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The calling of Egypt to the church. ISAIAH.
The covenant of Egypt, 8c. Beforer 16 In that day shall Egypt be like in the land of Egypt: for they shalla about 714. unto women: and it shall be afraid cry unto the LORD because of the about 714.
and fear because of the shaking of the oppressors, and he shall send them a
in himsemention thereof Shery one that to 2. And the Loma.
guage of Canaan, and swear to the and they shall return even to the
them, and shall heal them.
and the Egyptian into Assyria, and
17. And the land of Judah shall be a terror unto and at ver. 21, are taken for the worship and service of Egypt, &c.] The threatening hand of God will be held God in general; it being common in the prophetick out and shaken over Egypt, from the side of Judea, style to speak of future times in the language and acthrough which the Assyrians will march to invade it. cording to the ideas of the present; of the spiritual Bp. Lowth.
worship God intended, by the known terms of the wor18. In that day] That is, After that time. Bp. New- ship then used. W. Lowth, Bp. Chandler. The pillar ton. See the notes on chap. iv. 2; x. 20.
in the border for a witness, alludes to that erected by — shall five cities in the land of Egypt speak the Jacob at Beth-el, (Gen. xxvii. 18,) and to the altar language of Canaan,] It is a way of speaking in Scrip- built on the border of Jordan, Josh. xxii. 10. W. ture to use a common definite number for an inde- Lowth. finite. See Amos i. 3, 6, 9; (and the note on Job v. 19.) 20. — because of the oppressors, and he shall send them “Shall speak the language of Canaan" signifies, that a saviour, 7 The conquest of Persia by Alexander might they shall worship God with the true Israelites. W. well be considered as a deliverance to Egypt : upon his Lowth.
| coming the people all cheerfully submitted to him, out The whole passage to the end of the chapter contains a of hatred to the Persians, (see note on ver. 4,) so that general intimation of the future propagation of the know- he became master of the country without opposition. ledge of the true God in Egypt and Syria, under the suc- Bps. Lowth and Newton. cessors of Alexander; and, in consequence of this propa- The words may also be fitly applied to the tyranny gation, of the early reception of the Gospel in the same which the devil exercises over the pagan world, who are countries, when it should be published to the world. led captive by him at his will, from whence they can Bp. Lowth. Many Jews, after Nebuchadnezzar had be redeemed only by the great Saviour of the world, taken Jerusalem, fled into Egypt; and carried along with Jesus Christ. W. Lowth. them Jeremiah, who there uttered most of his prophe- 23—25. — a highway out of Egypt to Assyria, &c.] cies concerning the conquest of Egypt by Nebuchad. It is predicted here that Egypt and Assyria, which used nezzar. From thence some knowledge of God, and to be at great enmity with each other, shall be united some notices of the prophecies, might easily be derived in the same worship by the intermediation of Israel. to the Egyptians. Alexander transplanted many of the The kingdom of Syria, which was established by SeleuJews into his new city Alexandria : the first Ptolemy cus after the time of Alexander the Great, comprehendcarried more ; and his successors gave great encourage- ing nearly the same countries with the ancient empire ment to settlers : nor were the Jews less favoured by of Assyria, and in other respects resembling it, may be many of the Syrian kings. Bp. Newton.
- one shall be called, The city of destruction.] The times; (see note on Ashur, Numb. xxiv. 24 :) now by margin reads, “The city of the sun ;” and many sup- means of the many Jews and proselytes who were resipose the city Heliopolis to be meant here, and that dent in Syria and Egypt, the three countries, Israel, the other name is substituted for it (as being expressed Egypt, and Syria, were in some measure united in the in the Hebrew by a word which bears near affinity to same worship; See Bp. Newton's note on ver. 18. It the true name) by way of reproach, and implying withal, was more fully accomplished when these countries that the idol there worshipped should be utterly de- became Christian: and we piously hope and believe, stroyed. Upon much the same principle Beth-el, which that it will still receive its more perfect completion signifies the house of God, is called, when become the in the latter days, when Mahometism shall be rooted seat of idolatry, Beth-aven, that is, the house of vanity, out, and Christianity again flourish in those countries, Hos. iv. 15; x. 5. W. Lowth.
when “the fulness of the Gentiles shall come in, and 19. In that day shall there be an altar to the Lord &c.] all Israel be saved,” Rom. xi, 25, 26. Vitringa, Bp. The altar, sacrifice, oblation, and vows, mentioned here | Newton. ..
