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Moral virtues,

and their contrary vices. Before 19 The lip of truth shall be estab-1 2 a A man shall eat good by the Before

CHRIST about 1000. lished for ever: but a lying tongue fruit of his mouth: but the soul of the about 1000, is but for a moment. transgressors shall eat violence.

a Chap. 12.
20 Deceit is in the heart of them 3 He that keepeth his mouth keep- 14.
that imagine evil: but to the coun eth his life : but he that openeth wide
sellers of peace is joy.

his lips shall have destruction.
21 There shall no evil happen to 4 The soul of the sluggard desireth,
the just: but the wicked shall be filled and hath nothing: but the soul of the
with mischief.

| diligent shall be made fat.
22 Lying lips are abomination to 5 A righteous man hateth lying:
the Lord: but they that deal truly but a wicked man is loathsome, and
are his delight.

cometh to shame. 1 Chap. 13. 233 'A prudent man concealeth 6 b Righteousness keepeth him b Chap. 11.3,

knowledge: but the heart of fools that is upright in the way: but 9,6.
proclaimeth foolishness.

wickedness overthroweth + the sin- + Heb. sin. m Chap. 10. 24 m The hand of the diligent shall ner.

bear rule: but the || slothful shall be 7 There is that maketh himself
under tribute.

rich, yet hath nothing: there is that n Chap. 15. 25 n Heaviness in the heart of man maketh himself poor, yet hath great

maketh it stoop : but a good word riches.
maketh it glad.

8 The ransom of a man's life are
26 The righteous is more || excel- his riches : but the poor heareth not
lent than his neighbour: but the way rebuke.
of the wicked seduceth them. I 9 The light of the righteous re-
27 The slothfulman roasteth not that joiceth: Cbut the || lamp of the wicked cJob 18. 6.

&21. 17. which he took in hunting: but the sub- shall be put out.

Or, candle. stance of a diligent man is precious. 10 Only by pride cometh conten

28 In the way of righteousness is tion: but with the well advised is
life; and in the pathway thereof there wisdom.
is no death.

11 a Wealth gotten by vanity shall a Chap: 10. 2.

& 20. 21. be diminished: but he that gathereth CHAP. XIII. + by labour shall increase.

+ Heb. with

the hand. WISE son heareth his father's 12 Hope deferred maketh the heart A instruction : but a scorner hear- sick: but when the desire cometh, it is eth not rebuke.

a tree of life. shame;" that is, is not transported with passion in an Chap. XIII. ver. 2. A man shall eat good &c.] He unseerly manner. Dr. Wells.

that speaks well of others, and gives them faithful coun. 19.- a lying tongue is but for a moment.) A liar is sel, shall reap the benefit thereof himself; and they that soon detected, being apt to contradict himself, and to perfidiously calumniate or deceive others, shall suffer blast his reputation for ever. Bp. Patrick.

themselves the injury which they design to do their 23. A prudent man &c.] A prudent man will not dis- neighbours. Bp. Patrick. play his knowledge, except on proper occasions ; but a ! 7. There is that maketh himself rich, &c.] There are fool on all occasions betrays his ignorance and folly. those who are rich in their poverty, because they are Bp. Patrick, Dr. Durell.

content, and use generously what they have : there 25. ~ a good word maketh it glad. The kind and are others, who in the midst of their riches are really encouraging discourses of a friend raise it and make it poor, from their insatiable covetousness or profusion. glad. Bp. Patrick.

Calmet. 27. The slothful man &c.] The slothful man for want 8. The ransom of a man's life &c.] The rich, on acof exertion loses even the fruit of his former labours ; count of their wealth, are sometimes accused of high but the diligent man sets a just value on it, and converts crimes, that they may pay a large sum to save their it to its proper use.

