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CHRIST

CHRIST

a Dan. 7.
27.
Mic. 4. 7.

ing righteoking judg."their vintage shouting to have made to enter

1 Or,

prepared.

and threatened for her pride. CHAP. XVI, XVII.

The judgment of Moab. Before. 5 And in mercy a shall the throne ing: the treaders shall tread out no Before about 726. be established: and he shall sit wine in their presses; I have made about 726.

upon it in truth in the tabernacle of their vintage shouting to cease. - David, judging, and seeking judg- 11 Wherefore my bowels shall Like i. 33. ment, and hasting righteousness. sound like an harp for Moab, and

6 | We have heard of the pride mine inward parts for Kir-haresh. b Jer. 18. 29. of Moab; he is very proud : even of 12 | And it shall come to pass,

his haughtiness, and his pride, and his when it is seen that Moab is weary

wrath: but his lies shall not be so on the high place, that he shall come c Jer. 18. 20. 7 Therefore shall Moab howl for to his sanctuary to pray; but he shall • Moab, every one shall howl: for the not prevail.

foundations of Kir-hareseth shall ye 13 This is the word that the LORD | Or, muller. || mourn; surely they are stricken. hath spoken concerning Moab since

8 For the fields of Heshbon lan- | that time.
guish, and the vine of Sibmah: the 14 But now the Lord hath spoken,
lords of the heathen have broken saying, Within three years, as the
down the principal plants thereof, years of an hireling, and the glory of
they are come even unto Jazer, they Moab shall be contemned, with all

wandered through the wilderness: her that great multitude; and the remnant Or, plucked branches are || stretched out, they are shall be very small and || feeble. . gone over the sea.

CHAP. XVII. 99 Therefore I will bewail with

i Syria and Israel are threatened. 6 A remthe weeping of Jazer the vine of Sib

nant shall forsake idolatry. 9 The rest mah: I will water thee with my tears, shall be plagued for their impiety. 12 The

O Heshbon, and Elealeh: for || the woe of Israel's enemies. Salien upon, shouting for thy summer fruits and THE burden of Damascus. Be- about 741. for thy harvest is fallen.

1 hold, Damascus is taken away Jer. 48. 33. 10 And a gladness is taken away, from being a city, and it shall be a

and joy out of the plentiful field; and ruinous heap.
in the vineyards there shall be no 2 The cities of Aroer are forsaken: 740.
singing, neither shall there be shout- they shall be for flocks, which shall

1. Or, not many.

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6.- but his lies shall not be so.] That is, the predic.destroying enemies) is fallen.” Compare Jer. xlviii. 32. tions of such as take upon them to foretell things shall Parkhurst. See the marginal translation. Or the sense not have events agreeable to their pride and wrath. Dr. may be, according to the translation in the text, The Wells.

joy and acclamations, that were wont to be at the 8. -- they are come even unto Jazer, &c.] The plants gathering of thy summer fruits, and for thy plentiful of the celebrated “yine of Sibmah” are described as harvest, are now at an end, and shall be heard no more. propagated over all the neighbouring country: Jazer | Bp. Hall. . was in the north border of Moab; the wilderness of 11. - shall sound like an harp] Shall in their yearnMoab lay to the east of that country, (Numb, xxi. 23,) ing, through the vehemence of my passion, make a and by “the sea ” no other can well be understood but loud noise. Bp. Hall. the Dead sea, which was southwest. Dr. Blayney. Per- ! 12. - when it is seen that Moab is weary on the high haps the meaning of the words, “are gone over the place, &c.] Finding no relief in the petty idols of his sea," is, that these vines were not only in great request high places, he shall come to his chief sanctuary, to in the country of Moab, but had scions of them sent implore the aid of Chemosh, his god. Bp. Hall. Combeyond sea, into foreign countries. Bp. Lowth.

pare Numb. xxiii. 1, 13, 27. W. Lowth. · Some interpreters suppose, that by the “vine of Sib- 13. — since that time. Rather, a good while ago : mah” is meant the state of Moab, and its principal men so the same particle is rendered, chap. xlviii. 3, 5. This by the “principal plants ;" but these may better be judgment, saith the Prophet, was denounced against taken literally. The vines and the pastures (chap. xv. Moab in former time; particularly by Amos, chap. ii. 6.) formed the chief excellence of the country, and the 1, &c. It is now confirmed, and the particular time Prophet accordingly foretells the destruction of those specified when it shall be accomplished, ver. 14. W. things, the loss of which would most affect the people. | Lowth. Vitringa.

