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and Eliakim's advancement. CHAP. XXII, XXIII.
The overthrow of Tyre. Before shut; and he shall shut, and none waste, so that there is no house, no Before
CHRIST about 712. shall open.
| entering in: from the land of Chittim about 715.
24 And they shall hang upon him Zidon, that pass over the sea, have
small quantity, from the vessels of cups, Sihor, the harvest of the river, is her | Or, instru: even to all the || vessels of flagons. revenue; and she is a mart of naments of viols.
25 In that day, saith the LORD of tions.
5 As at the report concerning 1 The miserable overthrow of Tyre. 17 Their Egypt, so shall they be sorely pained unhappy return.
| at the report of Tyre. about 715. THE burden of Tyre. Howl, ye 6 Pass ye over to Tarshish; howl,
1 ships of Tarshish; for it is laid ye inhabitants of the isle. expression alludes to the fashion of keys in old time, - Howl, ye ships of Tarshish; for it is laid waste,] which were long, and made like a hook : (W. Lowth :) See note at 1 Kings xxii. 48. The destruction of such such a key would lie well on the shoulder, and could a mart as Tyre must have been a great loss to all merhardly be commodiously carried otherwise. In allusion chant adventurers. W. Lowth. Concerning Chittim, see to the image of the key as the ensign of power, the the note on Numb. xxiv. 24. unlimited extent of that power is expressed with great 3. — by great waters the seed of Sihor, &c.] An old clearness, as well as force, by the sole and exclusive English translation renders this more clearly, “ the seed authority to open and shut. Our Saviour therefore has of Nilus, growing by the abundance of waters, &c." upon a similar occasion made use of a like manner of W. Lowth. The Nile is here called Sihor, (as 1 Chron. expression; (Matt. xvi. 19;) and in the passage from xiii. 5; Jer. ii. 18,) from the blackness of its waters the Revelation referred to in the margin, has applied to charged with the mud, which it brings down from EthiHimself the very words of the Prophet. Bp. Lowth. We opia when it overflows : see note on Gen. xv. 18. Egypt must suppose Isaiah therefore to look farther than the by its extraordinary fertility, caused by this overflowing, immediate completion of his prophecy; to represent supplied the neighbouring nations with corn; by which Eliakim as a type of the Messiah; and His paternal branch of trade the Tyrians gained great wealth. Bp. government or ministry (ver. 21.) as a figure of Christ's Lowth. Ezekiel, as it were commenting upon these glorious kingdom, when all power should be given Him, words of Isaiah, “the mart of nations,” recounts (chap. (ver. 24 ;) as we may suppose Shebna to represent the xxvii.) the various nations whose commodities were unworthy rulers who were over the Jewish Church, and brought to Tyre, and were bought and sold by the like him were to be driven into foreign lands, spoiled of Tyrians. It was, as is well known, the most celetheir former dignities, and to meet with a fate unworthy brated place in the world for its trade and navigation, of themselves, their country, and their religion. Vitringa. the seat of commerce, and the centre of riches. Bp.
23. — I will fasten him as a nail &c.] See Ezra ix. 8; | Newton. Ecclus. xiv. 24; Ezek. xv. 3. Where the way of life 1 4. — the sea hath spoken, - saying, I travail not, &c.] and houses are more simple, it is necessary to furnish Tyre is here introduced bemoaning her desolate condithe inside of the several apartments with sets of nails, tion, that she is become as though she never had any or large pegs, to dispose of and hang up the moveables children or inhabitants. W. Lowth. Zidon, as the moin common use. They do not drive these into the ther city, (see ver. 12,) is supposed to be deeply afflicted Eastern walls, which are too hard if of brick, if of clay with the calamity of her daughter. Bp. Lowth. too mouldering, but fix them in as they are building. 5. As at the report concerning Egypt, so shall they be Eliakim is considered a principal stake of this sort, for sorely pained at the report of Tyre.] The destruction of the support of all vessels destined for common or sacred Tyre here spoken of being prior to that calamity of uses; that is, as the principal support of the whole civil Egypt which is usually joined with it in the Prophets; and ecclesiastical polity: the nail, mentioned ver. 25, is see Ezek. xxix. 18, 19; others render this verse thus; of course to be understood of Shebna. Bp. Lowth, Sir “As soon as the report of Tyre shall come to Egypt, J. Chardin.
