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through nature to God. His lessons ascend from the Divine existence to the Divine character, and from his natural to his moral attributes,—from justice to mercy, from penitence to faith, from peace to purity, from earth to heaven. The physical philosopher cannot impart what he does not possess. His sphere is wholly confined to the works of God; he has no agents, no instruments to operate on the malignant, the mortal maladies which rage in the spirit of man! Mind and morals are the peculiar province of the missionary. But, Sir, attempts at comparison, between the missionary and the philosopher, must have an end ; for in reality there can be no more comparison between them than between the gospel and philosophy. We may contrast, but we can hardly compare them. The true philosopher is the appropriate fellow-worker of the missionary-not his rival. Their provinces, although distinct, are, nevertheless, harmonious. True philosophy is the handmaid of Christianity. Both, indeed, may unite in the same person, and, in some cases, the more they are blended, the better will it be for both. Christianity, in heathen lands, invariably opens the path of science; but in such lands science can make no way for herself, and still less can she introduce Christianity. For all that science can do, or, indeed, cares to do, the Heathen world will for ever remain as it now is. It is important to know what science has hitherto done to civilize barbarity and turn icolators to God. For what she has already done, she may probably do again. What, then, has she accomplished ? I wish that her priests and votaries would answer for themselves, they may have secrets which we know not, and which they have not told. The pursuits of the philosopher are intellectual, selfish, and solitary; those of the missionary are moral, benevolent, and social. The philosopher is the man of the few ; the missionary, of the million. It is in vain, however, that we look for achievements of this description in the multitudinous volumes of the Philo. sophical Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh, or in those of any kindred institution. Nor by me are they blamed for the deficiency. Their proper business is science, which relates to nature, not philanthropy, which relates to man. But my proposition is, that philanthropy is as much superior to science as perishable matter is inferior to immortal mind. By this principle I submit that we should estimate respectively the comparative honour, dignity, and importance of the missionary and the philosopher.”
War! that hellish demon, the scourge, the murderer of so many millions of human beings-that exciter of infernal passions—that destroyer of all happiness, and parent of unnumbered immeasurable woes. This monster of injustice, oppression, rapine, and blood, is by Dr. Campbell condemned as it deserves. In two letters, one dedicated to the Right Hon. Thomas B. Macauley, late “Minister of War,” and the other to the Duke of Wellington, -" the military and missionary characters and enterprise are compared and contrasted." The appeals of Dr. Campbell to those distinguished men are of a very high order
-the talents of both of them are duly acknowledged, and the claims of Christian missions enforced upon their attention—they are urged to give “Williams' Missionary Enterprises” an attentive reading. The last letter in the work contains an appeal “ To the Churches of Great Britain, Ireland, and America, on the past history, present position, and future prospects of the Missionary Enterprise.” This letter contains many very important suggestions, in reference to the duty of Christians to support Christian missions as to the necessity of preparing an extensive native agency ; and as to the encouragements and obligations to renewed, increasing, and persevering efforts. America
is admonished for its traffic in human beings; and slavery justly denounced as injustice, cruelty and murder!
Having thus given a brief outline of this very interesting volume, we must bring our remarks to a close. To its author we offer our thanks for the high pleasure he has afforded us; and we only wish his work to be as popular as its merits deserve. It is a work of such rare excellency, so important, so instructive, talented, eloquent, and enchanting, that it cannot fail to become popular, and to promote extensively the best interests of mankind. In a second edition, which will no doubt soon be called for, we beg to suggest the expurgation of one sentence-the following: 'He was vanity itself, and weak as woman.' We regard this as conveying unmerited reflection on the female sex : it must have dropped from the pen, without due consideration. We believe that no man is more willing than Dr. Campbell to do honour to the female sex. The Martyr of Erromanga proves its author to be a inan possessing literary talents of a very high order-his powers of perception are both minute and comprehensive-his invention fertile-his imagination rich and beautiful — his knowledge of ancient and modern literature, of men, of history, and science, is most extensive ; his powers of illustration appear to be unbounded, and his eloquence is chaste, fervid, and copious. He has given us a rich cabinet of moral pictures, in which we have pourtrayed, by a master's hand, the characters of a host of the men of renown of both ancient and modern times. It is impossible that such a work should not be extensively circulated, and become productive of much good. The cause of Christian missions must be advanced by its publication; and we most heartily recommend all our friends to obtain it, and to aid its circulation.
The DaughTERS OF ENGLAND: their Position in Society, Cha. racter and Responsibilities. By Mrs. Ellis, Author of “ The Women of England;" fc. Royal 12mo. 396 pp. Fisher, Son, and Co.