CHRIST about 714.
The captivity of Egypt
and Ethiopia. cibelore 24 In that day shall Israel be the wonder upon Egypt and upon Ethio- Before about 714. third with Egypt and with Assyria, pia;
even a blessing in the midst of the 4 So shall the king of Assyria lead
| away † the Egyptians prisoners, and + Heb: the
I 5 And they shall be afraid and
ashamed of Ethiopia their expectaA type prefiguring the shameful captivity of
capiony Egypt and Ethiopia.
tion, and of Egypt their glory. TN the year that Tartan came unto.
6 And the inhabitant of this || isle |Or, country.
shall say in that day, Behold, such is
our expectation, whither we flee for
mt help to be delivered from the king of 2 At the same time spake the LORD
Assyria: and how shall we escape ? + Heb.by the +by Isaiah the son of Amoz, saying,
1 The prophet, bewailing the captivity of his
people, seeth in a vision the fall of Babylon thy foot. And he did so, walking by the Medes and Persians. 11 Edom, naked and barefoot.
scorning the prophet, is moved to repentance. 3 And the Lord said, Like as my 13 The set time of Arabia's calamity. servant Isaiah hath walked naked and THE burden of the desert of the barefoot three years for a sign and I sea. As whirlwinds in the south
Chap. XX. The last chapter was a general prophecy a sign of the distress that awaited the Egyptians; the against Egypt; this foretells the conquest of it by Sen- Prophets foreshewed things by actions as well as words, nacherib, who overran Egypt and Ethiopia, which coun. Ezek. xxiv. 18; Hos. i. 2, 3; iii. 1, 2; this mode of tries were the Jews' confederates against him: see 2 expressing important circumstances by actions being Kings xviii. 21. compared with 2 Kings xix. 9. They customary and familiar among all Eastern nations. The are often reproved for their vain confidence in Egypt; conduct of the Prophets on these occasions, considered see ver. 5; and chap. xxx. 2 ; xxxi. 1. With regard to with reflection on the importance of their ministry, and the word our translation renders “ Ethiopia," properly with allowance for difference of manners, will appear Cush, it is a great question with the learned whether to have been not only very striking and impressive, but Ethiopia, properly so called, be meant by it, or Arabia. It strictly agreeable to the design and decorum of the prois joined, chap. xliii. 3, with Seba. W. Lowth. See note phetick character. W. Lowth, Dr. Gray. See the note on chap. xviii. 1: and Dr. Hales's note on Numb. xii. 1. on Gen. xxxii. 25.
Ver. 1. — Sargon the king of Assyria sent him,)] Tar- 3.- three years for a sign and wonder] Perhaps, at tan was one of Sennacherib's generals ; (2 Kings xviii. intervals during that time. Some think we should un17 ;) and Tirhakah king of Ethiopia was in alliance derstand three days, a year being sometimes placed in with the king of Egypt against Sennacherib. These cir- ! prophetick language for a day: others apply the three cumstances make it probable that by Sargon is meant years, not to Isaiah's walking, but to the calamity foreSennacherib. Bp. Lowth.
shewn thereby to be to last three years; or to happen - fought against Ashdod, When Sennacherib's within three years. Others consider the account as nararmy came up against all the fenced cities of Judah, rative of a transaction in vision, or as a parable related (2 Kings xviii. 13,) he might send a detachment against by Isaiah. Dr. Gray. this city, belonging probably at that time to Hezekiah's 6. — the inhabitant of this isle] The margin gives dominions, 2 Kings xviii. 8. Ashdod or Azotus was a “country;" and so is the word sometimes to be taken. strong place, and afterwards held out twenty-nine years W. Lowth. See notes on chap. xi. 11; Gen. x. 5. against Psammitichus king of Egypt. W. Lowth, Bp. Louth.