they shall be in great pain;" namely, because of the
export of their corn: see note on ver. 3. W. Lowth. Chap. XXIII. ver. 1. The burden of Tyre.] This pro- ! 6. Pass ye over] What the Prophet delivers by way phecy may best be understood of Nebuchadnezzar's of advice is to be understood as a prediction; and St. laying siege to Tyre, and taking it. The word “isle" | Jerome asserts, upon the authority of Assyrian histories is used in other texts for a maritime place; see note on now lost, that the Tyrians, when they were besieged by chap. xi. 11; and, ver. 4, Tyre is called “the sea, the Nebuchadnezzar, and saw no hope of escaping, fled to strength of the sea,” because the inhabitants were strong Carthage, or some islands of the Ionian and Ægean at sea, and looked upon it as their proper element. W. sea. Here the Prophet bids them pass to Tarshish, that Lowth.
| is, Tartessus in Spain; and (ver. 12.) to Chittim, the VOL. II.
overthrow of T'yre. Beforer 7 Is this your joyous city, whose 12 And he said, Thou shalt no Before about 715. antiquity is of ancient days? her own more rejoice, O thou oppressed virgin, about 715. om feet shall carry her + afar off to so- daughter of Zidon: arise, pass over journ.
to Chittim; there also shalt thou have
9 The Lord of hosts hath purposed | dwell in the wilderness: they set up
O daughter of Tarshish: there is no your strength is laid waste. + Heb.girdle. more + strength.
| 15 And it shall come to pass in 11 He stretched out his hand over that day, that Tyre shall be forgotten the sea, he shook the kingdoms: the seventy years, according to the days LORD hath given a commandment of one king: after the end of seventy + Heb.it
|| against + the merchant city, to des- years + shall Tyre sing as an barlot. Tyre as the strengths. troy the || strong holds thereof. 16 Take an harp, go about the man lol!
I Or, concerning a merchantman. + Heb. Canaan. I Or,
islands and countries bordering upon the Mediterranean. chadnezzar had subdued Tyre and Egypt, we may supBp. Newton.
pose, as Megasthenes reports, that he carried his arms 7. Is this your joyous city, whose antiquity is of ancient farther westward ; so that, their conqueror thus purdays?] Tyre is mentioned as a strong place, as early as suing them, the Tyrians might well be said to have no in the days of Joshua ; Josh, xix. 29. Strabo calls it rest : however this might be, in aftertimes the Carthe most ancient of the Phenician cities after Sidon.thaginians, and other colonies with which the Tyrians This last is mentioned, Gen. x. 19, and again chap. xlix. on this occasion incorporated, (see note on ver. 6,) were 13; it is called by Joshua, chap. xi. 8, “Great Zidon." continually in a very unsettled tumultuous state. Bp. W. Lowth.
Newton. - her own feet shall carry her afar off to sojourn. 13. Behold the land of the Chaldeans ; &c.] The proHe speaks of Tyre, as of a delicate woman forced to phet begins here with an exclamation, importing that travel on foot into foreign countries. See chap. xlvii. 2; something new and unexpected is about to follow; and note on chap. iii. 17. W. Lowth.
which is, not that the predicted overthrow of Tyre should 9. - to stain the pride of all glory,] Not long before be brought about, as any one might have supposed, by the delivery of this prophecy, the Tyrians had beat the the Assyrians, who were the ruling power in Asia at fleets of Shalmaneser with a very inferior force, and held the time when the prophecy was delivered; but that the out five years against his siege, when he died; they people of the Chaldeans, at that period comparatively grew very insolent upon such success, and to this pride inconsiderable, fixed originally, from a straggling life, of theirs this prophecy of Isaiah may more particularly in their place of residence by the Assyrians, and inrefer. Dean Prideaux, Dr. Wells.
