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I am notbing (k);” and to the Ephesians he says, “ By grace are ye saved through Faith (1):" in the former passage, Faith is declared to be an use, less qualification; in the latter, nothing less than the power of attaining eternal Salvation is ascribed to it through the grace of God. An useless Faith, and a saving Faith, cannot be the same; and consequently the word is used by this inspired writer in different senses. The Faith, which a man may possess, and yet be " nothing,” is a bare belief of the truth of the Gospel, without any love or gratitude to God for the blessings it conyeys, or any practical regard to the duties it enjoins. The Faith, which is the means of Salya, ţion, is that belief of the truth of the Gospel, which produces obedience to its precepts, and is accom, panied by a firm reliance upon the merits of Christ. That there is a species of Faith which is of no value, we learn also from St. James, “Faith, if it hath not works, is dead, being alone (m):” and the same conclusion may be drawn from St, Peter's exhortation to his converts, to “ add to
their . (k) 1 Cor, c. 13. v. 2. (1) Eph. ç. 2, v. 8.
(m) Ch. 2. v, 17. that no human being was ever born into the world, and arrived at the age when he had the full use of his reason, who had it not in his power to please God, Calyin acknowledges that the word Faith is used in Scripture ir various senses. Lib. 3. cap. 2. sect. 13.
their Faith, virtue, temperance, and charity," and from his declaration, that “ he that lacketh these things is blind, and hath forgotten that he was purged from his old sins (ni).”
Our 12th Article speaks of a “ true and lively Faith," which epithets imply that there is a Faith which is not true and lively; and our Homilies are very full in their discrimination between these two sorts of Faith. It will be sufficient to quote the following' passage: “It is diligently to be noted, that Faith is taken in the Scripture two manner of ways. There is one Faith which in Scripture is called a dead Faith, which bringeth forth no Good Works; but is idle, barren, and unfruitful... And this Faith is a persuasion and belief in man's heart, whereby he knoweth that there is a God, and agreeth unto all truths of God's most holy word contained in the Holy Scripture, so that it consisteth only in believing in the word of God, that it is true... This dead Faith therefore is not that sure and substantial Faith, which saveth sinners. Another Faith there is in Scripture, which is not, as the foresaid Faith, idle, unfruitful, and dead, but worketh by charity (as St. Paul declareth ch. 5. Gal.) (0), which, as
.(n) 2 Pet. c. 1. v. 5, &c. ;
.ro) “ Faith which worketh by love,” v. 6. The words Charity and Love were formerly used in the same sense.
the other vain Faith is called a dead Faith, so may this be called a quick or lively Faith. And this is not only the common belief of the Articles of our Faith, but it is also a true trust and confidence of the mercy of God through our Lord Jesus Christ, and a steadfast hope of all good things to be re: ceived at God's hand... And this Faith is not with: out the love of God and of our neighbours, nor without the fear of God, nor without the desire to hear God's' word, and to follow the same in eschewing evil and doing gladly all Good Works (p).”
By attending to this limited sense of the word Justification, and to the two-fold meaning of the word Faith, when applied to Christians, we shall be able to understand and reconcile all the passages, both in Scripture and in our Public Formularies, in which these words occur.
It has been already intimated, that the subject of Justification is mentioned in several of the Apostolical Epistles, but it is discussed at the greatest
length (P) Homily, “ Of the true and lively Faith.” Fides illa, cui tot et tanta tribuuntur in Novo Testamento, pro unica ac simplici virtute nequaquam sumenda est. Suo cnim ambitu omnia Christianæ pietatis opera comprehendit. Ubicunque autem accipitur ut opus per se distinctum, atque ab aliis omnibus virtutibus disjunctum, tantum abest ut ei primas tribuat Spiritus Sanctus, ut post charitatem fere tertio loco ab ipso Paulo collocetur. 1 Cor. c. 13. Bull Harm. Apost. p. 11.
length in the Epistle to the Romans. St. Paul, after shewing that all mankind, both Jews and Gentiles, were equally under sin, and liable to condemnation and punishment by thạt God whose laws they have violated, declares, “Now the right, eousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets, even the righteousness of God, which is by Faith of Jesus Christ unto ail, and upon all them that believe ; for there is no difference: for all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God; being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through Faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past through the for, hearance of God; to declare, I say, at this time, his righteousness: that he might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus. Where is boasting then? It is excluded. By what law? Of works Nay: but by the law of Faith, Therefore we conclude, that a man is justified by Faith withoạt the deeds of the law (9).” The general doctrine of Justification thus stated, may be resolved into these three parts: First, The meritorious cause on account of which we are iustified: Secondly, The condition to be performed
. by (9) Rom. c. 3. v. 21–28.
by ourselves, to render that cause efficacious: and,
Thirdly, the motive which led to the appointment of this mode of Justification. First, God is said to have set forth Christ to be our propitiation to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins.” Christ is our propitiation, that is, the atonement made by his death is the meritorious cause of the remission of our sins, or of our Justification. The characteristic blessing of the Christian Religion is, that it provides a satisfaction for sin ; to this inestimable benefit it has an exclusive claim ; " By Him all that believe are justified from all things, from which they could not be justified by the law of Moses (r),” or by any previous dispen,
sation. .(r) The Apostle (St. Paul) in this discourse, says Dr. Barrow, implies that no precedent dispensation had exhibited any manifest overture or promise of par, don, and upon that account we are in a main point de fective ; for the light of nature doth only direct to duty, condemning every man in his own judgment and conscience, who transgresseth : but as to pardon, in case of transgression, it is blind and silent; and the Law of Moses rigorously exacteth punctual obedience, denouncing in express terms a condemnation and curse to the transgressors of it in any part; and sp it was a law o deráuevos SWOm ossbohnot able to give life, Gal. c. 3, V. 81, or save us from death, Hence doth the Apostle lay down this as the foundation of this whole dispute, that the Gospel alone was the power of God through Faith to the salvation both of Jew and Gentile, Rom.
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