The rapidly succeeding productions of the richly gifted author of this volume, and the excellent quality of the fruits of her vigorous mind and pen, remind us of the tree of Paradise, seen by St. John“ which bare twelve manner of fruits, and yielded her fruit every month; and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations.” We very much regret, that we have not space this month to give an extended notice of the “ Daughters of England” - we must, however, state, that this volume clearly proves, that, although Mrs. Ellis has written so much, she has not lived the life of a recluse; on the contrary, she must have mingled extensively in society, and have been a keen and philosophic observer of all that has been passing around, her. She has closely studied human nature, and understands, most accurately, the workings of the human heart; and therefore is an accurate moral philosopher.
The instructions given by Mrs. Ellis are admirably adapted to the circumstances of her sex. Of all that relates to their education, character, and duty, she has vivid perceptions. The evils to which they
are most inclined and exposed, she accurately describes; and they are instructed how to avoid the evils by which others have been destroyed. It is no part of her design to deprive females of any lawful gratification; nor to require them to become secluded from society; her object is to excite them to obtain all the useful qualifications, grace, and polish, of which they are capable; that they may be happy in themselves, and in discharging the duties of life may promote to the utmost the welfare of others.
There may be some few young ladies, who may regard unfavourably the advice of Mrs. Ellis — but they must be those who have either very little sense, or are strongly addicted to some of the foolish and evil practices which she so justly condemns. No serious and sensible man would be willing to have for his wife a woman, even of wealth and personal endowments, who would refuse to govern herself by such suggestions and maxims as are contained in « The Daughters of England.” We strongly recommend this work to all our female friends ; the best interests of society require its extensive circulation ; those who present it to a daughter, a sister, or female friend, will bestow an appropriate and valuable token of regard.
The Touchstone, or, the Claims and Privileges of TRUE Religion, briefly considered. By MRS. ANNE GRANT. 18mo. 184 pp. NISBET AND Co.
A well written book, containing nine Essays on the most important topics. It is designed to arrest the attention of persons who are living regardless of the high claims of God their maker. The nature of true religion is accurately described, and its importance and privileges are impressively set forth. Those who wish to put into the hand of an ungodly acquaintance a small book, calculated to excite attention, will find it suitable for the purpose. It may bé read with profit by all.
Fox's Book of MARTYRS. Edited by the Rev. J. CUMMING, M. A. Part XI. Royal 8vo. 96 pp. GEORGE VIRTUE.
Beautifully printed and illustrated. A well executed engraving of the ancient city of Geneva is given with this Part.
THE SCENERY AND ANTIQUITIES OF IRELAND Illustrated : from Drawings made expressly for this Work. Part XII. Royol Quarto. G. VIRTUE.
From exquisite engravings :—the “ Remains of Kilcoman Castle; Lismore Castle, County Waterford; Scene at Gongane Barra ;” and the “ Gap of Dunloe."
CANADIAN SCENERY ILLUSTRATED : from Drawings by W. H. BARTLETT. Part XXIII. Royal 4to. G. VIRTUE.
The views given in this Part are truly illustrative of the peculiarities of the country : we have “ A Forest Scene; a Settler's Hut on the frontier ; Scene in the Bay of Quinte,” and “ View on the frontier line, near Stanstead Plains.” Four beautiful engravings.
Royal BAPTISM. 12mo. 24 pp. HouLSTON AND STONEMAN.
A tract pointing out objectionable passages in the Church of England's baptismal service.
AN ESSAY ON FAITH.
The term Faith is a most important article, in Christianity. “ Without faith, it is impossible to please God. He that believeth, shall be saved; he that believeth not shall be damned." Mark xvi. 16. As a principle, in human nature, faith is to the soul, in discovering truth, by means of credible testimony, what the eye is to the body, in discovering objects, by means of light. The visible glory of the material creation, would be useless to man, if he had not eyes to behold it; and the truths of history, and of revelation, would be of no benefit to us, if we were destitute of faith to believe them. As the mind gives the fullest credit to the testimony of our senses, when the objects are distinctly perceived; so we also give implicit credit to the testimony of credible witnesses, when they are sufficiently informed.
To have faith in any person, means to place implicit confidence in his integrity. To believe the testimony of another, implies a full persuasion, that he had a perfect knowledge of the subject, and would not deceive us.
In order to understand this article, it will be useful to distinguish knowledge from belief. Knowledge is founded on the evidence of our senses, and belief on that of testimony. A man may be said to know, but not to believe, what he clearly sees, and distinctly hears : this may be called sensitive knowledge. The assent of the mind to self-evident truths, and to clear deductions from them, is rational knowledge, but not faith. The witnesses, who saw Lazuras come forth from the grave, knew the fact, from the testimony of their senses ; but could not be said to believe his resurrection. The resurrection of Jesus Christ was a subject of knowledge, and not of faith, to the disciples, who saw and conversed with him, after he returned from the grave. To us it is an article of belief, founded on the credibility of their testimony.