Chap. XXI. ver. 1.- desert of the sea.] Babylon, 2. — loose the sackcloth from off thy loins,] As it was which was seated in a plain, and surrounded by water. a principal part of the prophetick office to denounce The propriety of the expression consists in this, not God's judgments, so the Prophets commonly wore sack- only that any large collection of waters in the Oriental cloth, the habit of mourning, as suitable to their em- style is called a sea, but also that the places about Baployment; (see Rev. xi. 3;) of this kind was the bylon are said from the beginning to have been overhairy garment by which Elias and John Baptist are fowed with waters, and to have been called the sea. described, 2 Kings i. 8; Matt. iii. 4. See also Zech. xii. Compare Jer. li. 13. Bp. Newton. It was a great bar4. W. Lowth.
ren morassy desert originally : such it became after the - naked and barefoot.] Those are said to be naked taking of the city by Cyrus : (see note on chap. xiv. in the Scripture phrase, who go without their upper 23 :) and such it continues to this day. Bp. Lowth. garment, or have put off the habit proper to their station | The ten first verses of this chapter contain a predicor quality. See John xxi. 7; 1 Sam. xix. 24; and note tion of the taking of Babylon by the Medes and Persians. on Job xxii. 6. Going barefoot was a sign of mourn. It opens with the Prophet's seeing at a distance the ing, 2 Sam. xv. 30. Dr. Waterland, W. Lowth. | dreadful storm that is gathering and ready to burst upon
Isaiah is described here walking in this manner as it: the event is intimated in general terms; God's orders
CHRIST about 714.
The fall of Babylon
by the Medes and Persians. Before pass through; so it cometh from the ( unto me, Go, set a watchman, let Before about 714. desert, from a terrible land.
him declare what he seeth.
I 8 And || he cried, A lion: My 1 Or, cried as
men. And he answered and said, 4 || My heart panted, fearfulness Babylon is fallen, is fallen; and all b Jer. 51.8. wandered. affrighted me: the night of my plea- the graven images of her gods he 16. 2.
sure hath he + turned into fear unto hath broken unto the ground.
| 10 O my threshing, and the + corn + Heb. son.
6 For thus hath the LORD said 11 q The burden of Dumah. He
are issued to the Medes and Persians (ver. 2.) to set forth signify a chariot, or the rider in it; or a rider on a on the expedition which He had given them in charge : horse or other animal; or a company of chariots or upon this the Prophet enters into the midst of the action, riders ;) it is pretty clear, that Darius and Cyrus, the and in the person of Babylon expresses in the strongest Medes and the Persians, are intended to be distinguishterms the astonishment and horrour that seize her on ed by the two riders, or two sorts of cattle. Bp. Lowth. the sudden surprise of the city, at the season dedicated 8. And he cried, A lion :) The marginal reading, “ as to pleasure and festivity; ver. 3, 4. Bp. Lowth. a lion,” gives an easier sense; with a strong voice, like a
- As whirlwinds in the south] See Job xxxvii. 9; lion: the particle as is frequently understood ; see chap. Zech. ix. 14. The most vehement storms to which xv. 5. W. Lowth, Bp. Hall. Judea was subject came from the great desert country 9. — answered] That is, continued his discourse; for to the south of it. Bp. Lowth,
similar use of the word “answer," see particularly Matt. 2. — the treacherous dealer dealeth treacherously, &c. xi. 25, and the Gospels elsewhere. W. Lowth. The words may be rather rendered passively, “The | -- all the graven images of her gods he hath broken plunderer is plundered, and the destroyer is destroyed.” unto the ground.] Xerxes, on his return from Greece, Bp. Lowth.
