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his promises, and
the vanity of idols. Before 15 Behold, I will make thee a new | what they be, that we may + con- Before about 713. sharp threshing instrument having sider them, and know the latter end about 712.
+ teeth: thou shalt thresh the moun- of them; or declare us things for to
23 Shew the things that are to
your work || of nought: an abomina- 1 Or, worse 17 When the poor and needy seek tion is he that chooseth you. water, and there is none, and their 25 I have raised up one from the tongue faileth for thirst, I the Lord north, and he shall come: from the will hear them, I the God of Israel rising of the sun shall he call upon will not forsake them.
my name : and he shall come upon e Chap. 35.7. 18 I will open rivers in high princes as upon morter, and as the
places, and fountains in the midst of potter treadeth clay.
ness a pool of water, and the dry land beginning, that we may know? and
beforetime, that we may say, He is
27 The first shall say to Zion, Be-
no man; even among them, and
the shittin the wildern beformning, that declared from
oil tree free, and the righteous, that we may know the * tree tore, and the set in clareth, yea, in there is say, He is
original. (See the margin.) God defended the child the wilderness to the Holy Land, is the emblem of undren of Israel, as long as they continued His people, expected relief in distress. Bp. Hurd. This and similar though very few in comparison, against all the world ; passages imply the large supplies of grace under the and commands them here not to fear, notwithstanding Gospel. W. Lowth. the smallness of their number, and weakness of their 19. I will plant in the wilderness the cedar, &c.] See estate; He promises them all along (ver. 8—16) that Baruch v. 8; (W. Lowth;) and notes on chap. li. 3; He will support and uphold the seed of Abraham to the lv, 13. utmost, and at length give them victory over all the 25. I have raised up one from the north, &c.] Cyrus heathen nations, their enemies. Bps. Beveridge and is represented here as coming from the “north," and Loroth,
from the “east:" he was born of two different people, 15,- I will make thee a new sharp threshing instru- the Persians by his father, the Medes by his mother, ment having teeth :) See note on chap. xxviii. 27, 28. and therefore called by the heathen oracle, a mule. Now Under the familiar image of a threshingfloor, the Pro. Persia lay to the east of Babylon; Media northward; phet here represents the ruin and dispersion of the and Cyrus's army (of which the Medes made a considerwicked, the enemies of Israel. With the Jewish peo- able part) is described, Jer. 1. 9, 41, as coming out of ple, (and in simple times elsewhere,) the arts of hus- the north. For his profession of belief in the great bandry formed the chief occupation of all, and even the “ God of heaven and earth," see Ezra i. 2. Dean Prihighest did not disdain them; accordingly, we read in deaux, W. Lowth. Scripture of kings and other great men being thus em- 27. The first shall say to Zion, &c.] This verse is ployed, and find the poets taking their images from the rather obscurely put; our translators have supplied same quarter. Bp. Lowth.
“shall say ;" properly the verb give belongs to both 16. Thou shalt fan them,] See note on chap. xxx. parts, and the same may be more clearly expressed thus, 28.
“ I first give the word to Zion,” (that is, give notice by 17. When the poor and needy seek water, &c.] To My Prophets of these events, saying,) “Behold, behold give water in the wilderness, in allusion to the miracu- them:"(they are at hand !) “and I give to Jerusalem lous supply during the passage of the Israelites through a messenger of glad tidings.” Bp. Lowth.
Before CHRIST about 712.
Before CHRIST about 712.
The office of Christ.
God's promise unto him.
l in the earth : and the isles shall wait Before CHAP. XLII.
for his law.
5 1 Thus saith God the LORD, he
and constancy. 5 God's promise unto him. led them out. he that spread forth the
earth, and that which cometh out of
it;. he that giveth breath unto the
people upon it, and spirit to them a Matt. 12. D EHOLD a my servant, whom I | that walk'therein:
D uphold; mine elect, in whom my 6 I the Lord have called thee in
spirit upon him: he shall bring forth hand, and will keep thee, and give
thee for a covenant of the people, for
l out the prisoners from the prison, and Luke 4. 18. 3 A bruised reed shall he not break, then that sit in e darkness out of the 15 ! Or, dimly and the || smoking flax shall he not prison house.
e Chap. 9. 2. Il quench: he shall bring forth judg-1 8 I am the LORD: that is my name: ment unto truth.
and my 'glory will I not give to an- [ Chap. 48. 4 He shall not fail nor be + dis other, neither my praise to graven couraged, till he have set judgment images.