The first thing to be decided, respecting the Scriptures, is, not whether we believe them to be the word of God; but whether we have sufficient reason to be satisfied, that they contain an undulterated revelation from the Lord. To understand the evidences, that the sacred writings contain a revelation from God, is rational knowledge, and the foundation of belief. This knowledge may be attained, by any person, in the same manner that we obtain certainty concerning the truth of historical records; and on the clearness and certainty of this knowledge, respecting the evidences, depends the stability of a Christian's faith. When the judgment decides, upon the most undoubted evidence, concerning the truth of any doctrine, then we believe that article. If the judgment be convinced, by a clear proof, that there is a God, we then believe, in his nature and attributes; and if the mind be certified, that the Scriptures contain a divine revelation, then we believe the doctrines which they record.
This assent of the mind, which is properly an act of the understanding, must be followed with the consent of the will, or heart, in order to complete the nature of evangelical belief. “And Philip said, if thou believest, with all thine heart, thou mayest be baptized. If thou shalt confess, with thy mouth, the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart, that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness, and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation.”
This consent of the heart is founded, on a clear knowledge of the intrinsic excellence of the doctrines, and their great importance to us. The irresistible evidence of truth may compel the assent of the understanding, to articles from which the heart revolts. When man becomes the slave of vice, the will refuses to consent to the doctrine of holiness; a great degree of moral depravity will even blind the mind, so as to prevent the judgment from being convinced, by the clearest evidence of the truth. The depraved Jews were not convinced of the Saviour's divine mission, by the ocular evidence of unquestionable miracles. In like manner, the Papists resists the clearest evidence of their senses, against the doctrine of transubstantiation. This depravity of heart and life, which withholds, not only the consent of the will, but also the assent of the understanding, from truths which are established, by the clearest evidences, is described by the Saviour, in Matt. xiii. 15. “ This people's heart is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed ; lest, at any time, they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and should understand with their hearts, and should be converted, and I should heal them.”
Those who imagine, that spiritual death means a state of total incapacity for spiritual actions, as natural death is for natural actions, also maintain, that no man can believe, until a miraculous exertion of divine power create, in him, an entire new nature. I shall insert this opinion, as stated in Brown's Dictionary of the Bible. “ It is above the power of nature, for a condemned sinner, to conceive and believe; that the righteous and holy God can justify the ungodly, consistently with his own divine attributes. To illustrate the teaching of the Holy Ghost, by what a natural man may comprehend. Suppose that a man should be born blind, and continue so forty years, he could not understand colours, till his eyes be miraculously opened. So the Holy Ghost opens the eyes of the understanding to see the truth, and by his almighty power, he fully satisfies the mind and conscience; demonstrating it to be the truth, the glorious gospel of the blessed God."
When truth and error are artfully blended together, as, in this opinion, it is very difficult to separate them. In order to acquire an accurate knowledge of this important subject, it may be useful to consider the condition of men, in a state of innocence. All that hath been said, concerning the supernatural operations of the Spirit, on the souls of those who believe, is literally applicable to the formation of Adam's mind, when he was created. “And God said, let us make man in our own image, after our likeness; so God created man in his own image." As an essential part of his moral character, there was implanted, in Adam's soul, a principle of faith; which determined him implicitly to believe every thing, that God was pleased to reveal, and cheerfully to obey, whatever he should command. As the same member performs different operations ; so the same principle in Adam, which determined him to believe the word of his God, also led him to believe the credible testimony of another. This talent was not totally lost by the fall, but is transmitted to his offspring, as a law of our nature: hence the simplicity, with which children believe the declaration of their parents and teachers.
When the Spirit is said to open the understanding of a sinner, by a miraculous operation of his divine power; is there any new faculty created in his soul ? or is any new revelation made to his mind ? “ By no means.” If, then, no new faculty be created, and no miraculous revelation, be granted,
where is our authority, for asserting, that such extraordinary and miraculous operations are performed at conversion ?
Many erroneous notions are introduced into religion, by a gross abuse of terms. What is it that constitutes any operation miraculous ? The question is of great importance, in theology. Divine wisdom hath subjected the material world to general laws, which uniformly operate ; and so far as they are known, we can employ their powers to promote our temporal interests. The operations, in the spiritual world, are also carried on, by general laws; and so far as they are known, we can also employ them, in promoting our spiritual interests.
By experience, we acquire the knowledge of the laws of nature, and by revelation, the laws of grace. In both these subjects, the operating princi. ples are regular, and efficacious. The influences of the Spirit are no more