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Before CHRIST about 600.
Jeremiah sheweth their grievous judgment, JEREMIAH. and bewaileth their desperate estate.
orest unto others, and their fields to them good came ; and for a time of health, . about 600 that shall inherit them : for every one and behold trouble !
from the least even unto the greatest 16 The snorting of his horses was CIsai. 56. 11. is given to covetousness, from the heard from Dan: the whole land 1 Chap. 4.
prophet even unto the priest every trembled at the sound of the neighing
of his strong ones; for they are come, d Chap. 6.14. 11 For they have d healed the hurt and have devoured the land, and tall Heb. the
of the daughter of my people slightly, that is in it; the city, and those that thereof. e Ezek. 13. saying, Peace, peace; when there is dwell therein. no peace.
17 For, behold, I will send ser12 Were they ' ashamed when they pents, cockatrices, among you, which had committed abomination ? nay, will not be m charmed, and they shall m Ps. 58. 4, they were not at all ashamed, neither bite you, saith the LORD. could they blush: therefore shall they 18 q When I would comfort myself fall among them that fall: in the time against sorrow, my heart is faint fin me. + Heb. upon. of their visitation they shall be cast 19 Behold the voice of the cry of down, saith the Lord.
the daughter of my people + because Heb. || Or, In
13 | || I will surely consume them, of them that dwell in a far country: country of" will consume. saith the Lord: there shall be no Is not the Lord in Zion? is not her them that are 5 Isai. 5.1, grapes 6 on the vine, nor figs on the king in her? Why have they proh Matt. 21. li fig tree, and the leaf shall fade; and voked me to anger with their graven
the things that I have given them shall images, and with strange vanities?
20 The harvest is past, the sum-
there: for the LORD our God hath astonishment hath taken hold on me. i Chap. 9. 15. put us to silence, and given us i water 22 Is there no n balm in Gilead; is n Chap. 16. ï or, poison. of || gall to drink, because we have there no physician there? why then sinned against the Lord.
is not the health of the daughter of 15 We k looked for peace, but no my people t recovered ?
because of the
k Chap. 14.
all care of doing that, which the word of God enjoins rendering serpents harmless, is a well-attested fact : but them; and how then can they challenge any true wisdom whether by certain herbs, or musical sounds, or by unto themselves ? Bp. Hall.
breaking out their teeth, or in what manner, is uncer10. — that shall inherit them :) Rather, that shall tain. Whatever were the methods commonly practised, enter into possession. The Hebrew verb properly sig- the enemies of the Jews are here compared to such nifies to possess that which was the property of others, serpents as were not to be mollified or disarmed by any and therefore implies a dispossession of the former of those means : “ They shall bite you, saith the Lord." owners. Dr. Blayney.
Dr. Blayney. 13. — there shall be no grapes on the vine, &c.] These 19. Behold the voice of the cry &c.] For, behold, meexpressions appear to be metaphorical ; signifying, that thinks I hear already the shrieks and cries of the Jews, the nation should be deprived of all their real advan- because of the Babylonians, that are come in upon them tages, and also of what was ornamental, by a severe from Chaldea; and yet they are still ready to presume dispensation of God's providence. W. Lowth, Dr. upon their title and interest with God; and say, Is not Blayney.
the Lord worshipped by us in Zion ? Bp. Halt. 14. — let us be silent there :] The verb, rendered “be 20. The harvest is past, &c.] “ The harvest is past, silent," implies forbearing to act, as well as to speak. the summer is ended,” which might have given us The Prophet therefore hereby seems to advise, not to hopes and opportunities of succours; yet we hear of take measures of resistance, as they would be ineffec- none from Egypt, or any other our associates : so tually employed against what God had determined. Dr. that we have now lost all hopes of deliverance. Bp. Blayney.
| Hall. - water of gall] Or, bitter water ; that is, a severe 21. -- I am black ;] I look ghastly, as those who are judgment, which is often expressed by “the cup of dying : compare chap. xiv. 2; Joel ï. 6; Nahum ii. 10. God's wrath,” or “displeasure.” See chap. xxv. 15, 17; / W. Lowth. and ix, 15; xxiii. 15. W. Lowth.
