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conducting schools, in which work they intend to engage. We hope and pray that the blessing of Jehovah may accompany the Missionary family, and that they may be honoured with a most glorious ingathering of souls to Christ—that " the wilderness and the solitary place may be glad for them."

It is most important, to be able to put the Scriptures into the hands of the natives, that they may read for themselves the wonderful things of God: this is finely illustrated by a narration given by Mr. Moffatt. He says:—

"The vast importance of having the Scriptures in the language of the natives, will be seen when we look on the scattered towns and hamlets which stud the interior, over which our language, with slight variations, is spoken, as far as the Equator. When taught to read, they have in their hands the means not only of recovering them from their natural darkness, but of keeping the lamp of life burning ever amidst comparatively desert gloom. In one of my early journeys with some of my companions, we came to a heathen village on the banks of the Orange River, between Namaqualand and the Griqua country. We had travelled far, and were hungry, thirsty, and fatigued. From the fear of being exposed to lions, we preferred remaining at the village to proceeding during the night. The people at the village rather roughly directed us to halt at a distance. We asked water, but they would not supply it: I offered the three or four buttons which still remained on my jacket for a little milk; this was also refused. We had the prospect of another hungry night at a distance from water, though within sight of the river. We found it difficult to reconcile ourselves to our lot, for in addition to repeated rebuffs, the manner of the villagers excited suspicion. When twilight drew on, a woman approached from the height beyond which the village lay. She bore on her head a bundle of wood, and had a vessel of milk in her hand. The latter, without opening her lips she handed to us, laid down the wood, and returned to the village. A second time she approached with a cooking vessel on her head, and a Teg of mutton in one hand, and water in the other. She sat down without saying a word, prepared the fire, and put on the meat. We asked her again and again who she was. She remained silent till affectionately entreated to give us a reason for such unlooked for kindness to strangers. The solitary tear stole down her sable cheek, when she replied, "I love Him whose servants you are, and surely it is my duty to give you a cup of cold water in His name. My heart is full, therefore 1 cannot speak the joy I feel to see you in this out-of-the-world place." On learning a little of her history, and that she was a solitary light burning in a dark place, I asked her how she kept up the life of God in her soul in the entire absence of the communion of saints. She drew from her bosom a copy of the Dutch New Testament which she had received from Mr. Helm, when in his school some years previous, before she had been compelled by her connexions to retire to her present seclusion. "This," she said, "is the fountain whence I drink; this is the oil which makes my lamp burn." I looked on the precious relic printed by the British and Foreign Bible Society, and the reader may conceive how 1 felt, and my believing companions with me, when we met with this disciple, and mingled our sympathies and prayers together at the throne of our heavenly Father. Glory To God In The Highest, And Feace On Earth, Good

WILL TO MEN!"

Our limits forbid our giving other extracts from this highly interesting volume. We are, however, constrained to say, that it is a valuable production, containing a mass of information, highly instructive to those who seek an acquaintance with the social, moral, mental, or spiritual state of mankind; its graphic details will be read with intense interest by those who feel concerned in the welfare of man, either in reference to time or to eternity.

ALFRED; or Memorials of a Beloved Child. ,'Kmn. 32 p.p. Hoelston Amd Stoneman.

A very interesting account of a pious child, who died rejoicing in Christ his Saviour, when little more than nine years of age.

EARLY PIETY: Exemplified in the Life and Death of Rebecca Shaddock. By the Rev. John Parrott. 18mo. 36 pp. T. Paton, Edinburgh.

The subject of this excellent piece of biography was a very interesting young woman of superior piety. It is very well written, and will, we doubt not, be the means of doing much good.

EDUCATIONAL OPINIONS.

At no former period did the subject of youthful education command such general and deserved attention. It is easily seen that most men live and die in the opinions in which they have been educated; few have leisure, and still fewer the inclination for the investigation of truth.

The original bias which the mind receives from its early associations, habits, and prejudices, influences the formation of the character, and generally continues to direct the decisions of the man.

This fact lends deep interest to all schemes and systems for the education of the youthful mind. It is evident that the nature of those schemes and systems will be materially influenced by the views which their advocates may entertain of the position of man as a moral being. Hence, the necessity of all who as Christians know the high destiny of man, and gather from revelation their more impressive views of the importance of the character he may sustain here in reference to the future; of their making themselves intimately conversant with the efforts, and opinions of those, whose views may be diametrically opposed to their own. If we are connected with a sect, we are liable to contract the habit of confining our information to the operation of our own party, until we are apt to suppose that no one is doing anything but ourselves. We may be ignorant of the views of other churches; of the opinions of philosophy; of the silent, unobtrusive, yet mighty efforts making in the world, the results of which do not immediately pass under our observation.