Ephes. 1. 6.
c Chap, 49. 6. Luke 2. 32.
d Chap. 61. 1.
Hebr. 2. 14,
Chap. XLII. The Prophet, having opened his sub- Judea, which are most difficult to come at, shall attend ject with the preparation for the return from the cap- to His doctrine, receive His institutions, and submit tivity at Babylon, and intimated that a much greater themselves to His authority : by this phrase is pardeliverance was covered under the vail of that event, ticularly meant the western parts of the world. Dr. proceeded to vindicate the power of God, as Creator Berriman. See note on chap. xi. 11. and Disposer of all things; and His infinite knowledge, 5. — he that created the heavens, &c.] See chap. xl. from His prediction of future events, and in particular 12, and notes there. of that deliverance : he went still further, and pointed 6. — give thee for a covenant of the people, for a light out the instrument by which He should effect the re- of the Gentiles;7 God expressly declares here, that the demption of His people the Jews from slavery ; namely, Messiah should mediate a covenant between God and a great conqueror, whom He would call forth from the the people; and that the fruit of this covenant should north and the east to execute His orders. In this chap-extend to the Gentiles; who should enjoy the same ter he proceeds to the greater deliverance; and at once privileges with the Jews, and be incorporated with them, brings forth into full view, without throwing any vail chap. xlix. 8, 9; lv. 3, 4 ; lxi, 8, 9. "The extension of of allegory over the subject, the Messiah. St. Matthew the Messiah's kingdom over the whole earth is menhas applied it directly to Christ; nor can it with any tioned by Isaiah so often, and in so emphatical a manjustice or propriety be applied to any other person or ner, that it seems to be the main drift of all his writings. character whatever. Bp. Lowth.
Dean Allix. Indeed the general object of prophecy is Ver. 1. — he shall bring forth judgment to the Gen- the uniting of all nations in the faith of Christ, and the tiles.) Meaning here, the law to be published by the conversion of the Gentiles makes a standing part of Messiah ; the institution of the Gospel. Bp. Lowth. all the prophecies of the Saviour of mankind. Bp.
2, 3. He shall not cry, &c.] See note on Matt. xii. | Horsley. 18. He was (as all interpreters explain the proverbial 7. To open the blind eyes, &c.] The Prophet seems expressions here used) not to employ the least degree here to set forth the spiritual redemption, under images of force or violence in the propagation of the new law, borrowed from the temporal deliverance. Bp. Lowth. till it finally prevailed against all opposition. Accord 8. I am the Lord : that is my name :] The import of ingly, by the mildness and piety of the followers of Christ, the name Jehovah (rendered by our translators “the by the secret influence of a Divine blessing attending Lord ;” see note on Exod. iii. 15,) is, according to the on their feeble efforts, the doctrine of the cross insen- best criticks, ancient and modern, eternal, immutable, sibly gained ground, spread itself far and wide, and in necessary existence. Dr. Waterland. the end became victorious over all the rage and power - my glory will I not give to another,] We read, and sophistry of an unbelieving world. Bp. Hurd. | Ps. lxxxiv. 11, that “the Lord will give grace and
3. Å bruised reed shall he not break, &c.] Those that glory ;" 2 Cor. iv. 17, “an exceeding and eternal are humble and contrite shall He rather relieve and com- weight of glory :" but that divine, infinite, incomprefort, than add any thing to their sorrow and affliction : hensible glory, that belongeth to Him, as Supreme and those that have received but the weakest begin- King of kings, as His peculiar prerogative, of that He nings of grace shall have no discouragement from Him is most jealous ; in that will brook no sharer. Since but shall be rather cheered up by Him: yet, so shall therefore our chief aim ought to be, that in every thing He be gracious to the penitently dejected, that He God may have “the glory” due to His name; we must shall not bear with the obstinate sinner ; but shall give beware, not only that we give not the glory of religious severe judgment upon him according to the justice of worship to image, saint, or other creature, (as it follows, his demerits. Bp. Hall.
