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David boasteth of divine mercy.
PSALMS. He glorieth in the salvation of God.
3 Consider and hear me, O Lord are all together become + filthy: there + Heb.
| 4 Have all the workers of iniquity
feared a sear. my heart shall rejoice in thy salva- for God is in the generation of the
7+ Oh that the salvation of Israel + Heb. Who 1 David describeth the corruption of a natural wer
were come out of Zion! when the &c.
Israel shall be glad.
TA Psalm of David. corrupt, they have done abominable T ORD, a who shall + abide in thy a Ps. 24. 3, works, there is none that doeth good. I tabernacle ? who shall dwell in 4 Heb.
2 The Lord looked down from thy holy hill?
Ver. 2. - shall I take counsel in my soul,7 That is, protect them; which fear, he observes, was groundless, Shall I be perplexed in my soul, not knowing which because his cause was the cause of God, who would not way to turn? Bp. Horne.
fail to appear in its support and vindication. Bp. Horne. 3. — lighten mine eyes, &c.] Give me wisdom to find 6. Ye have shamed the counsel of the poor,] Laughed out proper measures for my safety, and cheer my at his dependence upon God. Bp. Wilson. spirits; lest I die with grief, or my enemy destroy me. 7. Oh that the salvation &c.] This pious wish is utDr. Wells.
tered by David, that it would please God, who dwelleth 4. — when I am moved.] Or overcome by them. Dr. in Zion, “ between the cherubims," Ps. lxxx. 1, to send Wells.
from thence, as from His throne, deliverance to His It is observable, that this, and many other Psalms people ; redeeming them from the oppression and capwith a mournful beginning, have a triumphant ending ; tivity under which they laboured. Fenton. to shew us the prevailing power of devotion, and to The works of God are so visible to all the world, and convince us that prayer brings with it the comforts of afford such manifest indications of the being and attriheaven, and revives our weary spirits, in the gloomy butes of the infinite Creator, that they plainly argue the seasons of sorrow and temptation. Bp. Horne.
vileness and perverseness of the Atheist, and leave him
inexcusable. For it is a sign a man is a wilful perverse Psalm XIV. David here complains of the impiety Atheist, that will impute so glorious a work, as the and general corruption of the people who had led the creation is, to any thing, yea, a mere, nothing, (as Israelites into captivity; describes their terrours; and chance is,) rather than to God. It is a sign the man is begs of God to bring back His captive people to their wilfully blind, that he is under the power of the devil, own land. Green.
under the government of prejudice, lust, and passion, Ver. 2. The Lord looked down &c.] Contrary to the not right reason, that will not discern what “every one opinion of the wicked, the Lord has all along " looked can see, what every man may behold afar off," Job down from heaven upon the children of men.” Dr. xxxvi. 25, even the existence and attributes of the Wells.
Creator from His works. Dr. Derham. 4. — eat up my people as they eat bread,l That is, cruelly devour my people without fear or remorse. Bp. Psalm XV. In this Psalm the author describes a Hall.
citizen of Zion; or what is necessary and requisite in 5. There were they in great fear: &c.] In the parallel the conduct and behaviour of a member of the Jewish place, Ps. lüü. 5, after the words, “There were they in church. Edwards. This seems to be a contrast to the great fear,” are added these, “ where no fear was;" preceding Psalm: it is appointed to be used on the which certainly connect better with what follows, “ for Ascension-day, as it contains the character of one, who God is in the generation of the righteous.” David is should be qualified to ascend into the hill, and dwell in supposed to be speaking primarily of Israel's defection the presence of God, whither our Saviour Christ is gone from him to Absalom, and here to be assigning the before. Travell. motive of that defection in many, namely, fear of the Ver. 1. Lord, who shall abide &c.] O Lord, who is rebels' growing power, and distrust of his ability to l the man that shall be admitted to the tabernacle on Thy
He describeth a citizen of Zion.
PSALMS. He fleeth to God for preservation. b Is. 63. 15. 2• He that walketh uprightly, and the LORD, Thou art my Lord : a my 3D.: 50,
worketh righteousness, and speaketh goodness extendeth not to thee; 35. 7. the truth in his heart.