| 22. Is there no balm in Gilead ;7 Either that parti16. -- from Dan :) Nebuchadnezzar, having subdued cular balsam, now distinguished by the same name, and Phenicia, passed through the tribe of Dan in his way to much celebrated by various ancient writers for its costJerusalem. Dr. Blayney.
liness and its medicinal virtues : or, as Bochart con— strong ones ;) The word, thus translated, signi- tends, the resin drawn from the terebinthus or turpenfies horses in several places : see chap. xlvii. 3; Judg. tine tree, which was well known to have healing virtues; v. 22; and it is so understood here by the Seventy. at least sufficient to answer the Prophet's question on W. Lowth.
this occasion : which was metaphorically to ask, if there 17. — which will not be charmed,] See note at Ps. were no salutary means within reach, or no persons lviii. 4. That some persons possessed the power of that knew how to apply them, for the relief of his coun
Before CHRIST about 600.
CHRIST about 600.
the sins of the Jews. tongue to speak lies, and weary them- Before CHAP. IX.
selves to commit iniquity.
fold sins, 9 and for their judgment. 12 of deceit; through deceit they refuse
to know me, saith the Lord.
7 Therefore thus saith the LORD themselves, but in God. 25 He threateneth of hosts, Behold, I will melt them, both Jews and Gentiles.
and try them; for how shall I do for N ta that my head were waters, the daughter of my people?
tears, that I might weep day and out; it speaketh deceit: one speaketh Ps. 12. 2. & night for the slain of the daughter of peaceably to his neighbour with his d Ps. 28. 3. my people!
mouth, but | in heart he layeth || his midst of him. 2'Oh that I had in the wilderness wait. a lodging place of wayfaring men; | 9 Shall I not visit them for e Chap. 5. 9, that I might leave my people, and go these things ? saith the LORD: shall ** from them ! for they be all adulterers, not my soul be avenged on such a an assembly of treacherous men. nation as this?
3 And they bend their tongues like 10 For the mountains will I take their bow for lies: but they are not up a weeping and wailing, and for valiant for the truth upon the earth; the || habitations of the wilderness a || Or, pastures. for they proceed from evil to evil, lamentation, because they are || burn- 1 Or, desolate. and they know not me, saith the ed up, so that none can pass through LORD.
them ; neither can men hear the voice Chap. 22: 6. 4Take ye heed every one of his of the cattle; t both ti
of the cattle; f both the fowl of the + Heb. from | Or, friend. || neighbour, and trust ye not in any | heavens and the beast are fled; they lo, &c.
brother: for every brother will utterly are gone.
heaps, and fa den of dragons; and I r Chap. 10. 22. Or, mock. 5 And they will || deceive every will make the cities of Judah + deso- + Heb.
one his neighbour, and will not speak late, without an inhabitant.
try from those miseries, with which it was afflicted. ness. And therefore it is natural enough for those, who Dr. Blayney.
are resolved at all events to abide in their evil courses,
to endeavour, if possible, to divest themselves of all Chap. IX. ver. 2. O that I had &c.] The corrupt and religious principles, which, if insufficient to restrain, profligate manners of the people are here set forth at will be sure at least to be very troublesome to them.
renewed against them, ver. 2-17. God summons the from us, for we desire not the knowledge of Thy ways." mourning women to bewail the calamities of the nation, Job xxi. 14. Dr. Blayney. ver. 17--22; forbids setting any value on personal 7.- Behold, I will melt them, and try them ; &c.] In endowments, except the knowledge of God and His the fire of affliction. Bp. Hall. attributes only, ver. 23, 24; and shews the punishment 1 10. — the habitations of the wilderness? This is more of the surrounding nations, circumcised and uncircum- properly rendered in the margin, “ The pastures of the cised, to be near at hand. Dr. Blayney.