“ neither My praise to graven images,”') but also that 4. — the isles shall wait for his law.] Those parts of we do not by flattery or obsequiousness give to mortal the world, to which men are wont to travel by sea from man any part of that honour which is due to the infinite
Before CHRIST about 712.
men of them.
An exhortation to praise God. CHAP. XLII, XLIII. He reproveth the people of incredulity.
come to pass, and new things do I trust in graven images, that say to about 712.
| 18 Hear, .ye deaf; and look, ye
the earth, ye that go down to the sea, or deaf, as my messenger that I sent? + Heb. the and + all that is therein; the isles, and who is blind, as he that is perfect, and the inhabitants thereof.
blind as the Lord's servant ? 11 Let the wilderness and the cities 20 Seeing many things, h but thou h Rom. 2. 21. thereof lift up their voice, the villages observest not; opening the ears, but that Kedar doth inhabit: let the in- he heareth not. habitants of the rock sing, let them 21 The Lord is well pleased for his shout from the top of the mountains. righteousness' sake; he will magnify
12 Let them give glory unto the the law, and make || it honourable. || Or, him. Lord, and declare his praise in the 22 But this is a people robbed and islands.
spoiled; || they are all of them snared 11 Or, in 13 The Lord shall go forth as a in holes, and they are hid in prison the young mighty man, he shall stir up jealousy houses: they are for a prey, and none"
like a man of war: he shall cry, yea, delivereth ; for ta spoil, and none + Heb. Or, behare roar; he shall || prevail against his saith, Restore. mightily. enemies.
23 Who among you will give ear
Lord, he against whom we have sin-
25 Therefore he hath poured upon
before them, and crooked things to heart. straightness. + straight. These things will I do
17 | They shall be & turned back, promises. 8 He appealeth to the people
+ Heb. for the after time?
and immortal God alone ; or, by what is called vain- 19. This verse may more correctly stand thus, “ Who glory, derive the least part to ourselves. Bp. Sanderson. is blind, but My servant? and deaf, as he to whom I
9. Behold, the former things are come to pass,] The have sent My messengers ? Who is blind, as he who Prophet seems here to exult and say, The prophecies, is perfectly instructed ; and deaf, as the servant of the which I have delivered to you concerning your redemp-Lord ?” Bp. Lowth. By the “servant” and “ messention from the Babylonian bondage, will soon be so exactly gers" here are meant the Jewish people and Prophets. completed, that I regard them as things past; and there- | W. Lowth. fore new things do I declare; that is, hence I claim your 21. The Lord is well pleased &c.) This verse might belief of other prophecies, concerning the great redemp- be translated more plainly thus, “ The Lord took delight tion, to take place hereafter; though there be no appearance in this people for His righteousness' sake, He hath as yet of any causes tending to produce it; for “ before given them an excellent law, and thereby made them they spring forth I tell you of them.” Bp. Hurd. | honourable.” W. Lowth. The Prophet seems to refer,
1) Let the wilderness and the cities thereof lift up their in the first instance, to the Mosaick Law, which God coice,] The most uncultivated countries, and the most had given with much splendour and solemnity, and inrude and uncivilized people, shall confess and celebrate tended as the great honour and ornament of His people ; with thanksgiving the blessing of the knowledge of God and to the care and kindness He had constantly shewn graciously imparted to them. The desert and the rocky them, out of regard to the promises made to their country may particularly point here to Arabia Deserta fathers, notwithstanding their constant disobedience; and Arabia Petrea : Kedar was a clan of Arabs; (see and also to the Law, which was to be given by the note on chap. xxi. 13;) some of these dwelt for the Messiah, that future mark of God's exceeding favour, most part in tents; others inhabited or frequented | which He was well aware the Jews would treat in the cities or villages: there are others, who sometimes live same manner as they had all the former, ver. 22, &c. in deserts and sometimes in cities. Bp. Lowth.