Thus in the vast diversity of opinion, there are few tilings in the world more astonishing to the contemplative mind. In religion, in morals, in politics, on all questions which do not admit of mathematical demonstrations; we see the most antagonist principles advocated with all the vehemence of apparent conviction. We see statesmen distinguished for their consummate ability and intimate acquaintance with things, bend all their energy in support of the most opposing views of domestic or foreign policy. It is thus with education, as it connects itself with the morality of society. In our own country there are those who hope to find in some change of its political constitutions the sure remedy for the vicious propensities, which are the curse of human existence.

From across the western waves, we hear the great Dr. Channing warning his countrymen against the folly of supposing that any political institution can ensure the extirpation of the vice, and ignorance, which reigns dominant in themselves, and therefore can only be destroyed by themselves.

Miss Sedgewick, an American lady of literary celebrity, who has recently visited this country, relates that when resident in London, she was one morning visited by two gentlemen, whose respective notions forcibly illustrate our remark. The first gentleman laboured hard to persuade her that to effect a reformation of society, nothing was so essential as the adoption of the doctrines of the science of phrenology, as the basis of the educational policy, and legislation of the country. Shortly after he was gone, she was visited by another person, who was equally sanguine of the superiority of a system of education, which, devoid of religion, was to create a new world of harmony and dignified virtue!

The pretensions of the former science are truly extraordinary. It is set forth as the only true theory of human nature; and it is therefore confidently asserted, that every scheme for the education, and civilization of man, which is not founded on the application of its principles, must prove a failure. Its advocates, discourse eloquently of the gradual advancement of man through the progressive stages of animal existence. They trace his history from the period when, myriads of ages ago, he lived as a mere animalcules, up to the time when he attained the dignity of the monkey! And then, during the further revelation of ages, how he slowly advanced, in physical, mental, and social development, until he arrived at his present superiority over the rest of the animal world.

It is gratifying to know that experience has amply disproved the hasty conclusions of these philosophers, respecting the natural inferiority of certain races of men, and their consequent incapability, of receiving, and enjoying the blessings of education, and religion. Those who are conversant with the recent history, and present condition of the Cape of Good Hope colony, will understand the vast improvement of the Hottentot, under their renovating influences; and there can be no reasonable doubt, that when those resuscitating blessings are brought to bear upon the benighted Australasian, Feegian, and other savages, the Christian world will witness in them a similar improvement.

Public sentiment on education has undergone an entire revolution. The progress of information is no longer regarded as the prelude to anarchy and confusion. The retrospect of the views of even the wise and learned of our ancestors excites a feeling of surprise, or a smile of ridicule. During the troubles of the seventeenth century, Sir William Berkeley, the royalist governor of Virginia, in one of his reports on the state of- that colony, devoutly thanks God that Free Schools and Printing were not likely to be established there, these five hundred years. How different the language of modern statesmen! The conduct of Prussia is a striking example of an enlightened government interesting itself in the education of its people; and what a forcible illustration of Dr. Channing's remark, does the educational legislation of this monarchy present, when contrasted with that of one of the democratic states of America, which has recently forbidden, under penalty of death, the instruction of a certain class of its population! It may be a matter of opinion, to what extent a government can go in rendering education compulsory; but there is no question, that at least to facilitate, and promote the diffusion of knowledge, is of importance to every state, inasmuch as it will be the surest guarantee for the stability and continued prosperity of its institutions.

Ignorance is the great foe of social order and domestic happiness. It is alike the bane and curse of every community. The fountain of innumerable evils, its wide spread ramifications entwine themselves around the heart, crush, in their first budding, the more generous sensibilities of our nature, and render us insensible to the voice of reason, of conscience, and of God.

It is, however, the great mistake of the irreligious to suppose that education, alone, and unassisted, can reform the morals of the world. On the contrary, the mere diffusion of knowledge cannot accomplish those objects which it is the special design of the gospel to effect. There is no necessary connexion between knowledge and morality. We see nations in the foremost rank of refined civilization, eminent for the cultivation of science, literature, and art, whose morals are utterly debased and corrupted. We see individuals of polished intellects, celebrated for their attainments in every department of human learning, who, in their intercourse with their fellow men, are regardless of the restraints of virtue and of piety. The faculties of the mind are trained to themost vigorous efficiency. Its store houses are filled with every variety of knowledge; whilst the propensities and affections of the heart are left undisciplined, and depraved. The cultivation of the dispositions of love, of mercy, of justice; those elements which constitute the moral character, obtain no place in their education.

