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Before CHRIST about 698.
Before CHRIST about 698.
Christ sheweth his power to save,
ISAIAH. and his vengeance upon his enemies. W H O is this that cometh from | mine heart, and the year of my re
VV Edom, with dyed garments deemed is come.
in his apparel, travelling in the great to help; and I wondered that there
righteousness, mighty to save. own Carm brought salvation unto me; Chap. 59. a Rev. 19.13. 2 Wherefore a art thou red in thine and my fury, it upheld me.
apparel, and thy garments like him 6 And I will tread down the peo-
ple in mine anger, and make them
the great goodness toward the house b Chap. 31. 8. 4 For the day of vengeance is in of Israel, which he hath bestowed on
Chap. LXIII. ver. 1. Who is this that cometh from of appeasing the wrath of God for the sins of His elect, Edom, &c.] The Prophet introduces some person, but of executing it in the punishment of His enemies. whether himself in vision or another, (St. Jerome fan- | The Church, however, by introducing it into her service cies the angels,) wondering at an object which presents for the Monday before Easter, appears to have conitself. This object is a Conqueror returning bloody sidered this emblematick vision as applying to the death from battle ; of whom, by way of dialogue, and in an- and passion of our blessed Saviour; whereby He trod swer to the questions, who He is, and why so habited, the winepress of the Divine wrath alone, by the shedan account is given; representing a mighty victory, ding of His own precious blood, and thus overcame the obtained with much blood and slaughter, won by the power of Satan. Edit. powerful but single arm of this mighty Warriour; by 5. - I wondered that there was none to uphold : therewhich a total rout was given to His adversaries, at a fore mine own arm brought salvation &c.] I acted as one time, when, if He had not interposed, no other was that looked for a while to see if any one of My people disposed, no other able, to have quelled the outrage could find out human means to help and deliver them and havock which they were making. His stained gar- from the utter ruin they were likely to fall into; but ments demonstrate the sharpness of the engagement, as after it was manifest, that no human succour was to be His mien and manner of approach denote the invincible had, I was resolved to vindicate My own honour; and greatness of His strength.
My zeal and concern for My people made me go through In this description we have represented the hardships with the undertaking, in spite of all opposition : conand the success of that combat with the enemies of our pare Zech. viii. 2. Dr. Wells, W. Lowth. souls, by which Christ brought salvation to mankind; 1 6. And I will tread down the people &c.] Rather read vanquishing sin and death, wresting the prey out of with the Septuagint and Vulgate, “ I have trod down," the hands of Satan, and, as the Apostle expresses it, &c.; and so for the following sentences in this verse. “ having spoiled principalities and powers, triumphing | W. Lowth, Bp. Lowth, Vitringa. over them in His cross.” Dean Stanhope. It is Christ and make them drunk in my fury,] God's judgthat is thus magnificently described, returning to His ments are often represented by a cup of intoxicating capital, from the land of the enemy, after His passion. liquor, because they astonish men, and bereave them of Bp. Horne. His “coming from Edom” is His rising their usual discretion. W. Lowth. See notes on chap. from the dead; His return “ from Bozrah” His coming li. 17; Jer. xxv. 15. back, having vanquished hell: Idumea standing for the 7. I will mention the lovingkindnesses of the Lord, &c.] kingdom of darkness and death, and Bozrah (the strong The remaining part of this chapter, with the whole city of Edom) for the seat of the prince of darkness ; chapter following, contains a penitential confession and agreeably to the custom, so familiar with the Prophets, supplication of the Israelites in their present state of of putting the sworn enemies of the commonwealth of dispersion, in which they have so long marvellously Israel to express the mortal and immortal enemies of subsisted, and still continue to subsist, as a people; the souls of God's people. Bp. Andrews.