14. -- three years, as the years of an hireling,] See 9. - I will bewail with the weeping of Jazer &c.] That | Deut. xv. 18. W. Lowth. is, with a general lamentation, such as shall be heard from the uttermost skirts of the land. Bp. Hall.

Chap. XVII. ver. 1. — Damascus is taken away from - for the shouting &c.] The word in the original | being a city,] This prophecy was probably delivered signifies loud shouting, either as of men treading grapes, soon after those of the seventh and eighth chapters, in (ver. 10, and Jer. xxv: 30,) or of soldiers encouraging the beginning of the reign of Ahaz; and was fulfilled one another to battle or plunder, Jer. li. 14. And in by Tiglath-pileser's taking Damascus, and carrying the this latter view the learned Vitringa understands the people captives to Kir, 2 Kings xvi. 9. Bp. Lowth. word in this place: “for upon thy summer fruits and 2. they shall be for flocks, &c.] See note on chap. upon thy harvest the shout (that is, of plundering and | vii, 25.

LI

CHRIST

740.

fatness of his flesh but the harvestial of

heritance, and

be as cars with his arcorn, and day of grief and of

et shaking in the top shall re buke

till be

thistledorn.

A remnant shall forsake idolatry. ISAIAH.

The woe of Israel's enemies. Before - lie down, and none shall make them because of the children of Israel: and Before CHRIST 740. afraid.

there shall be desolation.

about 741. 3 The fortress also shall cease from 10 Because thou hast forgotten the Ephraim, and the kingdom from Da- God of thy salvation, and hast not mascus, and the remnant of Syria : been mindful of the rock of thy they shall be as the glory of the chil- strength, therefore shalt thou plant dren of Israel, saith the LORD of pleasant plants, and shalt set it with hosts.

strange slips: 4 And in that day it shall come to 11 In the day shalt thou make thy pass, that the glory of Jacob shall be plant to grow, and in the morning made thin, and the fatness of his flesh shalt thou make thy seed to flourish : shall wax lean. | but the harvest shall be a | heap in the || 0r, re

mored in the 5 And it shall be as when the day of grief and of desperate sorrow. day of inharvestman gathereth the corn, and 1 12 T Woe to the il multitude of

there shall be reapeth the ears with his arm; and it many people, which make a noise deadly

sorroir. shall be as he that gathereth ears in like the noise of the seas; and to the i Or, noise. the valley of Rephaim.

| rushing of nations, that make a rushing about 741. 6 | Yet gleaning grapes shall be like the rushing of || mighty waters! 10r, many.

left in it, as the shaking of an olive 13 The nations shall rush like the
tree, two or three berries in the top rushing of many waters: but God
of the uppermost bough, four or five shall rebuke them, and they shall flee
in the outmost fruitful branches there- far off, and shall be chased as the
of, saith the Lord God of Israel. chaff of the mountains before the

7 At that day shall a man look to wind, and like || a rolling thing before lloc,
his Maker, and his eyes shall have the whirlwind.
respect to the Holy One of Israel. / 14 And behold at eveningtide

8 And he shall not look to the trouble; and before the morning he
altars, the work of his hands, neither is not. This is the portion of them
shall respect that which his fingers that spoil us, and the lot of them

have made, either the groves, or the that rob us. !! Or, sun | images.