Experience demonstrates, that knowledge unrestrained, and unsanctified by religious principles, becomes dangerous to society. The tendency of the mind is to action, and the character of its actions will flow from its morality. Superiority in knowledge, as it gives superiority in power, involves increased responsibility. And "how has this superiority been employed by those nations which we term civilized and Christian? Have they always made it the medium by which to diffuse the blessings of freedom and religion throughout the world? Alas! there is no page in history, which records so dark a tale as that which tells of the conduct of civilized nations towards barbarians. The cries of their victims are registered in heaven. The enterprise of Europe has disgorged itself on the vast continents of America,—along the shores of Africa,—in the East,—and in the far South; its concentrated energy, and unprincipled skill, have almost annihilated their aboriginal inhabitants. Like the simoom of the desert, in its withering and blasting effect, the breath of the white man has swept over, and laid prostrate, both man and beast. Where is the man, who regards man as a moral, and accountable being, whose breast does not heave with a mighty revulsion of feeling, as he reviews, in all its tremendous consequences to mankind, in time, and in eternity, the wickedness of Christian nations? That widely extended commercial intercourse, which might have been rendered eminently subservient to the spread of knowledge, and of christian truth, has rather served to extend and perpetuate vice, in its worst, and most criminal features. Those who ought to have been the messengers of peace, the harbingers of mercy, have proved the messengers of blood; the harbingers of misery, disease, and death.

From the misery of man are to be drawn the motives which ought to stimulate the Christian mind to action. Here are incentives which have kindled the flame of benevolent enterprise in the hearts of the wise and good, whose bones now slumber in the tomb. And here are the considerations, which must nerve our souls in bold contempt of danger, and of toil, in undying sympathy, and unbending effort, to give the rising generation and the world, those precious truths, which only can raise it to the enjoyment of a blissful immortality. What efforts have already been made in this cause, What sacrifices! the press,—the pulpit,—all the machinery of the Christian churches. And the results: What are they? As nothing compared with the necessities of the case. The serried ranks of our enemies still close us in on every hand. The powers of darkness, of ignorance, of prejudice, of Sin, are leagued in hostile array. Their dense phalanx must be penetrated; there must be an unconditional surrender, and submission to the authority of Jesus. We cannot compromise the interests of truth. We must conquer. Like the Red Indian of the American forest, we will seize the fire-brand of war, we will rush to the huts, to the entrenchments of our enemies,—we will kindle a blaze which shall consume the last vestige of their iniquity; but unlike that Indian, in their extremity,—we will grasp them by the hand,— drag them from amidst the burning embers,—enfold them to our bosoms, and

SAVE THEM AS IT WERE BY FIRE.

J. J.

282

ON AN EFFICIENT ITINERANT MINISTRY.

To The EditobSib,

I Know of no subject more absorbing in interest, or in which the prosperity of a religious community is more deeply involved, than the character of its ministry. To us, as an Association of Christian Churches, who have a common right in the Itinerancy, and who must consequently all be affected by the moral and mental capacity of such a ministry, this question does confessedly stand out in prominence beyond that of every other of a Connexional nature, and claims our first, and undivided attention.

The writer, who for several years past, has felt the pressure of this subject upon his own mind, has, from the commencement of the Association, seen much cause of grateful acknowledgment to the Great Head of the church, for having raised up and opened the way, to the Itinerancy among us, of so many men of genuine piety who, in the faithful exercise of their ministry have diffused a savour of godliness among the people, and greatly promoted their spirituality. And indeed, such is the high estimation in which "genuine piety," that indispensable prerequisite to the success of a Christian minister, is held throughout every part of our Connexion, that one cannot help cherishing a hope, with the ardour of settled belief, that the time will not soon, if ever, arrive, when the most splendid talents, or any mere adornment, will be accepted, or even tolerated, as a substitute for sterling personal religion, in the occupants of our pulpits.

And it should not be forgotten, that if our Churches are true to themselves and to the cause of God, the accomplishment of such an object will be much less difficult, than what perhaps at first sight may appear. Our "pastors and teachers" are chosen from, and by, the respective churches, after sufficient opportunity has been afforded of judging of the purity of their lives, and their uprightness of conversation among us. In the exercise of the ministry, when called to that office, the principles of our Connexion necessarily lead them to identify themselves as brethren with the members of the church, over which "the Holy Ghost hath made them overseers;" not "lording it over God's heritage," or assuming an authority which is as incompatible with the true interests of the church, and contrary to the maxims of its infallible "Head," as it is opposed to the spread of true, and Scriptural holiness. The whole spirit and tendency of the system,— seeing that as a body we exist for religious purposes only,—it is not too much to assert, is to promote the growth and increase of spirituality among both ministers and people, mutually rejoicing in a common salvation: and thousands of hearts will I am sure respond to the fervent prayer now aspirated to "the throne of the heavenly grace," that, amidst all the mutations to which human institutions are liable, none may ever arise to the Association which shall in any wise change its essentially religious and spiritual character, either in reference to ministers or people; but that truth in doctrine, and holiness in practice, may be illustrative of its genius as a system, and of its true nature as a union of Christian Churches; and that it may be owned and blest as a fitting instrumentality, in the salvation of souls to the end of time 1

But whilst the spiritual nature of the Christian ministry must ever be insisted upon as its primary, and most essential element, it must not be concealed that other qualifications also are indispensable to the exercise of the functions of the sacred office. If the science of religion is to be taught, and the plan of salvation explained: if sinners are to be warned of their danger; transgression and guilt brought home to the conscience, and the way to the Saviour clearly pointed out: if believers are to be taught the

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