debted to them for all their improvements after, that 10. Pass through thy land as a river,] A city, taken “he," namely, this people, should “ bring Tyre to ruin.” by siege, and destroyed, whose walls are demolished, Vitringa. whose policy is dissolved, whose wealth is dissipated, 15. — according to the days of one king :] The word whose people is scattered over the wide country, is here “ king” is put here for kingdom, as Dan. vii. 17 ; viii. 20. compared to a river, whose banks are broken down, The destruction of Tyre was some time after that of and its waters, let loose and overflowing all the neigh- Jerusalem ; but Jeremiah seems (chap. xxv. 11, 12.) to bouring plains, are wasted and lost. A “girdle,” which confine the subjection of all the countries which Necollects, binds, and keeps together the loose raiment, buchadnezzar conquered to seventy years; some of when applied to a river, may mean a mound, mole, or them were subdued sooner, some later, but the end of artificial dam, which contains the waters, and prevents that period was the common term for the liberation them from spreading abroad. Bp. Lowth. See the mar- of them all. Nebuchadnezzar began his conquests in ginal reading.
the first year of his reign; from thence to the taking of O daughter of Tarshish :] Tyre is, at ver. 12, Babylon by Cyrus are the seventy years; and these called “ daughter of Zion,” being, as tradition says, a limit the duration of the Babylonish monarchy. W. colony from that ancient city; and here (though it Lowth, Bp. Lowth. might seem natural for a similar reason to call Tarshish 15-17, - after the end of seventy years &c.] Tyre is “daughter of Tyre") is termed“ daughter of Tarshish;" represented as an harlot, and from thence these figures perhaps because, Tyre being ruined, Tarshish was be- are taken; the meaning is, that she should recover her come the superior city, and might be considered as the liberties and trade, and draw in all nations to deal with metropolis of the Tyrian people; or rather, because of her. Bp. Newton. According to the prophecy, the the close connexion and perpetual intercourse between seventy years being expired, we find that the Tyrians them, according to the latitude of signification, in which were restored to their former privileges, and allowed a the Hebrews use the words “son” and “ daughter,” to king of their own. This favour seems to have been express any sort of conjunction or dependence what-granted them by Darius Hystaspes, in consideration of ever. Vitringa, Bp. Lowth.
their usefulness to him in his naval wars: they soon 12. - there also shalt thou have no rest.] After Nebu- recovered their former prosperity, traffick, power, and
height of the people.
The doleful judgments
of God upon the land. Before , city, thou harlot that hast been for-, with the maid, so with her mistress; Before about 715. gotten; make sweet melody, sing as with the buyer, so with the seller; about 712.
many songs, that thou mayest be re- as with the lender, so with the bor-
rower; as with the taker of usury, so
18 And her merchandise and her fadeth away, † the haughty people of + Heb. The
that dwell before the Lord, to eat have transgressed the laws, changed + lleb. old. sufficiently, and for + durable cloth- the ordinance, broken the ererlasting ing.
covenant. CHAP. XXIV.
6 Therefore hath the curse de
voured the earth, and they that dwell
land. 13 Å remnant shall joyfully praise inhabitants of the earth are burned,
7 The new wine mourneth, the about 712. D EHOLD, the Lord maketh | vine languisheth, all the merryhearted
D the earth empty, and maketh it do sigh. + Heb. per- waste, and † turneth it upside down, 8 The mirth of tabrets ceaseth, b Jer. 7. st. juce thereof, and scattereth abroad the inhabitants the noise of them that rejoice endeth, 25. 10.** * thereof.
the joy of the harp ceaseth. 2 And it shall be, as with the peo- 9° They shall not drink wine with Ot. prince. ple, so with the || a priest; as with a song; strong drink shall be bitter
the servant, so with his master; as to them that drink it.
a Hos. 4. 9.
riches, and were enabled, on Alexander's invading the world, and to every nation that is guilty of the same East, to make a greater stand against him than all the sins with those for which the Jews are threatened; and Persian empire beside. Dean Prideaux.