CHAP. XVIII. 9 9 In that day shall his strong

" i God in care of his people will destroy the cities be as a forsaken bough, and an Ethiopians. 7 An access thereby shall grow

uppermost branch, which they left unto the church. 3. The fortress also shall cease from Ephraim,] The &c.] The pleasant plants, and shoots from a foreign burden of Damascus naturally brings the Prophet to soil, are allegorical expressions for strange and idolspeak of the subversion of the kingdom of Israel, in atrous worship; vicious and abominable practices conthose days in alliance with the Syrians, chap. vii. 1, 2, nected with it; reliance on human aid, and on alliances and to be overthrown by the same enemy, at the same entered into with the neighbouring countries, especially time, chap. viii. 4. Bp. Horsley. This chapter treats Egypt; to all which the Israelites were greatly addicted, indeed more largely of the Israelites than of the Syrians; and in their expectations from which they should be and with regard to them was the prophecy more fully grievously disappointed. Bp. Lowth. completed, by the conquest of the kingdom, and cap- 11.- in the morning shalt thou make) When the tivity of the people, effected a few years later by Shal. Hebrews would signify doing a thing speedily, with maneser. Bp. Lowth.

care and diligence, they often thus express it. See 5. the valley of Rephaim.] The valley of Rephaim chap. I. 4; and Ps. xlvi. 5. W. Lowth. near Jerusalem, celebrated for its plentiful harvests, is - shall be a heap) “ Shall be removed," namely, here used poetically for any fruitful country. Bp. by the Assyrians. Parkhurst. See the margin. Lowth.

12-14. These verses seem to relate to the formidable 6.-as the shaking of an olive tree,] The former invasion of the Assyrians upon Judea, and their sudden verse was an illustration of Israel's entire destruction overthrow; ver. 14. fitly representing the condition of from the ridding of fields in the corn harvest : compare Sennacherib's army, which caused great consternation Jer. li. 33; Hos. vi. 11. Here the metaphor is taken over night, but were all destroyed before the next from the gathering of the summer fruits, and the rem morning, 2 Kings xix, 35. W. Lowth. nant compared to the few berries left on an olive tree 13. chaff of the mountains) The Jews used to that has been beaten by its owner, to be shaken off by thresh their corn upon hills, and places exposed to the the poor. See Deut. xxiv. 20. W. Lowth, Harmer. wind. See chap. xli. 15; 2 Chron. iii. 1. W. Lowth,

Agreeably to the promise here made of a remnant, we find that some of the ancient inhabitants of the ten Chap. XVIII. This is one of the most obscure protribes were left after Shalmaneser's captivity, and even phecies of Isaiah: the end and design of it, the people after that of Esar-haddon; and some turned to serve to whom it is addressed, the person who sends the the true God, as predicted ver. 7, S. See 2 Chron. messengers, and the nation to whom the messengers xxx. 10, 11; xxxv. 18. W. Lowth.

are sent, are all doubtful. Bp. Lowth. It has been con10, 11. - therefore shalt thou plant pleasant plants, 'sidered as such by the whole succession of interpreters.

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Before CHRIST

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God threateneth
CHAP. XVIII.

the Ethiopians. W O E to the land shadowing ! 3 All ye inhabitants of the world, Before about 714. W with wings, which is beyond and dwellers on the earth, see ye, about 714. the rivers of Ethiopia:

when he lifteth up an ensign on the spread und 2 That sendeth ambassadors by the mountains; and when he bloweth a 10r, e nation sea, even in vessels of bulrushes upon trumpet, hear ye.

ad- the waters, saying, Go, ye swift mes 4 For so the Lord said unto me, eth doan. sengers, to a nation || scattered and I will take my rest, and I will || con- || Or, regard xation of line, peeled, to a people terrible from their sider in my dwelling place like a clear in

beginning hitherto; Il ta nation meted heat || upon herbs, and like a cloud of Or, after under foot out and trodden down, || whose land dew in the heat of harvest. land the ... the rivers have spoiled!

5 For afore the harvest, when the

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live, and treading

rain.

Or, rrhose land the riters despise.