3 But to the saints that are in the 3 He that backbiteth not with his earth, and to the excellent, in whom tongue, nor doeth evil to his neigh- is all my delight.
bour, nor || taketh up a reproach 4 Their sorrows shall be multiplied ' against his neighbour.
that || hasten after another god : their Or, give 4 In whose eyes a vile person is drink offerings of blood will I not another. contemned; but he honoureth them offer, nor take up their names into that fear the Lord. He that swear- my lips. eth to his own hurt, and changeth 5 b The Lord is the portion f of b Lam. 3. 24.
| mine inheritance and of my cup: † Heb. of my 5 He that putteth not out his thou maintainest my lot. Lev. 25. 36. money to usury, nor taketh reward 6 The lines are fallen unto me in Ezek. 22. 12. against the innocent. He that doeth pleasant places; yea, I have a goodly these things shall never be moved. heritage.
7 I will bless the LORD, who hath PSALM XVI.
given me counsel: my reins also in-
idolatry, fleeth to God for preservation. 5 8 I have set the Lord always c Acts 2. 25.
hand, I shall not be moved.
Deut. 23. 19.
golden Psalm of Darid,
+ Heb. dwell
holy mountain? or who shall have the privilege of wor- like our Commandments, in some publick place “ to shipping therein ? Travell. Who shall be accounted a teach ;" (for so it is expressed, Psalm lx :) that is, that true member of the kingdom of grace here, and of glory the people might learn it, and be able to join. Mudge. hereafter? S. Clarke.
Ver. 2. — my goodness extendeth not to thee;] Or, 4.– He that sweareth &c.] He that promises by an my good things are not needful for Thee: they would oath to do a thing, and does accordingly, though it be be a sacrifice of no value; else I would give them Thee. to his own hurt, and breaks not his oath. Dr. Wells. The best sacrifice I can offer to Thee is beneficence to
5. He that putteth not out his money to usury,] That Thy saints and servants. Green. is, to any poor brother Israelite, God having forbidden 4.- drink offerings of blood] This alludes to sacriusury in this case: see Deut. xxiii. 19, 20. Dr. Wells. fices in which the blood of men was offered. Bp. Patrick.
- shall never be moved.] Shall never fail of God's A principal ceremony is here put for the whole of idolfavour. Dr. Wells.
atry. Gerard. The following prayer is a just improvement of the nor take up their names into my lips.] David above Psalm:
here declares that he will have no conversation with Gracious God, who hast vouchsafed to let us know idolaters, nor swear by the name of their gods. Bp. upon what conditions we may be received into Thy pro- Wilson. tection and eternal favour; give us grace to practise 6. The lines are fallen &c.] That is, my lot and porthose virtues Thou hast enjoined us; make us to love tion, or kingdom, is appointed unto me in a pleasant justice in all our actions, and uprightness in all our country. Bp. Wilson, Dr. Wells. They used with cords words; make us as tender in the wrongs and injuries to measure their grounds in surveys, Amos vii. 17 : done to our neighbours, as if they were done to our- and hence, by a figure, a measuring cord comes freselves; infuse into our hearts an abomination of all quently to signify any space or portion of land that tice, by how great persons soever countenanced; and a belongs to a person. Dr. Hammond. lore and reverence for virtue, and of virtuous men, in 7. — my reins] That is, my inward thoughts and how little esteem soever they are in this world : and let affections. S. Clarke. us do all this out of our true love of Thee, and of Thy 8. I have set the Lord always before me:] As my Son Jesus Christ. Amen. Lord Clarendon.
God, and my support. Green.
9.- my glory By this word he meant his tongue. Psalm XVI. In this Psalm David declares his full The Psalmist, as applying his own tongue to the best trust and confidence in God for protection and assist- purpose, the praise of God, had reason to call it his ance; and renders Him thanks for his security in this glory. Merrick. life, and for the hopes of a happy immortality in the my flesh also shall rest in hope.) David here denext. The latter part contains a clear prophecy of the clares that he would lay down his body in the grave, in resurrection of our Lord Christ, to which St. Peter and a certain hope of his resurrection to immortality. Bp. St. Paul directly apply it, Acts ii. 25, and xiii. 35. | Hall. Trarell
10. For thou wilt not leave &c.] I know, that Thou, Michtam] If one may guess from the signification O God, wilt not forsake me in distress; nor even when of this word, joined to the Greek translation, it may be, I die, wilt Thou suffer me to remain for ever in the A Psalm to be written in golden letters, and set up, grave.-So also, when that Holy Person, who shall
in thee from
David craveth help
against his enemies.