in the same manner whatever prophecies are called the 18. And her merchandise and her hire shall be holiness burdens of Moab, Babylon, &c. we may suppose deto the Lord : &c.] The Prophet speaks here, not of what signed not to terminate there, but to reach to all who the Tyrians would do immediately on their restitution, should ever after be guilty of the like crimes; a similibut some time after, in the days of the Messiah. So that tude of manners deriving upon all such sinners a simithis is a prophecy concerning the conversion of the litude of punishment. Wogan. Tyrians to the true religion, of the accomplishment of Ver. 1. Behold, the Lord maketh the earth empty,] The which something is said in Acts xxi. 3—5; and more in same Hebrew word is in this chapter rendered either other authors. Poole.
earth or land ; and “ the world,” ver. 4, means the same Tyre, after its second destruction by Alexander, again thing; the Israelitish world. See note on chap. xiii. 11, recovered its ancient trade and grandeur. It became W. Lowth, Bp. Lowth. early Christian with the rest of the neighbouring coun- 5. The earth also is defiled under the inhabitants &c.] tries: St. Paul himself found many Christians there. The contagion of sin infects the very ground, and brings It suffered much in Diocletian's persecution. It was an a curse on it, (ver. 6 ;) see Gen. iii. 17; Numb. XXXV. archbishoprick under the patriarchate of Jerusalem, with 33; Ps. cvii. 34. “The everlasting covenant.” See fourteen bishopricks under its jurisdiction. Bp. Lowth. Gen. xvii. 7, where God so calls the covenant between
Him and Abraham ; because it was to endure for a long Chap. XXIV. The subject of this chapter some refer succession of years, to last till the New Age, that of to the desolation caused by the invasion of Shalmaneser; the Messiah, should come. W. Lowth. See note on others by that of Nebuchadnezzar; and others to the chap. ii. 2. destruction of the city and nation by the Romans. Per- 6. — the inhabitants of the earth are burned, and few haps it may have a view to all the three great deso- men left.] In the figurative language of the Prophets, lations of the country; the Prophet chiefly employs burning any thing with fire is put for the consuming general images, such as set forth the greatness and thereof by war. Sir I. Newton. universality of the ruin to be brought on, involving all 9. - strong drink shall be bitter? The word rendered orders and degrees of men, changing entirely the face by us by this general term, as Theodoret and St. Chryof things, and destroying the whole polity, both religious sostom, both Syrians, inform us, meant properly palm and civil. Bp. Lowth. The prophecy takes in many or date wine, which was and is still much in use in the very distant views, no one prior period of time setting a Eastern countries. It is said here that all enjoyment bound to the prospect; we may extend it to every age, shall cease; the sweetest wine become bitter to their from the time of its delivery to the very end of the taste. Bp. Lowth.
God in his judgments
shall advance his kingdom. Before 10 The city of confusion is broken 18 And it shall come to pass, that Before about 712. down: every house is shut up, that he who fleeth from the noise of the about 712. no man may come in.
fear shall fall into the pit; and he that 11 There is a crying for wine in cometh up out of the midst of the the streets; all joy is darkened, the pit shall be taken in the snare : for mirth of the land is gone.
the windows from on high are open,
13 | When thus it shall be in the 19 The earth is utterly broken
like a drunkard, and shall be removed
21 And it shall come to pass in 15 Wherefore glorify ye the Lordin that day, that the LORD shall tpunish + Heb. risit | Or, valleys. the || fires, even the name of the LORD the host of the high ones that are on “p
God of Israel in the isles of the sea. high, and the kings of the earth upon + Heb. wing. 16 | From the t uttermost part of the earth.
the earth have we heard songs, even 22 And they shall be gathered to
glory to the righteous. But I said, gether, fas prisoners are gathered in Heb, with
a f My leanness, my leanness, woe the || pit, and shall be shut up in the of prisonere. me, or, My unto me! the treacherous dealers prison, and after many days shall they de
have dealt treacherously ; yea, the be || visited.
founded, and the sun ashamed, when 2. Jer. 48. 43, 17 Fear, and the pit, and the the LORD of hosts shall reign in & 3. I
snare, are upon thee, O inhabitant of mount Zion, and in Jerusalem, and sh
| || before his ancients gloriously.
secret to me.
| Or, there shall be glory before his ancients.