Most have assumed, that the principal matter of the saying, Go, ye swift messengers,] The word “sayprophecy is a woe or judgment; that the object of this ing" is not in the original, or old versions. It should woe is Egypt, or some contiguous country; that the seem that the command is God's, issued by His protime of the execution of the judgment was at hand, phet; and that the messengers, to whom the command when the prophecy was delivered. It appears to me, is given, are the very people summoned in the first that the principal matter of the prophecy is a promise verse to attend. Bp. Horsley. of the final restoration of the Israelites; that it has no to a people terrible from their beginning hitherto ;] respect to Egypt or any of the contiguous countries; The time present in prophetick vision is not the time of that the time of its completion is yet future, being in the delivery, but that of the fulfilment, of the prophecy. deed the season of the second advent of our Lord. Now the people of Egypt has long ceased to be of any Bp. Horsley.

consideration : but the people of the Jews has been Ver. 1. Woe to the land] The Hebrew particle here from their very beginning, are at this day, and will be to used does not necessarily imply a threat, is sometimes the end of time, a people venerable in a religious sense, an exclamation of surprise, and often simply compel- awfully “remarkable” (so the word might be rendered lative of persons at a distance. It may be rendered, rather than “terrible") on account of the special Provi“Ho! land,” or, “Ho to the land,” &c. Bp. Horsley, dence visibly attending them : and all the other partiVitringa, Bp. Lowth.

culars of the description here given of the people, to - land shadowing with wings, which is beyond the whom messengers are sent, agree accurately with the rivers of Ethiopia :) The mention of the rivers of Ethic character and conduct of the Jews in their present state opia has led almost all expositors to look to Egypt as of dispersion. Bp. Horsley. the country addressed. Some have understood by the whose land the rivers have spoiled !? That is, wings of Egypt, ridges of mountains running from armies of conquerors, which long since have spoiled the south to north, on either side of the Nile, somewhat land of the Jews. The inundation of rivers is a frequent resembling a pair of pinions; others take the wings for image for the ravages of armies of foreign invaders. the sails of numerous vessels, overshadowing the surface We have in ver. 1, 2, seen messengers summoned, a of the ocean; others, and Bp. Lowth among them, command given to them to go swiftly with the message, giving a different sense to the doubtful word rendered the people described to whom it was to be carried : it by our translators “shadowing,” translate,“ land of might be expected we should next have the message the winged cymbal,” which they suppose a poetical pe- given to the messengers in precise terms. The scene is riphrasis for the Egyptian sistrum, frequently used in suddenly closed with ver. 2, before the messengers set their idolatrous rites. Our translators appear to me out, before even the message is given : but the new obvery judiciously to have taken the word in the sense of jects which are immediately brought in view, evidently “shadowing." The shadow of wings is an usual image represent, under the usual emblems of sacred prophecy, in the prophetick language for protection afforded by the other parts of the same entire action; and declare the stronger to the weak; and in this passage may be in- purport, the season, and the effect of the message. Ver. tended to characterise some great people, who should be 3, an ensign or standard is lifted up on the mountains ; famous for the aid and protection they should afford a trumpet is blown on the hills ; the standard of the their friends and allies. The land of Cush (properly that cross of Christ; the trumpet of the Gospel. The resort district of Arabia, where the sons of Cush first settled) to the standard, the effect of the summons, in the end is in Holy Writ taken largely for a great tract of coun- will be universal. Bp. Horsley. try, comprehending much more than the proper territory 4. — I will consider in my dwelling place] Rather of the Cushites, extending east at least as far as the Ti. read, with the margin, “ I will regard my set dwelling." gris, and having for its western boundary the Nile: so The sentiment is, that, notwithstanding a long suspenthat according as we understand the Prophet to speak sion of extraordinary manifestations of God's power, of the African or the Asiatick Cush, the land beyond its which is here described under the image of that stillrivers is to be looked for far to the west or far to the ness and stagnation of the atmosphere which takes east of Palestine. Which of these is meant, it must be place in extreme heats, His providence is not asleep; left for time to shew. Bp. Horsley.