passing through Babylon, pillaged the temples, and Elam:7 By this, taking the word with some pulled down all the images, thus completing this and latitude, we may rightly understand Persia. Vitringa. other prophecies ; see Jer. 1. 2; li. 44, 47, 52. Dean We do not find this last term (which signifies horsemen) Prideaux.
ple the art of managing horses : Ezekiel is the first who application, the end, and design of the prophecy are mentions them by the name of Persians; before that here admirably given in a short expressive address to period, it is probable that the names Cush and Elam the Jews : O my people, whom I shall make subject for included most of Persia. Bochart. If however by Elam your punishment to the Babylonians, to try and prove we understand here the province strictly so called, it is you, to separate the chaff from the corn, the bad from true that this also, though subject to Babylon, rose up the good among you, hear this for your consolation; against it. Bp. Newton.
your slavery and oppression will have an end in the de-- all the sighing thereof have I made to cease.] That struction of your oppressors. The Prophet abruptly is, the sighing caused by it: namely, of those who have breaks off, and, instead of continuing the speech in the been oppressed by the Babylonian tyranny. Compare person of God, adds in his own, This I declare unto you chap. xiv. 3. Bp. Lowth, W. Lowth.
from God. Bp. Lowth. It constantly occurs in the pro4. — the night of my pleasure hath he turned into fear] phecies that the persons speaking are changed, and that The night, when I thought to have some respite, and God's discourse is intermixed with that of the Prophet. be at ease ; see Job vii. 13, 14. Or, some understand Vitringa. the words of that festival night when Babylon was sur- The word threshing is used here to express the object prised, (Dan. v:) the following verse favours this sense. or matter that is threshed: for “corn of my floor," in W. Lowth.
the original it is, as the margin gives, son. It is an 5-9. Prepare the table, &c.] The Prophet describes idiom of the Hebrew language to call the effect, the the carelessness of the Babylonians, and in the midst of object, any thing that belongs in almost any way to their feasting the sudden alarm of war. The event is another, the son of it. Bp. Lowth. See chap. v. 1, and then declared in a very singular manner: God orders | margin there. the Prophet to set a watchman to look out, and to re- 11. The burden of Dumah.] That this is to be underport what he sees; and though the passage, which relates stood of Edom or Idumea, may be inferred from the what he sees, is extremely obscure, (owing to the am- mention of Seir; this last being a name by which Edoin biguity of a word which occurs three times, and may lis commonly denoted in Scripture. Dr. Wells.
CHRIST about 712.
& 9. 1. + Heb. I will be bitter in
The set time of Arabia's calamity. CHAP. XXI, XXII. The invasion of Jewry lamented.
Before calleth to me out of Seir, Watchman,' human wisdom and worldly joy. 15 He Before CHRIST about 2 When the night Watchman, what | Eliakim, prefigurin
Eliakim, prefiguring the kingdom of Christ, 12 The watchman said, The morn-1
M HE burden of the valley of vision. ing cometh, and also the night: if ye 1 What aileth thee now, that thou will enquire, enquire ye: return, come. art wholly gone up to the housetops?
13 | The burden upon Arabia. In 2 Thou that art full of stirs, a tuthe forest in Arabia shall ye lodge, O multuous city, a joyous city: thy slain ye travelling companies of Dedanim. men are not slain with the sword, nor
14 The inhabitants of the land of dead in battle. I Or, bring Tema || brought water to him that 3 All thy rulers are fled together,
was thirsty, they prevented with their they are bound by the archers : all + Heb. of the bread him that fled.
that are found in thee are bound toOr, for fear. 15 For they fled || + from the swords, † Heb. from
gether, which have fled from far. from the drawn sword, and from the 4 Therefore said I, a Look away a Jer. 4. 19. bent bow, and from the grievousness from me: * I will weep bitterly, laof war. bour not to comfort me, because of
weeping. 16 For thus hath the Lord said
the spoiling of the daughter of my
treading down, and of perplexity by 17 And the residue of the number | the Lord God of hosts in the valley + Heb. bows. of + archers, the mighty men of the
of vision, breaking down the walls, children of Kedar, shall be diminish
and of crying to the mountains. ed: for the LORD God of Israel hath
6 And Elam bare the quiver with spoken it.
chariots of men and horsemen, and
Kir + uncovered the shield.