wilderness.” Compare Joel i. 19; ii. 22. “ The wil- a lodging place of wayfaring men ;] Travellers in derness” sometimes signifies the plain or champaign the East are not, nor ever were, accommodated at inns country, and is opposed to the mountains : see Isai. on the road, after the manner of the European nations. | Ixiii. 13; Lam. iv. 19; Joel i. 19. W. Lowth. It proIn some towns indeed, but not in all, there are large perly signifies a thinly inhabited country, used chiefly public buildings provided for their reception, which they for sheepwalks. Dr. Blayney. call caravanseras : but these afford merely a covering, - neither can men hear the voice of the cattle ;] being absolutely without furniture, Judg. xix. 15. And, There shall be heard no more, in the plains or on the in passing through the desert, it is well if they can mountains, either the bleating of sheep, or the lowing light upon a cave, or a hut, which some one before them of oxen: there shall no animal, wild or tame, be seen may have erected for a temporary shelter. This is what any more. Calmet. appears to be here meant by “a lodging place;" a soli- 11.-a den of dragons ;] A place of horrour and tary, and not very comfortable, situation ; but yet pre-desolation. Bp. Hall. The word, translated“ dragons," ferable to the chagrin of living continually in the society among several other significations, is taken for a serof men of profligate manners. Dr. Blayney.
pent, such as are usually found in ruins and desolate 6. Thine habitation is in the midst of deceit ;] These places. Compare chap. li. 37; Isai. xiii. 22; xxxiv. 13; are the words of God to the Prophet. W. Lowth. Ps. xliv. 19. W. Lowth.
through deceit they refuse to know me, saith the 12. Who is the wise man, &c.] In this style of interLord.] The knowledge of God, which is true religion, rogation the Prophet indirectly declares himself to be is incompatible with the habitual practice of any wicked the person qualified by Divine inspiration to answer the Vol. II.
1 Or, stubbornness.
The Jews exhorted to mourn, and JEREMIAH.
JEREMIAH. not to trust in themselves, but in God.
not to trust in themselves, out Before or may understand this? and who is he take up a wailing for us, that our about 600. to whom the mouth of the Lord hath eyes may run down with tears, and about 600.
spoken, that he may declare it, for our eyelids gush out with waters.
are greatly confounded, because we
14 But have walked after the || ima- ceive the word of his mouth, and teach
21 For death is come up into our
I will feed them, even this people, without, and the young men from the & Chap: 8. 14. & with wormwood, and give them streets. water of gall to drink.
22 Speak, Thus saith the Lord, h Lev. 26. 33. 16 I will h scatter them also among Even the carcases of men shall fall
the heathen, whom neither they nor as dung upon the open field, and as
23 9 Thus saith the Lord, Let
| 24 But i let him that glorieth glory i 1 Cor. 1. 31. 18 And let them make haste, and in this, that he understandeth and
i I Cor. 1. 31. 2 Cor. 10.17.
question proposed in the latter part of the verse; which our cities ; and are now breaking upon us in our houses, he accordingly does in the verses that follow. Dr. to inflict a sudden and cruel death upon us, wherein Blayney.
they will spare no age or sex, but put all without mercy 15. – I will feed them,-with wormwood, &c.] Com- to the sword. Bp. Hall. pare this expression with Ps. lxxx. 5; 1 Kings xxii. 27. 22. — as the handful after the harvestman, &c.] This W. Lowth. See the note on Deut. xxix. 18.