He is all the while keeping his eye fixed upon His pre2. – tessels of bulrushes] It is well known that the pared habitation, regarding the conduct and the forEgyptians commonly used on the Nile a light sort of tunes of His people, and at all times directing every ships, or boats, made of the reed papyrus. Bp. Lowth. thing, though often by a silent and secret operation, to See notes on Exod. ii. 3 ; and Job ix. 26.

their ultimate prosperity, and to the universal establishIf Egypt is the country spoken to,“ vessels of bul- ment of the true religion. Bp. Horsley. rushes" might be understood of those light skiffs ; but

like a clear heat upon herbs,] The marginal if the country spoken to be distant from Egypt, those reading, “after rain," seems to make better sense. vessels may only be used as an apt image of quick-sail- W. Lowth, Bp. Lowth. ing vessels of any material. Bp. Horsley.

I 5. - afore the harvest, when the bud is perfect, and the

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mingle.

An access thereby to the church. ISAIAH.

The confusion of Egypt. Before , bud is perfect, and the sour grape is THE burden of Egypt. Behold, Before about 714. ripening in the flower, he shall both 1 the LORD rideth upon a swift about 714.

cut off the sprigs with pruning hooks, cloud, and shall come into Egypt:
and take away and cut down the and the idols of Egypt shall be moved
branches.

at his presence, and the heart of
6 They shall be left together unto Egypt shall melt in the midst of it.
the fowls of the mountains, and to the 2 And I will + set the Egyptians + Hleb.
beasts of the earth: and the fowls against the Egyptians: and they shall
shall summer upon them, and all the fight every one against his brother,
beasts of the earth shall winter upon and every one against his neighbour;
them.

city against city, and kingdom against 7 I In that time shall the present kingdom.

be brought unto the Lord of hosts of 3 And the spirit of Egypt + shall 1 Heb. shall sprendendo ir people

a people || scattered and peeled, and fail in the midst thereof; and I will polished, &c. from a people terrible from their be- / + destroy the counsel thereof: and + Heb.

ginning hitherto; a nation meted out they shall seek to the idols, and to
and trodden under foot, whose land the charmers, and to them that have
the rivers have spoiled, to the place familiar spirits, and to the wizards.
of the name of the Lord of hosts, the 4 And the Egyptians will I || give | Or, shut up.
mount Zion.

over into the hand of a cruel lord;
CHAP. XIX.

and a fierce king shall rule over them,

saith the LORD, the Lord of hosts.
1 The confusion of Egypt. 11 The foolish-

| 5 And the waters shall fail from
ness of their princes. 18 T'he calling of
Egypt to the Church. 23 The covenant of

the sea, and the river shall be wasted
Egypt, Assyria, and Israel..

and dried up.

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sour grape is ripening in the flower,] Rather, “and the chapter is a detail of the judgments which were to fall blossom is become a swelling grape.” Bp. Lowth. upon Egypt in various periods of the history of that

The harvest and gathering of the fruits is the con- country, from the time of the Prophet downwards. Bp. stant image of that season, when God shall gather His Horsley. After the destruction of Sennacherib's army elect from the four winds of heaven. This is to be im- before Jerusalem, by which the Egyptians were freed mediately preceded by a pruning of the useless shoots from the yoke with which they were threatened by this and unfruitful luxurious branches : see John xv. 1, 2. powerful enemy, who had been carrying on a successful God, in the latter ages, will purify His church by such warfare against them, their affairs were again thrown signal judgments as shall strike all nations with reli- into confusion by intestine broils among themselves, gious awe. Bp. Horsley. See note on chap. xxvii. 4, 5. (see ver. 2 ;) perfect anarchy lasted for some years;