11 Thou wilt shew me the path of me from the paths of the destroyer.
6 I have called upon thee, for thou
ear unto me, and hear my speech. defence of God against his enemies. 10 He 7 Shew thy marvellous lovingkindsheweth their pride, craft, and eagerness.ness, O thou || that savest by thy right || Or, that 13, He prayeth against them in confidence | hand them which put their trust in which trust of his hope.
thee from those that rise up against those that rise TA Prayer of David. them. H EAR † the right, O LORD, 8 Keep me as the apple of the hand. 11 attend unto my cry, give ear eye, hide me under the shadow of thy unto my prayer, that goeth | not out wings,
9 From the wicked † that oppress 1
3 Thou hast proved mine heart; fat: with their mouth they speak
eyes bowing down to the earth;
tip against thy right
+ Heb. justice.
of feigned lips.
enemies against the
hereafter submit to death for the sake of mankind, is Ver. 1.-out of feigned lips.] Deceitful dissembling laid in the grave, I am well assured Thou wilt raise lips. S. Clarke. Him from thence, before His body be in the least cor- 2. Let my sentence come forth from thy presence; rupted. Bp. Patrick, Travell. Thou wilt not abandon Let me be tried and judged by Thee, to whom I make my life to the grave. This may signify either, Thou my appeal from the unjust accusations of men. S. Clarke. wilt not suffer the grave to exert its dominion over me 3. - in the night ;) That is, when the heart is freest too soon, that is, immaturely; or, to maintain it over from disguise. Green. me too long. In the former sense David seems to have - shalt find nothing ;l Canst find in me no wicked meant it of himself : in the latter it is applicable to our design. Such were the appeals of David to God, for Lord, whom God raised up the third day, having loosed his innocence under the persecution of Saul. And what the bonds of death, because it was not possible He stronger appeals can be made ? Green. See the old should be holden of it. Green.
translation. - thine Holy One) Meaning David in the literal 4. Concerning the works of men, &c.] Though as to sense, and in the spiritual the Messiah, in whom the what others are wont to do in like circumstances, I prophecy was fulfilled. See it applied to Him by St. know it is usual not to scruple at means for self-préPeter, Acts i. 25, &c. Green.
servation; yet from the respect I have to Thy com- , We are here to observe the sentiments of the children mands, I have kept me from following others in using of God, and their happiness. As to their sentiments, violent and murderous practices for my safety. Dr. David teaches us, by his example, that they always Wells. trust in God; that they love and esteem the pious and 8. – as the apple of the eye,] By the apple of an virtuous above all; that they avoid the company and eye is meant its pupil. Dr. Wells. See note at Deut. errours of the wicked, and adhere inviolably to the pure xxxii. 10. service of God. As to their happiness, this Psalm 9. - who compass me about. The allusion here is to teaches us that it is very great ; that God Himself is huntsmen, who, spying game, go round to see how they their portion and inheritance; that He is on their right may most advantageously pitch their nets to take it. hand that they may never be moved; that the sense of Dr. Kennicott. their happiness makes them rejoice and praise God con- 10. — inclosed in their own fat :] That is, bloated, and tinually; and that they are even convinced that God puffed up with pride. Bp. Wilson. The meaning is, will not abandon them to the power of death. Lastly, that pride is the child of plenty, begott this Psalm foretells that Christ should not see corrup. indulgence; which hardens the hearts of men against tion, but be exalted to heaven, where He reigneth over the fear of God, and love of their neighbours : renderall things, and has prepared for all true believers joys ing them insensible to the judgments of the former, and that never shall expire. Ostervald.
the miseries of the latter. Bp. Horne.