alludes to the manner of reaping corn in a field, where 17.- the mourning women,-cunning women,] It was the reaper, as soon as he has cut what he can hold an ancient custom of the Hebrews, at funerals, and on in his hand, lets it fall, and passes on; but is usually other like occasions, to make use of hired mourners, followed by another, who gathers what is cut, and binds whose profession it was to exhibit in publick all the it into sheaves. But here it is said, that there would signs and gestures of immoderate and frantick grief, be none to gather; and consequently the corn, after and by their loud outcries and doleful songs to excite being cut, would lie neglected and rot on the ground: and stir up a real passion of sorrow in others. Women which renders the simile a very apt one. Dr. Blaywere chiefly employed in this office; and St. Jerome, ney. in his comment upon this verse, says, that the practice 23. — Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, &c.] was continued in Judea down to his days. As it re- Let not men value themselves for their wisdom, strength, quired a degree of skill to discharge this office, for that or riches, which are things of themselves of a very unreason these “mourning women” are likewise called certain continuance, and such calamities are coming, “ cunning ;" that is, skilful women. Frequent allusions (see ver. 25, 26,) in which they will stand the owners to this custom are to be met with in Scripture, par- of them in very little stead. The only true valuable ticularly 2 Chron. xxxv. 25; Eccles. xii. 5; Amos v. 16; | endowment is the knowledge of God, not as He is in Matt. ix. 23; Mark v. 38. Nor was this practice pecu | Himself, which is too high an attainment for poor morliar to the Jews, as many instances of it occur in heathen tals to pretend to, but with respect to His dealings with writers. Dr. Blayney.
man; to have a serious sense of His mercies to the It is usual at funerals in Barbary to hire women, who, i penitent, of His judgments to the obstinate, and of His like “ the mourning women” of old, are mistresses of truth and integrity, in making good His promises and the art, and indeed perform their parts with such proper threatenings to both. 'Tis in the exercise of these atgestures and commotions, that they rarely fail to work tributes God chiefly delights ; and 'tis by these He deup the assembly into some extraordinary pitch of sires to make Himself known to the world; and he, thoughtfulness and sorrow. Dr. Shau.
that forms an apprehension of God chiefly with regard Travellers inform us, that the same practice prevails to these perfections, will always demean himself suitably in most of the provinces of the Levant. Calmet. towards Him. “Judgment" and “righteousness" are
21. For death is come up into our windows, &c.] For often equivalent terms; but if we distinguish them the Chaldeans have scaled our walls, and entered into ' here, “judgment" denotes God's severity against the
CHRIST about 600.
The great disparity
CHAP. IX, X.
between God and idols. Before r knoweth me, that I am the LORDI 2 Thus saith the Lord, Learn not Before
which exercise lovingkindness, judg- the way of the heathen, and be not about 600.
3 For the + customs of the people + leb.
4 They deck it with silver and with 26 Egypt, and Judah, and Edom, gold; they fasten it with nails and
and the children of Ammon, and with hammers, that it move not. ! Heb. cut off Moab, and all that are t in the 5 They are upright as the palm or, kaving the utmost corners, that dwell in the tree, a but speak not: they must needs a Ps. 115.5. their hair wilderness : for all these nations are be b borne, because they cannot go. b Isai. 46. 1,
5 uncircumcised, and all the house of Be not afraid of them; for C they can- c Isai. 41. 23.
o.. Israel are uncircumcised in the heart. not do evil, neither also is it in them I Rom. 2. 28,
to do good. CHAP. X.
6 Forasmuch as there is none a like d. Ps. 86. 8, i The unequal comparison of God and idols. unto thee, O LORD; thou art great,
17 The prophet exhorteth to flee from the and thy name is great in might.
| it appertain: forasmuch as among all about 600. L EAR ye the word which the the wise men of the nations, and in all
LORD speaketh unto you, O their kingdoms, there is none like house of Israel :
Cucumcisell, and all
wicked, and “righteousness" His truth or holiness. W. other celestial appearances : things altogether harmless. Louth.
Therefore such groundless terrours the Prophet ex26. Egypt, and Judah, and Edom, &c.] See these pressly condemns. But whatsoever things are real judgments denounced more at large, chap. xxv. 18, &c. instruments of our Maker's will, we are to consider as The Prophet places Judah among the heathen nations, such ; and respect all that is wrought by them, as probecause the Jews were, in effect, that is, in a spiritual ceeding from His appointment. Abp. Secker. sense, uncircumcised as well as they : contenting them
the signs of heaven;] The Chaldeans, among selves with the outward sign of circumcision, without whom the Jews were destined to live in captivity, were endeavouring to procure the inward purity signified by particularly addicted to astrology, and attributed to the it. W. Lowth.