The interpretation of this confessedly obscure and then followed an aristocracy of twelve princes, which very difficult chapter has been given above according ended in the sole dominion of Psammitichus, who to the hypothesis of Bp. Horsley. The explanation of reigned fifty-four years. Not long after that came the Bp. Lowth supposes, that the prophecy was delivered invasion and conquest of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar, before Sennacherib's return from his Egyptian expedi- and then that by the Persians under Cambyses, the son tion; and that it was designed to give to the Jews, and of Cyrus. Bp. Lowth. perhaps likewise to the Egyptians, an intimation of the idols of Egypt shall be moved. When God God's counsels, in regard to the destruction of their executes His judgments upon a heathen nation, He is great and powerful enemy. He accordingly explains said to punish the idols of that people : see chap. xxi. the “people” and “nation” spoken of in ver. 2, to be 9; Exod. xii. 12; Jer. li. 44. W. Lowth. The same the Egyptians : by “the standard” and “the trumpet ” thing is foretold as to be performed by Nebuchadin ver. 3, he understands the meteors, the thunder, the nezzar, Jer. xliii. 11, &c.; Ezek. xxx. 13. The phrase lightning, &c., which accompanied the destruction of used here of the Lord's “riding upon a swift cloud" Sennacherib's army, as described chap. xxix. 6; xxx. | implies, that the conquest should be swift and sudden. 30, 31; x. 16, 17: and he states the subject of the Bp. Newton. This prophecy of the utter overthrow of fourth and following verses of the chapter to be, that heathen superstition is applicable also to the Gospel God would comfort and support His own people, times, and signifies that after great desolation and conthough threatened with immediate destruction by the fusion the Egyptians should learn to know the Lord : Assyrians; that Sennacherib's great designs and mighty | see ver. 21. Dr. Berriman. efforts should be frustrated ; that the chief part of his 4. - a cruel lord ;] Nebuchadnezzar; and afterarmy should be made a prey for the beasts of the field wards the whole succession of Persian kings, who in and the fowls of the air, ver. 5, 6; and that Egypt, general grievously oppressed the country; especially being delivered from his oppression, and avenged of Cambyses and Ochus, who are branded in history as the wrongs which she had suffered, should return cruel tyrants, and monsters of men. Bps. Lowth and thanks to God for the wonderful deliverance, both of Newton. herself and of the Jews, from this most powerful adver- 5. And the waters shall fail from the sea, and the sary. This interpretation of Bp. Lowth corresponds in rivers shall be wasted and dried up.7 By “the sea" here its outline with that proposed by Vitringa. Edit. | is to be understood the Nile; and the second part of

the verse to be taken as no more than the Prophet's Chap. XIX. ver. 1. The burden of Egypt.] This interpretation of the first. Jeremiah speaks thus of the

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The foolishness of
CHAP. XIX.

Egypt's princes. Before 6 And they shall turn the rivers counsellers of Pharaoh is become bru- Before about 714. far away; and the brooks of defence tish : how say ye unto Pharaoh, I am about 714.

shall be emptied and dried up: the the son of the wise, the son of ancient
reeds and flags shall wither. kings?

7 The paper reeds by the brooks, 12 Where are they? where are thy
by the mouth of the brooks, and every wise men? and let them tell thee now,

thing sown by the brooks, shall wither, and let them know what the LORD of + Heb. and be driven away, † and be no more. hosts hath purposed upon Egypt.

8 The fishers also shall mourn, 13 The princes of Zoan are become and all they that cast angle into the fools, the princes of Noph are debrooks shall lament, and they that ceived; they have also seduced Egypt, spread nets upon the waters shall even || + they that are the stay of the lor, languish.

tribes thereof. 9 Moreover they that work in fine 14 The Lord hath mingled pa Or, while flax, and they that weave || networks, perverse spirit in the midst thereof: a spirit of shall be confounded.

and they have caused Egypt to err in 10 And they shall be broken in every work thereof, as a drunken man Heh.. the † purposes thereof, all that make staggereth in his vomit. 1 Heb. of sluices and ponds † for fish.

15 Neither shall there be any work liting things. 119 Surely the princes of Zoan for Egypt, which the head or tail,

are fools, the counsel of the wise branch or rush, may do.

+ Heb. corners,

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perversities.

foundations.