by the Persians. 8 He reproveth their + thy choicest valleys shall be full of valleys. - Watchman,] The Prophets are often compared bours, they brought water to their thirsty companies, to watchmen; as foreseeing evils at a distance, and and bread to relieve their hunger, in that forced and warning the people : compare chap. lii. 8; lxii. 6 ; Ezek. / sudden flight. Bp. Hall. ii. 17. W. Louth.
16. — Within a year, according to the years of an hireThis prophecy, from the uncertainty of the occasion ling,] A common year. Dr. Wells. This description of on which it was uttered, and from the brevity of the it seems to be used to distinguish from a prophetical expression, is extremely obscure. The Edomites, as year, (see Numb. xiv. 34; Ezek. iv. 6;) or from some well as the Jews, were subdued by the Babylonians. remarkable time in general; as we read of the “acceptThey inquire of the Prophet, how long their subjectionable year of the Lord," chap. lxi. 2, the “year of recomis to last : he seems to intimate that the Jews should be pences," chap. xxxiv. 8. W. Lowth. delivered from their captivity; not so the Edomites : (Bp. Lowth :) that a morning should arise to the one Chap. XXII. This prophecy foretells the invasion by after their night of calamity, and not to the other ; see the Assyrians under Sennacherib, or by the Chaldeans
the Idumeans to have begun the same year that, accord- both in view. The third verse seems to relate to the ing to Josephus, Nebuchadnezzar executed the Divine Aight of Zedekiah, 2 Kings xxv. 4, 5, from the Chaljudgments against the Ammonites, Moabites, &c.; the deans; ver. 6, and ver. 9-11, rather to the siege by fifth after the destruction of Jerusalem. Vitringa. | Sennacherib. Bp. Lowth, Vitringa. See notes on those
13. The burden upon Arabia.] This prophecy was to verses. be fulfilled within a year of the time of its delivery, ver. Ver. 1. - valley of vision.] Jerusalem, according to 16; and was probably delivered about the same time Josephus, was built on two opposite hills, Sion and with the rest in this part of the book, soon after or be- Acra, separated by a valley; and it is thus called, as fore the fourteenth of Hezekiah, the year of Senna- being the seat of Divine revelation. Bp. Lowth. cherib's invasion. In his first march into Judea, or in - that thou art wholly gone up] The people's runhis return from the Egyptian expedition, he might ning all to the top of their houses gives a lively image overrun the several clans of Arabians mentioned here: of a sudden general alarm. Bp. Lowth. See the notes their distress on some such occasion is the subject of on chap. xv. 3; and Deut. xxii. 8. the prophecy. Bp. Lowth.
| 2. Thou that art full of stirs, &c.] Thou, O Jerusalem, - travelling companies] See the notes on Gen. xvi. that art so full of people, and full of noise, a populous 12; xxxvii. 25; Job xli. 6. Those of Dedanim were and jolly city, how is it that thy citizens are so base that the posterity of Dedan, Abraham's grandson; those of they do not stand it out in fight; neither are they dead Tema and 'Kedar, descended from two of Ishmael's by the sword, but with fear rather? Bp. Hall. sons, Gen. xxv. 3, 13, 15. These people were famous 6. — Elam bare the quiver &c.] See note on chap. for the use of the bow, (ver. 17,) like their ancestor Ish | xii, 18. The Kir mentioned here was a city of the mael, Gen. xxi. 20. W. Lowth.
Medes. W. Lowth. 14. - brought water &c.] Pitying their chased neigh- Both Medes and Elamites were allies or tributaries to
with an ercellent cover
The Persian invaders reproved.