lives ; but nobody takes the trouble of finding fault 28. In the way of righteousness is life ; &c.] This is, with the poor, or bringing charges against him. Bp. as it were, the sum and substance of the chapter, and a Patrick. proper conclusion of all that we have been taught in the 9. The light of the righteous &c.] The happiness of foregoing maxims of Divine philosophy; namely, that the righteous shines like the sun, and increases to their religion and a holy conversation are the only sure and endless joy; but the happiness of the wicked is as feeble infallible way to happiness. So excellent, and so far as the light of a candle, and will soon be extinguished. berond every other scheme, is this “ way of righteous- | Bp. Patrick. nexs," that not one of all the actions and pursuits in Or, “ The lamp of the wicked shall be put out :” the which it engages us shall ever end in misery and dis- seeming and false mirth of wicked men, with which appointment. “In the pathway thereof there is no they are vainly elated, will soon be put out and end in ceath;" but, saith the Gospel, seconding the royal | sorrow. Bp. Hall. moralist, “ All things work together for good to them! 12. Hope deferred maketh the heart sick :) He speaks that love God,” Rom. viii. 28. Wogan.

of a case, when by repeated disappointments the hope


CHRIST about 1000.

11 Or, shall

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Moral virtues,


and their contrary vices. Before 13 Whoso despiseth the word | the poor: but there is that is destroyed Before about 1000. shall be destroyed : but he that fear- for want of judgment. eth the commandment || shall be re 24 i He that spareth his rod hat

Chap 23. be in peace. warded.

eth his son: but he that loveth him 13. e Chap. 14. 14 - The law of the wise is a foun chasteneth him betimes. 27.

tain of life, to depart from the snares 25 * The righteous eateth to the k Ps. 37. 3.
of death.

satisfying of his soul: but the belly of
15 Good understanding giveth fa- the wicked shall want.
vour: but the way of transgressors is


16 f Every prudent man dealeth DVERY wise woman buildeth her with knowledge: but a fool + layeth 1 house: but the foolish plucketh open his folly.

it down with her hands.
17 A wicked messenger falleth into 2 He that walketh in his upright-
mischief: but a faithful ambassador is ness feareth the Lord: a but he that a Job 12. 4.

is perverse in his ways despiseth
18 Poverty and shame shall be to him.
him that refuseth instruction : but he 3 In the mouth of the foolish is a
that regardeth reproof shall be ho- rod of pride : but the lips of the wise

shall preserve them.
19 The desire accomplished is 4 Where no oxen are, the crib is
sweet to the soul: but it is abom-clean: but much increase is by the
ination to fools to depart from strength of the ox.

1 5 A faithful witness will not lie: • Exod. 20. 20 He that walketh with wise men but a false witness will utter lies. ch. 6. 19. &

shall be wise: but a companion of fools 1 6 A scorner seeketh wisdom, and 12. + Heb. shall + shall be destroyed.

findeth it not: but knowledge is easy c Chap. 8. 9. 21 Evil pursueth sinners : but to unto him that understandeth. the righteous good shall be repayed. 7 Go from the presence of a fool

22 A good man leaveth an inherit- ish man, when thou perceivest not in

ance to his children's children: and him the lips of knowledge. 8 Job 27. 17. the 6 wealth of the sinner is laid up 8 The wisdom of the prudent is to for the just.

understand his way: but the folly of 23 h Much food is in the tillage of fools is deceit.


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12. 17.

be broken.

h Chap. 12. 11.

seems to be removed farther off from day to day; which of children is frequently their utter ruin, and in truth is is justly said to sicken the heart. Dr. Durell.

not love, but hatred. Abp. Tillotson. 13. Whoso despiseth the word &c.] Despiseth the 25. The righteous eateth &c.] A righteous man never good counsels and admonitions that are given him. Bp. wants a sufficiency, because his desires are moderate, Patrick.

and he makes a temperate use of God's blessings; where14. The law of the wise &c.] The law of God, which as wicked men bring themselves to poverty by riot and is the matter and scope to which all the instruction dissipation. Bp. Patrick. of wise teachers tends, is that fountain, from which spiritual and eternal life flows, and the only means of Chap. XIV. ver. 1. buildeth her house :] By her delivering the soul from the snares of eternal death. diligent and prudent management raises up a family, Bp. Hall.

and increases its riches and reputation. Bp. Patrick. 15. Good understanding giveth favour :7 A prudent, 3. In the mouth of the foolish &c.] The tongue of the pious, and regular behaviour, is most amiable and ac- fool is a scourge by which his own pride is lashed; but ceptable to all men ; but the conversation of those who the lips of the wise are a safe defence to himself. Bp. live by no law but their own lusts, like a rough way, is Hall. grievously uneasy. Bp. Patrick.