13. - as the shaking of an olive tree,] See note on they escape one calamity, another shall overtake them; chap. xvii. 6.
compare Amos v. 19 : the images are taken from the 14. They shall lift up their voice, &c.] The great dis- different methods of hunting and taking wild beasts tresses brought upon Israel and Judah drove the people anciently in use. The “ fear,” (or rather “terrour,") away, and dispersed them over the neighbouring coun- was a line strung with feathers of all colours, which, tries; they fled to Egypt, Asia Minor, the Islands and fluttering in the air, scared and frightened the wild coasts of Greece. They had synagogues for their wor- beasts into the toils or pit prepared for them. The ship in many places, and were greatly instrumental in “pit," or pit-fall, was digged deep in the ground, and propagating the knowledge of the true God in these covered with green boughs, turf, &c., to deceive them. heathen nations, and preparing them for the reception The “snare," or toils, a series of nets, enclosing at first of Christianity. This is what the Prophet seems to mean a great space of ground in which the wild beasts were by the celebration of the name of Jehovah in the waters, known to be, and then drawn in by degrees into a narand in the uttermost parts: the term “the sea” is used | rower compass, till they were at last closely shut up and by the Hebrews for the distant nations, the islands, the entangled by them. In the place of Jeremiah corredwellers on the seacoasts all over the world: for“ fires," sponding to ver. 18, it is simply “fleeth from the fear," ver. 15, (for which the margin gives “ valleys,”) by the land indeed it does not appear that the terrour was in. slight alteration of one letter in the original, we should tended to scare by its noise. Bp. Lowth. probably read “isles :" this is in a great degree justified 18. – the windows from on high are open,] A plain by the repetition of the same word in the next member allusion to the description of the deluge, Gen. vii. 11. of the sentence, with the addition “of the sea ;" which | W. Lowth. is exactly in the manner of the Prophet. Bp. Lowth. 21–23. — the Lord shall punish the host of the high See note on chap. xi. 11.
ones &c.] That is, the ecclesiastical and civil polity of The prophecy appears to point also to the times of the the Jews, which shall be destroyed: the nation shall Messiah, and to describe the language of the converted continue in a state of depression and dereliction for a Jews uttered in exultation and thanksgiving for the long time, (ver. 22 :) the image seems to be taken from blessings of Christ and the Gospel. Poole.
the practice of monarchs, to let their captives lie a 16. — But I said, My leanness, &c.] The Prophet long time disregarded in their dungeons. God shall at speaks in the person of the inhabitants of the land still length revisit and restore His people in the last age; and remaining; who should be pursued by Divine ven- the kingdom of God be then established in such pergeance, and suffer repeated distress from the in- fection, as wholly to eclipse (ver. 23.) the glory of the roads and depredations of their powerful enemies. Bp. temporary, typical, preparative kingdom, formerly subLowth.
sisting. Bp. Lowth. 17. Fear, and the pit, and the snare, are upon thee,] If! 23. — before his ancients gloriously.] An allusion to
Before CHRIST about 712.
CHRIST about 712.
The prophet praiseth God for
his judgments and benefits.
the blast of the terrible ones is as a Before CHAP. XXV.
storm against the wall.
| place; even the heat with the shadow
will exalt thee, I will praise thy ones shall be brought low.
| a feast of fat things, a feast of wines
7 And he will + destroy in this + Heb.
that is spread over all nations. 4 For thou hast been a strength / 8 He will a swallow up death in to the poor, a strength to the needy victory; and the Lord God will ”wipe Bley. 7. 17. in his distress, a refuge from the away tears from off all faces; and the & 21. 4. storm, a shadow from the heat, when rebuke of his people shall he take
a 1 Cor. 15. 54.