heavenly bodies a considerable influence over human all that are in the utmost corners,] If we prefer affairs. This naturally tended to beget a religious the marginal reading, “they that have the corners of dread and awe of those objects, from whence so much their hair polled," the expression denotes those Ara- good or evil was supposed to be derived. Dr. Blaybians who cut their hair upon the fore part of the head ney. round, and let the hair behind grow long; which cus- 5. They are upright as the palm tree,] This compatom of theirs, Herodotus mentions, and tells us, that rison agrees very well with those ancient statues which they did it in imitation of Baccbus. It is probable, were seen in Egypt and elsewhere, before the Greeks that the precept in Lev. xix. 27, “Ye shall not round had carried the art of sculpture to that perfection, to the corners of your heads," hath reference to this cus- which it afterwards arrived. The Orientals, before the tom, which was a rite in several countries near Judea, empire of the Greeks, had very little taste for things of whereby they devoted themselves to the worship of this sort. Their figures were carved in a straight line, some false god. W. Lowth.
with their hands hanging down and fixed to their sides,
their eyes closed, their feet joined: so that they differed Chap. X. The beginning of this chapter to the end little from the trunks of the palm trees, to which Jereof ver. 16. contains an earnest dissuasive against the miah here compares them. Calmet. practice of heathen idolatry, setting forth the vanity of 7.- for to thee doth it appertain :) To Thee doth idols in comparison with the true God. And this, no fear appertain. Dr. Durell." doubt, was designed by way of precaution to the Jews
L a mong all the wise men of the nations, &c.] The against the time of their removal out of their own land, phrase, “among all the wise," or the wisest, “of the to dwell amongst idolaters, as is predicted, ver. 17, 18. nations," may signify, either all those nations which Jerusalem lamenteth the completion of her ruin, ver. were most distinguished for the cultivation and im19; and humbly supplicateth the intervention of God's provement of their rational faculties; or else those from mercy, ver. 23. to the end. Dr. Blayney.
whom better notions of God and religion might have Ver. 2.- be not dismayed at the signs of heaven ; &c.] been expected, than from the rude and illiterate vulgar. The word of God, far from encouraging groundless and And yet the fact was, that all their boasted wisdom and superstitious horrours, cautions against them strongly. knowledge had failed of leading them to an object of In all ages and nations, men have been terrified with worship, in any degree corresponding with the infinite eclipses of the sun and moon; in many, with con- ' perfections and majesty of the Divine nature. Dr. junctions, oppositions, and aspects of the stars, and Blayney.
The great disparity
between God and idols. Before 8 But they are + altogether 'brut-! 12 He & hath made the earth by Before CHRIST
CHRIST about 600 ish and foolish: the stock is a doc- his power, he hath established the about 600. trine of vanities. .
world by his wisdom, and hath stretch+ Heb. in one, or, at once. 9 Silver spread into plates is ed out the heavens by his discretion. ch. 51. 15. f Isai. 41. 29. Hab. 2. 18. brought from Tarshish, and gold from 13 When he uttereth his voice, Zech. 10. 2.
Uphaz, the work of the workman, there is a | multitude of waters in Or, noise.
rain, and bringeth forth the wind out + Heb. God of 10 But the Lord is the + true of his treasures. God, he is the living God, and an | 14 Every man || is h brutish in his Or, is more
brutish than + Heb, king feverlasting king : at his wrath the knowledge: every founder is con- to know.
h Chap. 61. earth shall tremble, and the nations founded by the graven image: for his has shall not be able to abide his indig- molten image is falsehood, and there nation.
is no breath in them. 11 Thus shall ye say unto them, 15 They are vanity, and the work The gods that have not made the of errors : in the time of their visitaheavens and the earth, even they shall tion they shall perish. perish from the earth, and from under 16 i The portion of Jacob is not i Chap. 51. these heavens.