4. Where no oren are, &c.] If the fields lie fallow and 20. He that walketh with wise men] That is, who neglected, a famine will follow; but good husbandry chooses wise persons for his companions, and loses no bestowed upon them makes great plenty:-Oxen were opportunity of receiving their advice and instruction. the principal instruments of husbandry in Palestine, Dr. Jortin.

being employed, not only in ploughing the land, and 21.– to the righteous good shall be repayed.) This carrying home the crop, but also in treading out the sentence expresses the general truth, that the practice corn. Bp. Patrick. of righteousness is men's true interest, even in the 16. A scorner seeketh wisdom, and findeth it not :) He present life; and that wickedness is attended with great that comes to seek after knowledge with a mind to misery generally, even here as well as hereafter. Dr. S. scorn and censure, shall be sure to find matter enough Clarke.

for his humour, but none for his instruction. Lord Bacon. 22. the wealth of the sinner is laid up for the just.] - but knowledge is easy unto him that understandeth.] Being transferred from his family to another which is But he who does not deem himself too wise to learn. virtuous. Bp. Patrick.

easily and quickly attains the knowledge of things neces24. He that spareth his rod &c.] A fond indulgence | sary and useful. Bishop Patrick.


Before CHRIST about 1000.

sch Ps. 112. 9.


Heb. the

his soul.

e Chap. 16.



Moral virtues,


and their contrary vices. Beforer 9 Fools make a mock at sin: but bour sinneth: h but he that hath mercy Before about 1000. among the righteous there is favour. on the poor, happy is he.

10 The heart knoweth + his own 22 Do they not err that devise d Chap. 10.

bitterness; and a stranger doth not evil ? but mercy and truth shall be to bitterness of intermeddle with his joy.

them that devise good.
Jl The house of the wicked shall / 23 In all labour there is profit:
be overthrown : but the tabernacle of but the talk of the lips tendeth only to
the upright shall flourish.

12'e There is a way which seemeth 24 The crown of the wise is their
right unto a man, but the end thereof riches : but the foolishness of fools is
are the ways of death.

13 Even in laughter the heart is 25 i A true witness delivereth i Ver. 5.
sorrowful; and the end of that mirth souls : but a deceitful witness speaketh
is heaviness.

14 The backslider in heart shall 26 In the fear of the LORD is
1 Chap. 1. 31. be filled with his own ways: and strong confidence: and his children

a good man shall be satisfied from shall have a place of refuge.

27 k The fear of the LORD is a k Chap. 13.
15 The simple believeth every fountain of life, to depart from the
word: but the prudent man looketh snares of death. .
well to his going.

28 In the multitude of people is
16 A wise man feareth, and de- the king's honour: but in the want of
parteth from evil: but the fool rageth, people is the destruction of the
and is confident.

17 He that is soon angry dealeth 29 He that is slow to wrath is of
foolishly : and a man of wicked de- great understanding: but he that is
vices is hated.

t hasty of spirit exalteth folly. Heb. short
18 The simple inherit folly: but 30 A sound heart is the life of the
the prudent are crowned with know- Aesh : but envy the rottenness of the

bones. 19 The evil bow before the good; 31 'He that oppresseth the poor 1 Chap. 17. 5.

Matt. 25. 40. and the wicked at the gates of the reproacheth his Maker: but he that righteous.

honoureth him hath mercy on the g Chap. 19. 7. 20 & The poor is hated even of his poor. + Heb. many own neighbour : but | the rich hath | 32 The wicked is driven away in of the rich many friends.

his wickedness : but the righteous 21 He that despiseth his neigh- hath hope in his death.


of spirit.


are the lorers

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9. Fools make a mock at sin :] Wantonly commit sin, The wicked finally yield the ascendancy in life to the think nothing of injuring others.

good. - brut among the righteous there is favour.] Righteous 23.- but the talk of the lips &c.] He that spendeth men do not injure each other, but mutually confer what his time in idle talk, and doth nothing, will be certain kindness they can. Dr. Wells.

of coming to poverty. Bp. Hall. 10. The heart knoweth &c.] Every man is best ac- ! 24. The crown of the wise &c.] Riches are a singular quainted with his own secret sorrows, and knows where advantage and ornament to a wise and virtuous man, he is inwardly wrung, while the world thinks him who knows how to use them; but such is the folly of happy: as, on the other hand, he may have hidden wicked men, that their wealth makes them the more occasions of joy, which cannot be judged of by others. vile, and serves to render their folly more conspicuous.