Euphrates, chap. li. 36; and Nahum of the Nile, chap. it should seem, that the land originally lay with a coniii. 8; see also Zech. x. 10, 11. Of the Nile so de siderable descent to the river. To say then that things scribed we have instances in profane authors. Vitringa. sown or cultivated near the mouths of the canals (which See the note on Job vii. 12, from Scripture illustrated. must have been in the lowest places, and sufficiently

It is well known that the Nile increased in the sum- watered, when the higher grounds produced nothing, mer, and for some months overflowed the whole coun- for want of moisture) should wither, is to describe the try. The region about Delta particularly appeared like | utmost failure of water. Harmer. a vast sea; and the principal towns became so many 8. The fishers also shall mourn, &c.] There was great islands, and all communication was carried on by ships plenty of fish in Egypt: see Numb. xi. 5; (and the and boats. Hence the river had the name of Oceanus, note on Exod. vii. 21 ;) the lakes abounding even more as Diodorus tells us. Bryant.

than the Nile; as Egmont, Pococke, and other travelSome commentators suppose that this prophecy was lers, tell us. Bp. Lowth. to be literally fulfilled, and have accordingly seen its As the exhaustion and misery about to take place in accomplishment in the reign of the twelve tyrants, when Egypt has been already figured out under the emblem something of a failure is said to have taken place, or of the drying up of the Nile, the grand source of all its referred the words to a deficiency of water at some other wealth ; so the grief of the persons who would be the period : history does afford instances of this; but the first and greatest sufferers by that calamity, the fishers, expression may be also understood more probably in a &c., is put to express the general despondency of all metaphorical sense, and denote the decay of Egyptian orders. Vitringa. strength by metaphors taken from the decrease of the 9.- they that weave networks, 7 “ Networks," or Nile, upon the overflowing of which all the plenty and rather, “white works," as in the margin, may mean prosperity of Egypt depended. Vitringa, W. Lowth. | wicker-work, white from the peeling of the twigs made

6. And they shall turn the rivers far away;] That is, use of. Fish may be caught by wicker-work, as well The rivers shall be driven back, shall fail. Vitringa. | as by nets : and something of that kind appears in the

the brooks of defence shall be emptied and dried Prænestine Mosaick Pavement, which Dr. Shaw has up :) This was literally done by Megabyzus, general | given us. Harmer, Parkhurst. of a Persian army, sent by Artaxerxes to reduce Egypt 13. — Zoan Noph] Zoan, or Tanis, was one of the to obedience. Dr. Wells. By making many channels most ancient cities of Egypt; see Numb. xiii. 22; Ps. he drained one of the branches of the Nile, and took lxxviii. 43. Noph is better known by the name of possession of an island in the midst of it. Dean Pri- | Memphis. W. Lowth. deaux.

In verses 11-17 are recounted the immediate causes 7. The paper reeds) The papyrus is the peculiar of the above-mentioned evils; the folly of the rulers, produce of the Nile, the streams drawn from it, and the who valued themselves on their wisdom; and the cow

it, paper, and the boats on the Nile, (see note on chap. would not have become a prey to so many foreign enexviii. 2,) Pliny tells us, that the Egyptians applied it to mies, but through the excessive weakness of the Egyptvarious purposes, using the root for wood, and making ians, both in counsel and in action; they had not the of the bark, sails, ropes, clothes, &c. Vitringa.

courage even to defend themselves, but trusted chiefly - by the brooks, by the mouth of the brooks,] What to their mercenaries, who, instead of defending, were is here translated “brooks," is in Éxod. vii. 19, (where often the first to betray them. Bp. Newton. there is a particular representation of the waters of 14. The Lord hath mingled a perverse spirit &c.] The Egypt, as here,) rendered “rivers ;" both may signify Lord in His justice hath given them up to a spirit of the canals drawn from the Nile by Egyptian princes. giddiness and perverseness ; justly punishing their Dr. Shaw tells us, that the soil near the banks of the pride with the seduction of their leaders, who have Nile itself is very considerably deeper than at the ex- caused Egypt to go wrong in all their enterprises. Bp. tremity to which the inundations reach; from whence | Hall.

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