10, 11. They are inclosed &c.] By changing the Psalm XVII. In this prayer David humbly repre- situation of a single letter in the original, which has sents to God his innocence in those things whereof he probably been misplaced by the copyists, these verses was accused, probably of seeking Saul's life and the may be explained thus : “They draw close their cords ; kingdom; and therefore beseeches Him to grant him with their mouth they speak exultingly, We have sucdeliverance from his persecutors and calumniators. Bp. ceeded now. They come about me, they set their eyes Patrick.
stooping down upon the earth.” The image here is
He prayeth against them.
His psalm of thanksgiving. Heb. The 12 + Like as a lion that is greedy' words of a this song in the day a 2 Sam. 22. kim (that is, of his prey, and as it were a young that the Lord delivered him from ais as a lion + lurking in secret places.
the hand of all his enemies, and 13 Arise, O LORD, † disappoint from the hand of Saul: And he him, cast him down: deliver my soul I said,
from the wicked, || which is thy | T WILL love thee, O Lord, my grerent kis sword:
O Lord, from men of the world, fortress, and my deliverer; my God,
van that. desireth to raris. * Heb.
dren, and leave the rest of their sub- 3 I will call upon the Lord, who
is worthy to be praised : so shall I be
made me afraid.
5 The | sorrows of hell compassed , Or, cords. PSALM XVIII. me about: the snares of death pre
vented me. David praiseth God for his manifold and
6 In my distress I called upon the
Lord, and cried unto my God: he
of David, the servant of the LORD, and my cry came before him, even
taken from hunters, and the circumstances follow very expectation of eternal life, which the righteous shall properly. They compassed him about; they inclosed enjoy after the resurrection. Ostervald. him in their net ; "we have succeeded at last,” they said; they came round him ; they stooped down and Psalm XVIII. The departure of the children of Israel boked earnestly at him ; their eyes fixed, like a lion that from Egypt, the passage of the Red sea, and the appearis just leaping at his prey. Mudge.
ance of God on mount Sinai, are subjects from which 13. Arise, O Lord, disappoint him, &c.] The Psalmist, the Hebrew poets have taken the most sublime part of having characterized those who pursued after him to their imagery: and as these historical facts, and the take away his life, now intreats God to “arise," or ap images taken from them, have a certain connexion with pear in his cause; to “ disappoint,” or “ prevent ” the each other, it often happens that more than one of them enery in his designs; and to “cast him down," to are made use of, and they are united and blended togeoverthrow and subdue him. The next words may be ther in order to increase the dignity and grandeur of thus rendered ; “ Deliver my soul from the wicked by the subject; of which we have an example in this Psalm. Thy sword, from men by Thy hand, O Lord, from the Bp. Lowth, Street. The sublimity of the figures used in tren of the world :" the expressions, “sword, and hand this Psalm, and the consent of ancient commentators, of Jehovah," being frequently used to denote His power even Jewish as well as Christian, but above all the quoand vengeance. Bp. Horne.
tations made from it in the New Testament, prove that which is thy sword:1 Which is the instrument the kingdom of the Messiah is here pointed at, under Thou employest for the execution of Thy judgments. that of David. Bp. Horne. There is no doubt that after S. Clarke.
| David had first composed this Psalm, he reviewed it, 14. — whose belly thou fillest &c.] Whose bellies Thou and made some small alterations in it; which is the fillest with Thy stores, or abundance of temporal bless reason of the trifling differences between this Psalm ing; whose children are fed to the full, and who leave as it stands here, and as it stands in 2 Sam, xxii. Dr. the rest of their substance to their little ones. Green, Wells. Bp. Horne.
Ver. 2.- horn of my salvation,] See note on 1 Sam. ii. 1. 15. As for me, I will behold &c.] He either prays that 5. The sorrows of hell &c.] David here means, that be may keep on, or is confident that he shall keep on, in such sorrows as had almost brought him to the grave, a way of righteousness, and enjoy the presence of God, compassed him about : and his enemies came on so and be satisfied every morning with the image or idea suddenly that he had not time to escape them by flight. of God. Mudge.