cast out of their country, without any proper form of Guided partly by the passage from the Revelation civil polity or religious worship; their temple destroyed, referred to in the margin, as well as by chap. xxxiv. and their city desolated, and lost to them; and their whole lix, other commentators have expounded this prophecy nation scattered over the face of the earth; apparently of a still future deliverance of the Church from her deserted and cast off by the God of their fathers, as no enemies, like that foretold in Ezek. xxxviii, and Rev. longer His peculiar people. They begin with acknowxx. Bp. Lowth inclines to this interpretation; remark- ledging God's great mercies and favours to their nation, ing, that he knows of no event in history, to which and the ungrateful returns on their part ; that by their from its importance and circumstances it can be ap- disobedience they had forfeited the protection of God, plied, unless perhaps to the destruction of Jerusalem and caused Him to become their adversary: the Proand the Jewish polity, which in the Gospel is called the phet represents them, induced by the memory of the coming of Christ, and the days of vengeance, Matth. great things God had done for them, as addressing xvi. 28, Luke xxi. 22. And Vitringa observes, that the their humble supplication for the renewal of His mergreat Personage here introduced is described, not as a cies : they beseech Him to regard them in consideration sufferer, but as an agent; sprinkled not with His own of His former lovingkindness; confess their own wickedblood, but with that of His enemies; and in the act, not 'ness and hardness of heart; acknowledge Him for
God's lovingkindness to his people. CHAP. LXIII. The church profess their faith.
Before them according to his mercies, and ac- 1 14 As a beast goeth down into the Before about 698. cording to the multitude of his loving- valley, the Spirit of the LORD caused about 698. kindnesses.
him to rest : so didst thou lead thy
15 qh Look down from heaven, h Deut.26.15. 9 In all their affliction he was af- and behold from the habitation of thy d Deut. 7. 7, Aicted, and the angel of his presence holiness and of thy glory: where is
saved them: din his love and in his pity thy zeal and thy strength, || the 10r, the he redeemed them; and he bare them, sounding of thy bowels and of thy
and carried them all the days of old. mercies toward me? are they ree Exod. 15. 10 But they e rebelled, and vex- strained ? Sumb. 14. ed his holy Spirit: therefore he was 16 Doubtless thou art our father, Ps. 78. 56. & turned to be their enemy, and he though Abraham be ignorant of us, fought against them.
and Israel acknowledge us not: thou, 11 Then he remembered the days O Lord, art our father, || our re- | Or, our
of old, Moses, and his people, saying, deemer; thy name is from everlast- from everlastf Exod. 14. Where is he that f brought them up ing.
out of the sea with the shepherd of 17 TO LORD, why hast thou made as his flock? where is he that put his us to err from thy ways, and hardened holy Spirit within him?
our heart from thy fear ? Return for 12 That led them by the right thy servants' sake, the tribes of thine
hand of Moses with his glorious arm, inheritance.
13 That led them through the adversaries have trodden down thy
19 We are thine : thou never bar
ing is thy name.
their Father and Creator ; intreat His forgiveness; and terms so affectionate, to magnify the deliverance of deplore their miserable condition. Bp. Lowth.
God's people out of Egypt, and their settlement in the 9. – the angel of his presence saved them :] The Angel promised land; how insensible are they who read and who conducted the Israelites by the pillar of cloud and hear of the release from a heavier tyranny, the destrucof fire was no other than the Logos, or second Person of tion of the spiritual Pharaoh, the passage into the true the blessed Trinity; this divine Person is sometimes and heavenly Canaan, opened at the expense of our called an Angel, as Exod. xiv. 19; but at others the Leader's own life, without impressions as grateful as incommunicable name of Jehovah is given to Him: see human hearts can admit! And if He confess, that, note on Exod. xiii. 21. W. Lowth.