Bp. Patrick. *14. The backslider in heart &c.] He that is froward *29. he that is hasty of spirit exalteth folly.] Exposes and perverse, and willingly falls from his former good his own folly, and makes it apparent to every one. Bp. purposes, shall be sure to suffer the punishment of his Patrick wicked courses. Bp. Hail.

Anger is certainly one of the most foolish passions of - a good mon shall be satisfied from himself. A human nature, and commonly betrays men to the most good man hath the pleasure of being wise and acting imprudent and unreasonable things. Abp. Tillotson. reasonably, the pleasure of being justified to himself in 30. A sound heart is the life] A quiet, honest, conwhat he does, and of being acquitted by the sentence of tented mind, is “ the life of the flesh,” conduces much his own mind. There is a great pleasure in being to health and happiness. Dr. Wells. innocent, because that prevents guilt and trouble; it is 32.— The righteous hath hope in his death.] These pleasant to be virtuous and good, because that is to excel words have no sense or meaning except on the supothers; and it is pleasant to grow better, because that is position of a future state : for hope always looks forward, to excel ourselves. Abp. Tillotson.

and has respect unto something that is future : but, if 19. The evil bow before the good ;] The meaning is, death puts an end to our being; if, according to the



e Chap. 21. 27. Amos 5. 22.

+ Heb. to nations.

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Moral virtues,


and their contrary vices. 33 Wisdom resteth in the heart of | 8 e The sacrifice of the wicked is Before about 1000. him that hath understanding : but an abomination to the Lord: but about 1000.

that which is in the midst of fools is the prayer of the upright is his de-
made known.

34 Righteousness exalteth a na- 9 The way of the wicked is an Ísai. 1. 11. &
tion : but sin is a reproach to any abomination unto the Lord: but he

loveth him that followeth after righ- & 7. 22. 35 The king's favour is toward a teousness. wise servant: but his wrath is against | 10 || Correction is grievous unto | Or, him that causeth shame.

him that forsaketh the way: and he***

that hateth reproof shall die. CHAP. XV.

11 Hell and destruction are be- f Job 26. 6. a Chap. 25. A SOFT answer turneth away fore the Lord: how much more then

wrath: but grievous words stir the hearts of the children of men? up anger.

12 A scorner loveth not one that 2 The tongue of the wise useth reproveth him: neither will he go b Ver. 28. .. knowledge aright: b but the mouth of unto the wise. 13. 16. fools $ poureth out foolishness.

13 8 A merry heart maketh a cheer- $ Chap. 17. 3 - The eyes of the LORD are in ful countenance: but by sorrow of the

every place, beholding the evil and heart the spirit is broken. ch. 5. 21. the good.

14 The heart of him that hath & 32. 19.' 4 + A wholesome tongue is a tree understanding seeketh knowledge : Sebe; 4, 13. of life: but perverseness therein is a but the mouth of fools feedeth on healing of the breach in the spirit.

a Chap. 10. 1. 5 « A fool despiseth his father's 15 All the days of the afflicted

instruction : but he that regardeth re- are evil: but he that is of a merry
proof is prudent.

heart hath a continual feast.
6 In the house of the righteous is 16 h Better is little with the fear h Ps. 37. 16.
much treasure: but in the revenues of the Lord than great treasure and chap. 16. 8.
of the wicked is trouble.

trouble therewith. 7 The lips of the wise disperse 17 i Better is a dinner of herbs i Chap. 17. 1. knowledge: but the heart of the fool where love is, than a stalled ox and ish doeth not so.

hatred therewith.

ch. 12. 23. &

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Jer. 16. 17.