Vitringa. Vol. II.
CHRIST about 712.
Hos. 13. 4.
God comforteth the church.
ISAIAH. He foretelleth the fall of Babylon. Before. for witness of his omnipotency. 14 He 10 Ye are my witnesses, saith the Before
'foretelleth them the destruction of Babylon, Lord, and my servant whom I have about 712.,
chosen: that ye may know and be-
lieve me, and understand that I am
he: before me there was || no God c Chap. 41. 4. D UT now thus saith the Lord formed, neither shall there be after i Or, nothing D that created thee, O Jacob, and me.
and I have shewed, when there was no
3 For I am the LORD thy God, the shall pe let it?
For your sake I have sent to Babylon, 4 Since thou wast precious in my and have brought down all their sight, thou hast been honourable, and nobles, and the Chaldeans, whose + Heb. bars. I have loved thee: therefore will I cry is in the ships.
give men for thee, and people for thy 15 I am the LORD, your Holy One, || Or, person. || life.
the creator of Israel, your King. a Chap. 44. 2. 5 a Fear not: for I am with thee: 16 Thus saith the LORD, which
I will bring thy seed from the east, maketh a way in the sea, and a path Exod. 14. and gather thee from the west; | in the mighty waters;
6 I will say to the north, Give up; 17 Which bringeth forth the chariot 16.
7 Even every one that is called by | are quenched as tow.
know it? I will even make a way in 9 Let all the nations be gathered the wilderness, and rivers in the de
together, and let the people be as sert. b. Chap. 11. sembled: who among them can de- 20 The beast of the field shall hon
clare this, and shew us former things? our me, the dragons and the Il towls : 1 Or, let them bring forth their witnesses, because I give waters in the wilder- 4 feb. that they may be justified: or let ness, and rivers in the desert, to give me them hear, and say, It is truth. drink to my people, my chosen.
Jer. 30. 10. & 46. 27.
daughters of the owl.
Chap. XLIII. ver. 3. — I gave Egypt for thy ransom, worshipped among you, but I have shewn events aforeEthiopia and Seba for thee. This may mean generally, hand, &c. Dr. Wells. that God had often saved His people at the expense of 14. — the Chaldeans, whose cry is in the ships.] “Exother nations, whom He had, as it were in their stead, ulting in their ships.” Babylon was very advantageously given up to destruction. Bp. Lowth.
situated, both in respect to commerce, and as a naval 5, 6. — I will bring thy seed from the east, &c.] See power. It was open to the Persian gulf by the Euphrates, note on chap. xi. 11.
which was navigable by large vessels; and being joined 8. Bring forth the blind people that have eyes,] In to the Tigris above Babylon, by the canal called Naver. 10, the Jews are appealed to as witnesses for God; harmalcha, or the Royal river, supplied the city with this verse is to be understood of the Gentiles. See the produce of the whole country to the north of it, as Rom. i. 20. Bp. Lowth.
far as the Euxine and Caspian seas. Bp. Lowth. See 12. — when there was no strange god among you :) Or note on chap. xiv. 23. rather, “and not any strange god among you ;” that is, 20. The beast of the field shall honour me, &c.] We not any false or heathen god that has at any time been may apply this to the Gentiles, fitly compared in their
i Luke 1.74, praise.
| Or, holy princes.
Jer. 30. 10. & 46. 27.
He reproveth the people.
CHAP. XLIII, XLIV. He comforteth the church. Before 21 i This people have I formed for 28 Therefore I have profaned the Before about 712. myself; they shall shew forth my | || princes of the sanctuary, and have about 712.
given Jacob to the curse, and Israel
1 God comforteth the church with his pro23 Thou hast not brought me the
mises. Ÿ The vanity of idols, 9 and folly + Hleb. lambs, † small cattle of thy burnt offerings; of idol makers. 21 He exhorteth to praise
neither hast thou honoured me with God for his redemption and omnipotency.