the elders of Israel: compare Rev. iv. 4; xix. 4, 6. W. | Ver. 2. - of a city an heap ;] This may apply to NiLouth.
neveh, Babylon, Ar Moab, or any other fortress posFrom this chapter it appears, that abominable and sessed by the enemies of God's people. Bp. Lowth. provoking sins are the cause which moves God to make City” is probably taken for cities in general ; and so any land empty and waste, and to turn it upside down, chap. xxvi. 5 ; xxvii. 10. W. Lowth. and to scatter abroad its inhabitants. Which single 5. Thou shalt bring down the noise &c.] The sense of consideration should persuade men to fear God and this verse more fully expressed is as follows; As a thick observe His covenant and ordinances, even though they cloud interposing tempers the heat of the sun on the had nothing to hope or fear after this life; since reli- / burnt soil, so shalt Thou by the interposition of Thy gion is absolutely necessary for our temporal welfare. power, bring low and abate the tumult of the proud, and For if we believe either the sacred Scriptures, or other the triumph of the formidable. Bp. Lowth." histories of undoubted credit, we must believe that the 6.—unto all people a feast) This can be no other incorrigible wickedness and corruption of nations have than the celebration of the establishment of Christ's finally ended in their utter dissolution, and brought kingdom, frequently represented in the Gospel under the priest and people, master and servant, maid and mis- image of a feast, Matt. viii. 11; Luke xiv. 16; xxii. 29, tress, all upon a level, which is but a larger draught of 30. This sense is fully confirmed by what follows in the that eonfusion expressed in the term “ turning the earth next verses, the removing of the vail from the nations, upside down.” T'his the nation here threatened found and the abolition of death. The first of which is obverified to their cost : for, together with their country, viously and clearly explained of the preaching of the they have lost both their royal and priestly government, Gospel ; and the second must mean the blessing of imand the honourable distinctions of their tribes and fami- mortality procured for us by Christ,“ who hath abolished lies. Let us, who serve the same God, take heed of death, and through death, hath destroyed him that had provoking Him by the like sins, lest we incur the like the power of death,” 2 Tim. i. 10; Heb. ii. 14. Bp. punishment. But let us rather apply our hearts to the Lowth. practice of those duties of religion and virtue, which
wines on the lees, 7 That is, kept long on the lees : will prove the stability of all that is desirable amongst the word used to express the “lees” in the original sigus, and conduce, through the merits of our Saviour, tonifies the “preservers ;" because they preserve the our eternal happiness, having the promise both of this strength and flavour of the wine : see Jer. xlviii. 11. life, and of that which is to come. Reading.
Bp. Lowth. .
*7. And he will destroy in this mountain] At Jerusalem Chap. XXV. It does not appear that this chapter has shall the Gospel begin, by which God shall bring all naany close or immediate connection with the preceding ; tions from the ignorance of heathenism to the knowledge but, taking the whole course of prophecies, from the of the true God. Dr. Wells. thirteenth to the twenty-fourth chapter inclusive, in - the face of the covering] Compare Job xli. 13. which the Prophet foretells the destruction of several 8. He will swallow up death in victory; &c.] The cities and nations, enemies to the Jews, and of the land passages of the New Testament, to which the margin of Judah itself, yet with intimations of a remnant to be refers, shew how St. Paul and St. John apply this place saved, and a restoration to be at last effected by a glo. to the general resurrection and heavenly state: nor will rious establishment of the kingdom of God; with a these promises till then be made good. W. Lowth. view to this extensive scene of God's providence in all! The troubles and labours of the present world, and its parts, and in all its consequences, the prophet may the dissolution of the body, do still take place as warnwell be supposed to break out into this song of praise : ings and chastisements for sinners; but the sorrows are in which his mind seems to be more possessed with the not comfortless, nor the dissolution final : the dominion prospect of future mercies, than with the recollection of of death consisted in this, that it rendered that dissoluthe past. Bp. Louth.
| tion final and irreparable ; and the devil is said to have