ounce, and 96 to their pound of silver, they paid 100 in tale; and when the Saxons coined 4 shillings to the ounce, and 48 to their pound, they paid 50 in account. And it may be noted that the Saxon laws always reckoned their pound in the round number of 50 shillings, when it is evident they really coined out of it only 48. Mr. Foulkes's discovery of the old Tower pound being the same as the Anglo-Saxon pound of the moneyers, has made out the pound of 48 shillings.

When William the Conqueror had ratified the laws of Edward the Confessor, he decreed that the weights and measures which had been established by his predecessors should be continued in use, and ordered that the measures and weights should be true, and stamped in all parts of the kingdom. The same regulations were continued by his successors. Richard I., who ascended the throne in 1189, not only enforced an uniformity of measures, but also ordered that the vessels employed for measuring should be edged with hoops of iron, and that standards should be kept by the magistrates in the different counties and towns of the kingdom. And this uniformity of weights and measures was confirmed by the Magna Charta in 1225. The Act 5 Henry III., c. 9, ordained that “One measure of wine shall be throughout our Realm, and one measure of ale, and one measure of corn, that is to say, the quarter of London ; and one breadth of dyed cloth, that is to say, two yards within the lists. And it shall be of weights as it is of measures.” And by the statute of 51 Henry III., 1266, they were defined in the following form :-"By the consent of the whole Realm of England, the measure of our Lord the King was made ; that is to say, that an English peny, called a sterling, round and without any clipping, shall weigh 32 wheat corns in the midst of the ear,3 and 20 pennies do make an ounce, and 12 ounces one pound, and 8 pounds do make a gallon of wine, and 8 gallons of wine do make a London bushel, which is the eighth part of a quarter." The bushel here named was called the Winchester measure.

1 In the times of the later Roman emperors, there appears to have been a custom of making allowances in the payment of money by tale. This is evident from a law of the elder Valentinian, by which he enforced a law of Constantine for paying by weight; and he observes that it was usual to take two or three solidi the pound as the common allowance in tale. “ Facile enim eos provinciæ rector a dispendio vindicabit, qui binis ceu ternis solidis necessitudinem solutionis adimpleverit.” It may be added, that both during the Republic and under some of the emperors, the Romans coined 84 denarii out of a pound weight of silver, though the pound by tale was always reckoned at 100.

2 On the accession of William I. to the throne of England, the pound in tale of the silver coins current was equal to the pound weight of standard silver, that is, the moneyer's pound, afterwards called the Tower pound. The pound in tale was divided into twenty shillings, and each shilling into twelve pennies, or sterlings. The pound in weight was divided into twelve ounces, and each onnce into twenty pemyweights, so that each penny weighed one pennyweight. The only coins made at this period were pennies. This simple system of coinage, by which the pound in tale was made equal to the pound in weight, and was divided in the manner before mentioned, is supposed to have been first introduced into France towards the end of the eighth century. As the Norman princes for a long time before had considerable intercourse with England, it may have been introduced from France in the times of our AngloSaxon ancestors. This system of silver coinage continued without any alteration in the weight of the silver coins until the year 28 Edward I.

3 The grain of barley and the seed of the Abrus prccatorius were assumed by the

There is a twofold relation stated between weight and volume, for

V., p. 66.

Hindus as the primary elements of their weights. The weight of the seed of the abrus was taken equal to two barleycorns.

Mr. Thomas has shown that, from comparative numismatic data of various ages, he has found the true weight of the rati or gunja seed to be 14 grains Troy. In the sixth volume of the Royal Asiatic Society he makes the following remarks, pp. 342, 343 :-“The determination of the true weight of the rati has done much both to facilitate and give authority to the comparison of the ultimately divergent standards of the Ethnic kingdoms of India. Having discovered the guiding unit, all other calculations become simple, and present singularly convincing results, notwithstanding the basis of all these estimates rests upon so erratic a test as the growth of the seed of the gunja creeper (Abrus precatorius), under the varied incidents of soil and climate. Nevertheless this small compact grain, checked in early times by other products of nature, is seen to have had the remarkable faculty of securing a uniform average throughout the entire continent of India, which only came to be disturbed when monarchs, like Shir Shah and Akbar, in their vanity, raised the weight of the coinage without any reference to the number of ratis inherited from Hindu sources as the given standard, officially recognised in the old, but altogether disregarded and left undefined in the reformed Muhammedan mintages.”—Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. vi., p. 342. Article by Edward Thomas, F.R.S.

“The carat is a bean, the fruit of an Abyssinian tree called kuara. This bean from the time of its being gathered varies very little in its weight, and seems to have been, in the earliest ages, a weight for gold in Africa.”Bruce's Travels,

The carat has been adopted by most European nations in estimating the weight and purity of the precious metals. As used by goldsmiths the carat is a weight for gold. They divide the ounce Troy into twenty-four parts named carats, and cach carat into four grains, so that gold twenty-two carats fine means that an ounce of standard gold contains twenty-two parts pure gold and two parts alloy,

In the largest chamber of the Great Pyramid of Gizeh (Herod. ii. 124) is a rectangular vessel eut out of a single block of Theban marble or porphyry. This vessel is known by the name of the Pyramid Coffer, or the Porphyry Coffer. A singular coincidence has been found to exist between the capacity of this coffer and four quarters English measure. This sameness of volume affords a strong presumption that some relation exists between the measure of capacity of this ancient vessel and the measure of four quarters, or a chaldron. This vessel has, at different times, been carefully measured by scientific men, three of whom have reported the following dimensions :

Professor Greaves in 1638-9 visited the pyramid and very carefully took the interior dimensions of the coffer, and found them to be-Length, 77.856 inches ; breadth, 26.616 inches ; depth, 34.320 inches; giving the content 71118·4 cubic inches.

M. Jomard in 1799 reported the dimensions-Length, 77.806 inches ; breadth, 26.599 inches ; depth, 34.299 inches ; giving the content 70982-4 cubic inches.

Colonel Howard Vyse took the measures in 1837 and found them to be-Length, 78.0 inches; breadth, 26.5 inches ; depth, 34.5 inches ; giving the content 71311 cubic inches.

The English gallon contains 277.274 cubic inches, and the measure of corn called the quarter" will contain 17745.536 cubic inches, and consequently the unit measure of which this is the quarter will contain 70982.144 cubic inches. Hence it appears that four English quarters have very nearly the same volume as the pyramid coffer according to the measurement of M. Jomard. This identity of volume is surprising, and can scarcely be regarded as accidental. It may be observed that it is highly probable that the coffer of the pyramid has been in the chamber for a period above 4,000 years.

The student may read some interesting information in the following works :Pyramidographia, or a Description of the Pyramids in Egypt. By John Greaves, Professor of Astronomy in the University of Oxford. London, 1646. The Great Pyramid. Why was it built, and who built it ? By John Taylor, 1859. Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid. By Prof. C. Piazzi Smyth, F.R.S.S. L. and E., Astronomer Royal for Scotland. London, 1864.

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