Dr. Wells. - when I awake,? He appears to say this with
the snares of death] These “snares" or toils " of reference to the resurrection of the just. Dr. Hammond.death," or the grave, allude to the ancient manner of
The confidence with which David calls upon the Lord hunting, which is still practised in some countries, and in this Psalm, and the hope he possessed that God was performed by surrounding a considerable tract of would have regard to his innocence, shews the great ground by a circle of nets, compare Ps. cxl. 5,) and happiness of the good; since they can in all conditions afterwards contracting the circle by degrees, till they apply themselves to God with assurance, knowing that had forced all the beasts of that quarter together into a He will always be their protector. The last words of narrow compass; and then it was that the slaughter this Psalm should raise our thoughts to the desire and began. Parkhurst.
of thanksgiving 7 Then the earth shook and trem- of my calamity: but the Lord was bled; the foundations also of the hills my stay. moved and were shaken, because he 19 He brought me forth also into was wroth.
a large place; he delivered me, be+ Hob. by his. 8 There went up a smoke + out of cause he delighted in me.
his nostrils, and fire out of his mouth 20 The Lord rewarded me accord-
9 He bowed the heavens also, and to the cleanness of my hands hath he
| 21 For I have kept the ways of
22 For all his judgments were be-
him, and I kept myself from mine
compensed me according to my right-
Heb. before his voice; hail stones and coals of fire. | 25 With the merciful thou wilt
14 Yea, he sent out his arrows, shew thyself merciful ; with an upand scattered them; and he shot out right man thou wilt shew thyself lightnings, and discomfited them. upright;
15 Then the channels of waters 26 With the pure thou wilt shew were seen, and the foundations of thyself pure; and with the froward the world were discovered at thy re- thou wilt || shew thyself froward. Or, wrestle. buke, O LORD, at the blast of the 27 For thou wilt save the afflictbreath of thy nostrils.
ed people ; but wilt bring down high 16 He sent from above, he took looks. || Or, great me, he drew me out of || many waters. 28 For thou wilt light my candle: | Or, lamp.
17 He delivered me from my strong the Lord my God will enlighten my enemy, and from them which hated darkness. me: for they were too strong for 29 For by thee I have || run | Or, broken,
through a troop; and by my God 18 They prevented me in the day have I leaped over a wall.
7. Then the earth &c.] The Psalmist seems here to fire,” signifies living, burning coals. Where the lightallude to a dreadful tempest, which fell upon his ene- ning fell, it devoured all before it, and turned whatever mies, and made the very earth tremble under them. it touched into burning embers. Dr. Chandler. Bp. Patrick. This and the following verses are highly | 15. Then the channels &c.] This alludes to the manpoetical; and must be understood to signify, that the ner of God's destroying the Egyptians by drying up the deliverance of David was the effect of the Divine power channels of the sea, that deep on which the earth is said miraculously exerted. Travell.
to be founded; and so engaging them to enter into it, 8. There went up a smoke out of his nostrils,] The and then bringing the waters upon them. This poetical ancients placed the seat of anger in the nose, or nostrils, description is preparatory to David's deliverances which because when the passion grows warm or violent, it follow. Fenton. discovers itself by the heated vehement breath which 16. — many waters.] Sudden and great calamities are proceeds from them. This description of a smoke frequently expressed in Scripture under the figure of a arising into, and a fire breaking forth from, the nostrils deluge of waters. Bp. Lowth. of God, denotes, by a poetical figure, the greatness of 18. They prevented me That is, came on me sudHis anger and indignation. Dr. Chandler.
denly, unawares, when I was unprovided and helpless. 10. — he rode upon a cherub, &c.] He was attended, Bp. Patrick. and, as it were, carried by angels as in a chariot, and did *19. — a large place ;] Meaning a state of liberty. Bp. move very swiftly ; yea, He did move as swift as the Patrick. wind, and a rapid wind did accompany His descent. 26. — with the froward &c.] That is, to the perverse Dr. Wells.
Thou wilt shew Thyself an adversary. Green. 11. He made darkness &c.] The meaning is, that He 28. — light my candle :] Give me light and joy. Bp. and all His heavenly attendants were surrounded with Wilson. thick dark clouds. Dr. Wells.
29. For by thee &c.] Through Thee I break the 12. — coals of fire.] The word, rendered “coals of troops of the enemy; through my God I leap over walls,