1 Tim. 6. 6.

creed of the unbeliever, we die like brute animals, and the Divine presence is the best and only true restraint have no after-existence; what hope can the righteous from vice, the strongest and most encouraging motive have in his death, any more than the wicked, or how to virtue. Wogan. can either of them have any hope at all? This hope can 4. A wholesome tongue A sound (or a healing) be built on nothing, but the belief of the soul's immor- tongue, a tongue which imparts sound advice, or pacifies tality, and a future state of retribution. Dr. Ibbot. anger. Dr. Durell. “Is a tree of life ;' is an incom

33. — resteth in the heart] That is, is locked up in his parable blessing to all within its influence. But perbreast, till the proper time comes of drawing it forth. verseness therein hurts or wounds the soul. Bp. PaDr. Isham.

trick. 34. Righteousness exalteth a nation :) We must en- 8. The sacrifice of the wicked &c.] The sacrifice of large in this sentence the meaning of the word “right- | the wicked, however costly it may be, is an abomination eousness” to the general strain of the book of Proverbs, to the Lord; but the bare prayer of the upright, though in which the words wisdom and righteousness are com- he be unable to bring any costly offerings or sacrifices, monly used very comprehensively to signify all religion is His delight. Dr. Wells. and virtue. Abp. Tillotson.

11. Hell and destruction &c.] Even the devouring sin is a reproach] Brings down calamities and grave, and the lowest depths of the earth, lie open to the misery. Dr. Wells. This is an admirable sentence, and eyes of the Lord ; how much more does He behold ought to be engraved in all the most publick places of the bottom of man's heart! Bp. Hall. See the notes on every nation. Calmet.

Job xxvi. 6. 35. that causeth shame.] That disgraces his master's 13. — by sorrow of the heart the spirit is broken.) government by his evil and unfaithful management of When grief and sorrow seize on the heart, they deject, the trust or office committed to him. Dr. Wells. enfeeble, and break the most courageous spirit. Bp.

Patrick Chap. XV. ver. 1. A soft answer &c.] Solomon here 16. and trouble therewith.] That disquiet and congives this general caution, that we should not think it fusion of thoughts which, where there is no religious enough, never to begin strife and contention ; but if fear of God, is apt to attend on abundance of wealth. others begin it, we should not continue it by rough an- | Bp. Patrick swers, but endeavour presently to make an end by 17.- a dinner of herbs where love is,] That is, It is softening the matter, and yield much for the sake of better to have peace without plenty, than plenty without tranquillity. Bp. Patrick.

peace. Seed. A dinner of herbs," or of green pottage, 3. The eyes of the Lord &c.] A continual sense of I was the poorest entertainment in Eastern countries,



& 145. 18.

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n Chap. 11.

Moral virtues,


and their contrary vices. Before 18 * A wrathful man stirreth up 28 The heart of the righteous stu- c Befors about 1000. strife: but he that is slow to anger dieth to answer: but the mouth of the about 1000. k Chap. 26. appeaseth strife.

| wicked poureth out evil things. 21. & 29. 22. 19 The way of the slothful man is 29 - The Lord is far from the r Ps. 34. 16.

as an hedge of thorns: but the way I wicked: but he heareth the prayer of + Heb. is of the righteous + is made plain the righteous.

20 1 A wise son maketh a glad fa- 30 The light of the eyes rejoiceth "" ther: but a foolish man despiseth his the heart: and a good report maketh mother.

the bones fat. m Chap. 10. 21 m Folly is joy to him that is 31 The ear that heareth the reproof + Heb. void + destitute of wisdom : but a man of of life abideth among the wise.

understanding walketh uprightly. I 32 He that refuseth || instruction | Or, 22 n Without counsel purposes are despiseth his own soul : but he that

e that correction. disappointed: but in the multitude of ll heareth reproof + getteth under- ! or, obeyeth. counsellors they are established. standing.

23 A man hath joy by the answer 33 The fear of the LORD is the he + Heb. in his of his mouth: and a word spoken tin instruction of wisdom; and before $ Chap. 18. due season, how good is it!

honour is humility. o Phil. 3.20. 24 • The way of life is above to the wise, that he may depart from hell

CHAP. XVI. beneath.