The downfal of Shebna, Before chariots, and the horsemen shall set 15 9 Thus saith the Lord God of Before about 712. themselves in array || at the gate. hosts, Go, get thee unto this treasurer, about 712.
8 | And he discovered the cover-even unto Shebna, which is over the | Or,
ing of Judah, and thou didst look in house, and say,
whom hast thou here, that thou hast
for himself in a rock? 10 And ye have numbered the 17 Behold, I the LORD will carry 1 Or, the houses of Jerusalem, and the houses | thee away with ta mighty captivity, covered inee have ye broken down to fortify the and will surely cover thee. wall.
18 He will surely violently turn ing, and,
station, and from thy state shall he
Eliakim the son of Hilkiah :
slaying oxen, and killing sheep, eat- robe, and strengthen him with thy b Chap. 56. ing flesh, and drinking wine : blet us girdle, and I will commit thy goWisd. 2. 6. eat and drink; for to morrow we shall vernment into his hand : and he 1 Cor. 15. 32. die.
shall be a father to the inhabitants
so he shall copen, and none shall Res! 32:14.
the two walls for com a ditch between I. 18 Hewly cov
# Heb. the capfirity of a man. + Heb. large
the Assyrians at the time of Sennacherib's expedition; 15. — Get thee unto this treasurer, even unto Shebna,] that the Medes and men of Kir were so, is obvious from The relation which the following prophecy concerning 2 Kings xvi. 9; xvii. 6. That these people were so to Shebna has to the foregoing seems to be, that it might Nebuchadnezzar at the time of his besieging Jerusalem, I have been delivered about the same time, and Shebna is not so apparent from history. Vitringa.
| might be a principal person among those whose luxury 8. And he discovered the covering of Judah, &c.] The and profaneness is severely reprehended by the Prophet, meaning is, When the enemy hath dismantled the for- ver. 11–14. Shebna the scribe, mentioned in the histified cities of Judah, then you will bethink yourselves tory of Hezekiah, chap. xxxvi, seems to have been a of providing arms for your defence. “The house of the different person from this Shebna, the treasurer, or forest” was an armoury within the city of Jerusalem ; steward of the household. The Eliakim here mentioned see 1 Kings x. 17. It was built by Solomon; and thus was probably the person who, at the time of Sennachecalled, probably, from the great quantity of cedar from rib's invasion, was actually treasurer, the son of Hilkiah. Lebanon employed in the building, 1 Kings vii. 2, 3. Bp. Lowth. Concerning this Shebna, (for we can hardly W. Lowth, Bp. Lowth.
conceive him to be the same, though some interpreters 11. Ye made also a ditch between the two walls &c.] have, with Shebna the scribe,) history affords no inThis agrees with the circumstance of Hezekiah's stop- formation; we may suppose him, froin what is said, ping up all the waters of the fountains without the city, ver. 18, after the deprivation of his office, removed into and bringing them into the city by a subterraneous a foreign country, and dying there in disgrace and passage cut through the rock: those of the old pool to a ignominy. Vitringa. place where he made a double wall, so that the pool was 16.— that thou hast hewed thee out a sepulchre-on between the two walls. This great work is particularly high,] See note on chap. xix. 9. mentioned by the sacred historians, 2 Kings xx. 20; 1 17. - will surely cover thee.] Persons under disgrace 2 Chron. xxxii. 2, 3, 5, 30; and celebrated by the son or condemnation had their heads covered; see Esther of Sirach, Ecclus. xlviii. 17. Bp. Lowth.
vii. 8 ; Jer. xiv. 3. W. Lowth. See also note on Job - neither had respect unto him that fashioned it long ix. 24. ago.] That is, to God; who enabled David at first, and 21. — strengthen him with thy girdle,] See chap. v. his successors, to increase and fortify this city, chose it 27; and Job xii. 21; and the notes there. to be the place of His temple, and promised to continue 22. And the key of the house of David will I lay upon His special protection over it. Dr. Wells, W. Lowth. This shoulder ;] A key is an emblem of trust; and the