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cause. My friend, let us follow his example. Let us persevere in supporting this good cause. Let us act with zeal, not rashness. Let no attachment to persons, parties, or factions, lead us from the path of duty ; but let us be calm, firm, steady, and unwearied in our endeavors to serve our country. In this way Heaven will smile upon our exertions, and I doubt not the good Lord will send us glorious deliverance.

I congratulate you upon your late promotion as Speaker. [When] my friend is honored and meets with the approbation of his countrymen, I partake of the pleasure, and am always highly gratified.

I conclude, dear Sir, with the greatest esteem and [ ] your friend and servant,

THOMAS CUSHING,

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QUERIES OF GEORGE CHALMERS,

ITH THE ANSWERS OF GENERAL GAGE, IN RELATION TO BRAD-
DOCK'S EXPEDITION - THE STAMP ACT - AND GAGE'S ADMINISTRA-
TION OF THE GOVERNMENT OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY.

These papers are copied from a folio volume of manuscripts, lettered " Papers lating to Canada,” in the Collection of Thomas Aspinwall, one of the Publishg Committee of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 1857.

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Mr. Chalmers begs leave to submit the following memo-
nda to General Gage; and desires the favor of such
formation, either verbal or written, as may be in the
ower or inclination, of the General to give.

1st Query. What was the true military cause of General
raddock's disaster ?
2d Q'y. What were the genuine reasons of the military
ilures, or want of success, during the early campaigns of
e war of 1755 ? Is Major Mant's, or any other printed
count of the military transactions, during those cam-
igns, so exact and faithful, as to merit attentive perusal?
3d Q’y. What was the military establishment of the
merican army, after the peace of 1763 ?

of 1763 ? How many oops were there in the Continental Colonies, during the camp Act disturbances ?

4th Qy. What was the true object of General Mackay's
sit to Boston, about the year 1768 or '69; and what suc-
ss attended his intrigues ?
5th Q’y. Was not General Gage averse to returning to
merica in 1773-4; and did he not, for some time, decline
accept of the commission of Governor of Massachusetts,
nowing, as he did, the true state of affairs, and foreseeing
e consequences ?

6th Qy. When he did, at

When he did, at length, accept, by the interposition of the King, were not his hands tied, by instructions, from executing any measure, that might be deemed a measure of irritation ?

7th Qy. Did not the General inform Lord Dartmouth. in 1774, that he must consider the Revolt as universal ; tha:

number of troops would be necessary; and was not a copy of this letter sent back to the Faction at Boston?

8th Qy. Did not the General know that the Secretary of State carried on a secret correspondence with Cushing

, during the year 1774 ?

9th Q’y. Was it not apparent to the General, that the people of the Colonies were instigated by certain persons in Britain ; and were not the letters of such persons found in Cushing's house? What were the dates and contents of such letters ?

10th Q’y. What evidence was there of the design of the malcontents to surprise Boston, with a view to massacre the troops ? What number of forces were there at Boston. in April, 1775 ?

As Mr. Chalmers writes chiefly from written document: he will be much obliged to the General, for the perusal of any copies of despatches, or any written memorials, wit regard to the beforementioned interesting affairs; and the General may rely on his discretion.

ANSWERS TO THE QUERIES. 1st and 2d Queries. The cause of General Braddock's disaster, is to be attributed, first, to the Province's dise? pointing him in the carriages and provisions, they engage. to furnish by a stated time; by which he was detaine several weeks, when otherwise ready to proceed; plan he had concerted with the Governors, to marc with expedition to Fort Duquesne, before the enemis reinforcements could arrive, was, by that means, preventer

and the

secondly to his being defeated near the Monongahela, the cause of which was his own inexperience, and that of his troops, of the kind of country in which the war was carried on, and of the enemy he was to engage, whose manner of fighting was new to Europeans, though adapted to their circumstances and the nature of the country, in which heavy fires from close and compact bodies would not prevail.

Two expeditions had been concerted in 1755 ; one to remove the French from the Ohio, abovementioned; the other, under Mr. Shirley, Governor of Massachusetts Bay, had for object, the securing the pass into the British Provinces, by Oswego, and to remove the French from Niagara and Fort Frontenac, on the West and East sides of Lake Ontario. Two new raised regiments, with Provincial troops of New England, New York and Jersey, were appointed for this service; and so much time was lost, through delays, mistakes, &c., in setting forward these troops, that the enemy had full time to reinforce and secure their posts, and Braddock was defeated, before they got to their rendezvous. General Shirley raised some works at Oswego, left troops to defend them, and returned with the rest. Having never read Major Mant's or other printed accounts, can only judge, from the reports of some people of knowledge, who have examined them, that they do not merit an attentive perusal, being compiled chiefly from relations found in newspapers and the public orders, and destitute of the knowledge of the true causes of events.

It may not be improper here to notice the origin of the hostilities commenced in 1755. The Indian tribes had long complained of encroachments upon their lands, without getting more satisfaction, than fair words and empty promises. Instead of doing them justice, a society called the Ohio Company, was formed, whose object was to obtain large districts of country upon or near the Ohio, for its members; and it was so openly avowed, that the Indians became acquainted with the design. They remonstrated against the injustice of it, and at length, tired out, told the English they were an infatuated people, deserted them, and applied to the French for protection. Their entreaties first brought the French upon the Ohio, 4TH S.-VOL. IV.

47

who declared they came there only as friends and allies to the Indians, and to protect their property. Alarmed at the proximity of the French, the Provinces clamoured, the Governors applied for assistance, and troops were unfortunately sent to America.

From the above, it may be seen that the primary causes of the war of 1755, which extended itself over the four parts of the world, are to be traced to the banks of the Ohio; and that Britain was then, as she always has been, duped by her Colonies.

3d Qy. The military establishment of the American army, after the peace of 1763, consisted of fifteen regiments, reduced to low numbers, which were dispersed through Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, Canada, Illinois country, East and West Florida, the Indian ports, &c. &c.; all of them some hundreds of miles distant from the old Colonies. This was their situation, at the time of the Stamp Act; when no Governor would ask, it might be said dared to ask, for the aid of troops, nor any Council advise it.

4th Q’y. A vessel having been seized by the officers of the customs at Boston, the people rose and forced the Commissioners of the customs to fly to Castle William, then garrisoned by a Provincial company of soldiers, and committed other outrages. This was the cause of sending out General Mackay, with two regiments, and supposed to have been done to show a resolution in Goverment to protect the crown officers. No success attended the measure. The Council petitioned the Governor, and also the commander in chief, to remove the troops from the town; the Justices, in a body, refused to quarter them, and they were lodged in hired buildings.

Broils soon

commenced between the townsmen, ready to insult the military, and the soldiers, as ready to chastise an insult. General Mackay returned, quarrels increased, and at length the leaders of the mob raised a general riot. Every straggling soldier, and some sentinels on duty, were beat, and the guards threatened and pelted. The troops got under arms, the conflict grew warmer, and a few soldiers fired, killed or wounded six or seven rioters, for which Captain Preston was imprisoned and tried. The Town and Province insisted, that the troops should be removed. The Governor could neither

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