2 Thus saith the LORD that made cane with money, neither hast thou thee, and formed thee from the womb, * Hcb. macie || filled me with the fat of thy sacri- which will help thee; Fear not, O abundently' fices : but thou hast made me to Jacob, my servant; and thou Jesurun,
serve with thy sins, thou hast wearied whom I have chosen.
I 3 For I will pour water upon him b Chap. 35.7.
26 Put me in remembrance: let us thine offspring :
the grass, as willows by the water
and another shall call himself by the
Acts 2. 18.
unbelieving state to the beasts of the field, embracing slavery of sin and Satan, if we sincerely feel the oppresthe Gospel, with joy and thankfulness to God for thesion and misery of it, and would prefer being employed means of conversion. Dr. Wells.
in doing God's will, and keeping His commandments. 22. But thou hast not called upon me, O Jacob; &c.] | This disposition the Jews manifested in their captivity The connexion is, But thou, Israel, whom I have chosen at Babylon: they were deeply humbled for their former and formed for Myself, to be My witness against the transgressions of God's law, and the affronts they had false gods of the nations, even thou hast revolted from offered Him by worshipping idols. And doubtless the Je, hast neglected My worship, and hast been perpetu- Holy Spirit of God had a regard to this happy change ally running after strange gods. The emphasis here, of their minds and manners, when He dictated the graand in the following verses, seems to lie on the word me. cious promises in this chapter : for He assures us by The Jews were diligent in performing the external ser- the same Prophet, that “there is no peace to the vices of religion; in offering prayers, incense, sacrifices, wicked.” So long as men continue in their sins, they oblations : (see note on chap. i. 11 :) but their prayers are at enmity with God, excluded from the benefit of were not offered with faith; and their oblations were His promises, and liable to all His threatenings and more frequently made to their idols than to the “God judgments. Reading. of their fathers.” Compare Amos v. 26. Bp. Lowth.
24. — sweet cane] To make the incense daily offered, Chap. XLIV. ver. 2. — that made thee, and formed Exod. xxx. 7, 34-36. W. Lowth.
thee from the womb,] He speaks of the Jewish people 28. Therefore I have profaned &c.] I have suffered as of a single person; and as God hath sometimes dethe Babylonians to profane My sanctuary, to abuse the signed certain persons for particular offices from their chief priests, and pollute whatsoever is sacred. And birth and conception, (see chap. xlix. 1,5; Jer. i. 5,) have rcade My people a proverb of execration and re- so He set apart the posterity of Abraham to be His peoproach to all the neighbouring nations. W. Lowth. ple from the very original of the family. W. Lowth.
The state of Israel and Judah in Isaiah's time was 3. For I will pour water upon him that is thirsty, &c.] yery corrupt with respect to religion and virtue; on The waters here spoken of, according to the ordinary which account he denounces God's judgments, which style of the Prophets, are the graces of God's Spirit. were ready to fall on them for their sins, and should be | Dean Allix. See notes on chap. xxx. 25; xxxv. 6, 7. inflicted by the Assyrians, Babylonians, and other hos- | The plentiful effusion of the Divine Spirit here pretile nations round them. And because some of his dicted, Jews and Christians have ever understood to expressions might be interpreted as if all the twelve refer to the days of the Messiah. These predictions tribes were to be utterly cast away, therefore he fre- were then abundantly fulfilled; and we have moreover quently intersperses consolations, as in this chapter, to from our Lord and His Apostles express and clear proassure the people, that if they were duly corrected and mises of the communication of the same Spirit, to enreformed by their captivity, God would bring them out lighten and assist the minds of Christians in every of it, and raise them up again to be His Church and succeeding age. Bp. Bradford. people. As God thus promised His people a restoration 5. One shall say, I am the Lord's ; &c.] By all the from their captivity, upon their true repentance and expressions in ver. 5. is denoted the accession of the return to their duty; so will He rescue us all from the Gentiles, the increase of the Church. Dr. Wells.'