like them: for he is the former of all ". 8. But they are altogether brutish &c.) “They that 11. Thus shall ye say unto them, &c.] This verse is make images are like unto them," saith the Psalmist, written in Chaldee, as if the Prophet designed to put Ps. cxv. 8; that is, they are equally stupid and insen- these words in the mouths of the Jews, wherewith they sible. An image is called “a teacher of lies,” Hab. ii. might make a publick profession of their own faith in 18. W. Lowth.
the true God, and be able to answer the heathens that 9. — Tarshish, — Uphaz,] For “ Tarshish,” see the would entice them to idolatry. W. Lowth. The title, notes at 1 Kings ix. 28; X. 22. Bochart supposes “ Creator of heaven and earth," that is, of the universe, “ Uphaz" to be the same with Ophir in India. W. (see note on Gen. i. 1,) is that which most especially Lowth. Concerning Ophir see the former note on characterizes and distinguishes the true God from all Kings.
false and fictitious deities : see Ps. xcvi. 5; 2 Kings - blue and purple is their clothing :) The excel xix. 15, 19; Acts xiv. 15; xvii. 24. Dr. Isaac Barrow. lency of the Tyrian purple is celebrated by both sacred — even they shall perish from the earth, &c.] The and profane authors. And the blue, which from many Prophet foretells, that there shall be a final period put passages in Scripture we find to have been in great re- to idolatry: see ver. 15; Isai. ii. 18; xlv. 16; Zech. quest, was also imported from remote countries, as an xii. 2. God hath already blotted out the names of article of elegant and expensive luxury. See Ezek. many of the heathen idols, as an earnest of the utter xxvii. 7, 24. Dr. Blayney.
destruction of the remainders of idolatry in His due - they are all the work of cunning men.] As the time. W. Lowth. insignificancy of idols may be argued from the vile and 13. When he uttereth his voice, &c.] When God sig. perishable matter out of which they are composed, (see nifies His will and pleasure; (compare Job xxxviii. 34 ;) Isai. xliv. 19,) the same may be inferred from their or when He sends His thunder, called in Scripture the being indebted to the art and labour of man for all " voice of God;" the clouds immediately fall down in their costly ornaments, their splendid outward shew. abundance of rain; and that moisture, coming upon “ They are all,” says the Prophet, internally and exter- the ground that was scorched with heat before, does nally, “ the work of cunning" or skilful men. And so not only cool and refresh it, but makes all vegetables says the prophet Hosea, “All of it the work of the grow and flourish in it. W. Lowth. craftsman," chap. xiii. 2. Upon what ground then 14. Every man is brutish in his knowledge : &c.] Every could the thing formed pretend to a nature more excel- workman is brutish, while he so employs his skill as to lent than its former? Dr. Blayney.
make a god to himself by his own art: every founder, 10. — at his wrath the earth shall tremble, 7 Jeremiah if he had but reason to consider it, must needs be conhere represents the power and the greatness of God by founded in himself, at the sight of his own folly, in the effects which they produce in nature. The things making that image which he will adore. Bp. Hal. which strike men with most astonishment are earth-! 15. They are-the work of errors;] The making of quakes, thunder, lightning, the production of rain and them is owing to men's erroneous notions concerning winds, the creation of the universe. All these things the nature of God. See ver. 8. W. Lowth. are the work of the Lord. In His wrath He makes 16. The portion of Jacob is not like them :) Upon the the earth tremble. When He speaks, He causes the principles of heathenism, every nation was committed thunder. If He makes the lightning shine, it is to to the care and superintendency of its own tutelary god; cause the rain to descend from the clouds. The winds who might with propriety be styled its own “ portion," are shut up in His treasuries; He confines them by His on account of the peculiar relation that subsisted bepower. He draws from the ends of the earth the mate-tween them. “ The portion of Jacob" therefore is the rials, of which He forms the clouds. Such was the same as the God of Jacob; He who had taken upon notion of the Hebrews concerning the production of Himself the guardianship and protection of that family. these effects, which strike mortals with astonishment. But He was distinguished from all the rest, who, as beThey referred them immediately to God, as their na- fore observed, were falsehood and vanity all of them, tural cause. Calmet.
| having no other existence than as lifeless images, the