THE . || preparations of the heart a Ver. 9. 25 The LORD will destroy the 1 in man, and the answer of the & 20. 21. house of the proud: but he will esta- tongue, is from the Lord. blish the border of the widow.

2 All the ways of a man are clean disposings: 9 Chap. 6. 18. 26 9 The thoughts of the wicked are in his own eyes; but the LORD weigh

b Chap. 21. 2. an abomination to the Lord: but the eth the spirits. Heh. words words of the pure are t pleasant words. 3 ct Commit thy works unto the c Ps. 37. 5. &

27 He that is greedy of gain trou- Lord, and thy thoughts shall be es- Matt. 6. 25. bleth his own house; but he that tablished. hateth gifts shall live.

4 The Lord hath made all things + Heb. Roll.

+ Heb. possesseth an heart.

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COL. 3. 1, 2.

chap, 19. 21.

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Jer. 10. 23.

55. 22.


Luke 12. 22.
I Pet. 5. 7.

and “a stalled (or crammed) ox," an ox put up in a to the eye, and pours joy into the recesses of the heart, stall, and there fatted, was esteemed the best entertain- so a good reputation creates inward satisfaction, and ment. Thus in the New Testament, the marriage pro- contributes to the health of the body. Calmet. vision which the king made for his son's wedding was 31.- the reproof of life] Salutary reproof. “oxen and fatlings," Matth. xxii. 4. And “the fatted 33. — before honour is humility. Humility, docility, calf” was brought forth to entertain the returning pro- the fear of God, are the means which lead to honour digal. In the same manner Homer describes the and true wisdom. Calmet. Our Lord Himself has made entertainments of his greatest princes and heroes, as “humility” the first entrance to the “honour” of being consisting almost entirely of fatted oxen and other His disciple, as well as the first step in His scale of animals. Bochart.

blessings, Matt. v. And with this important maxim the 19. The way of the slothful man &c.] The proceedings chapter concludes, as the sum total of the foregoing of the slothful man are full of embarrassments and precepts, “ Before honour is humility." Wogan. uneasiness; like a man breaking through a hedge of thorns, he moves with difficulty and pain.

Chap. XVI. ver. 1. The preparations of the heart &c.] 23. A man hath joy &c.] It is a great pleasure to a The literal version of the original gives the best and man to give wholesome counsel, and to see the good truest sense of this text, “To man are the dispositions success of it; and the greatest of all, both to himself of the heart, but from the Lord is the answer of the and to others, is to have it given so seasonably, that tongue;" that is, Man hath a power over his thoughts a business has been easily effected by it, which would to propose and dispose, to intend and contrive; but to not have been done without it. Bp. Patrick

bring such thoughts to effect, or even to utter them 24. The way of life is above to the wise,] He that is with the tongue, especially to utter them wisely, depends truly wise has his affections and conversation above; wholly upon God. "A similar sentence occurs in this and in the holy way of obedience walketh to eternal life. chapter at ver. 9; also chap. xx. 24, &c. Wogan. Bp. Hall.

2. All the ways of a man &c.] Every man is apt to 25.- he will establish the border of the widow.) He think the best of his own actions, and to justify himself will preserve the poor widow, who has no helper, in her in his own courses ; but the Lord judgeth and examinright, when insolent persons invade it. Bp. Patrick. eth the inward disposition, the soul and spirit of a man.

27.- troubleth his own house ;] Throweth his house Bp. Hall. or farnily into confusion.

3. Commit thy works &c.] When thou undertakest - he that hateth gifts] That hateth bribes and all any thing, implore the Divine blessing; and, committing unlawful gains, “shall live" and prosper. Dr. Wells. the success of it to God's providence, leave it to Him

28. The heart of the righteous &c.] A good man does to give what issue to it He pleases; which is the surest not speak without consideration: but bad men are rash, way to have thy honest designs accomplished. Bp. Paand forward to utter their mind. Bp. Patrick.

trick. 30. The light of the eyes &c.] As light gives pleasure 4. The Lord hath made &c.] This text may be rene VOL. II.


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