after all the extraordinary appearances of Almighty God Concerning the Person here called “ the Angel of in their behalf, His people's disingenuous behaviour God's presence," see Exod. iii. 2, 6; xii. 21; xiv. 19; turned Him to be their enemy: how greatly ought we xxiii. 20, 21; Judges xiii. 18, compared with Isai. ix. 6; to fear, how carefully to avoid, any unworthy returns to Zech. xii. 8; and Mal. iii. 1. In this last passage from One who hath loved us so tenderly, which may justly Malachi it is plain, that “the Messenger, or Angel of alienate His affection from us, and be at once our eterthe covenant," the covenant of grace, was no other than nal ruin and reproach. Dean Stanhope. Christ: and as allusion is made to the same Person in 13. - that they should not stumbler1 That is, without all the other passages before mentioned, and in the obstacle. Bp. Lowth. The progress of the Israelites words of Isaiah in the text, it follows that He, who ap- through the Red sea is compared here, for its freedom, peared to Moses, He who was seen by Manoah, He to that of a courser in a country where there are the who was spoken of by Zechariah, He whom Isaiah de- fewest impediments : and the safety of what might apscribes as saving and redeeming Israel, must also be pear an hazardous passage, and the security to which it Christ. In the language of the Prophet, Christ is led, to cattle's going to pasture. Vitringa. styled “the Angel of God's presence :" but mark the 16. Doubtless thou art our father, &c.] However we authority and dignity of His person; sometimes He is have made ourselves by our sins unworthy to be owned called “Wonderful," sometimes “ the Lord;” some- by our father Abraham, yet do not Thou cast us utterly times He is said to have “ the name of God in Him;" off from the benefit of that covenant, which Thou and sometimes He is styled “ God.” He, therefore, to madest with him and his seed. Bp. Hall. whom such appellations are given, can be no created 17. O Lord, why hast thou made us to err from thy being : He must be the eternal Son of God: He must ways, 7 The sense of this passage would have been more be “ the Word of God," by whom God speaks to man- truly expressed, and the words as grammatically renkind; He must be the same that “was in the beginning dered, “why hast Thou suffered us to err.” It is a with God, and was God;" the same “by whom all pathetick expostulation with Almighty God, begging of things were created;" the same who was made man, Him to return to His sinful people, to convert and the same who redeemed us, the same who ever liveth to heal them. Dr. Waterland. make intercession for us. Bp. Huntingford.
18. T'he people of thy holiness have possessed it but a - in his love and in his pity he redeemed them; and little while : &c.] The Prophet says, “ a little while,” he bare them, &c.] If Isaiah found it reasonable, in in comparison of God's promise, which, as the Jews
11 Or, thy name was not called
The church's prayer to God.
It complaineth of their affliction. Before est rule over them; || they were not I remember thee in thy ways: behold, c Betores or about 698. called by thy name.
thou art wroth; for we have sinned: about 698. | CHAP. LXIV.
in those is continuance, and we shall
be saved. upon them. The church prayeth for the illustration of God's power. 5 Celebrating God's mercy,
TL 6 But we are all as an unclean it maketh confession of their natural cor- | thing, and all our righteousnesses are ruptions. 9. It complaineth of their afflic-as filthy rags; and we all do "fade as b Ps. 90.5,6. tion.
la leaf; and our iniquities, like the N H that thou wouldest rend the wind, have taken us away.
heavens, that thou wouldest come 7 And there is none that calleth down, that the mountains might flow upon thy name, that stirreth up himdown at thy presence,
self to take hold of thee: for thou hast Heb. the 2 As when + the melting fire burn- hid thy face from us, and hast + con- + Heb.
eth, the fire causeth the waters to sumed us, because of our iniquities.
potter; and we all are the work of thy
ever: behold, see, we beseech thee, . 4 For since the beginning of the we are all thy people. al Cor. 2.9. world a men have not heard, nor per- 10 Thy holy cities are a wilder
ceived by the ear, neither hath the ness, Zion is a wilderness, Jerusalem || Or, seen a eye || seen, O God, beside thee, what a desolation. thee, which he hath prepared for him that waiteth 11 Our holy and our beautiful for him.
house, where our fathers praised thee, 5 Thou meetest him that rejoiceth is burned up with fire: and all our and worketh righteousness, those that pleasant things are laid waste.
Ps. 31. 19.
commonly understood it, gave them the possession of but likewise the dispensations of His providence. W. Canaan for ever: see Gen. xvii. 8. If we understand Lowth.
under Titus, and by the Mahometans since, the phrase confession which the holy Prophet makes of the sins of is exactly parallel to the words of Christ, Luke xxi. 24, the people, we see, not only the corrupted and degene“ Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles.” rate state of the Jewish Church at that time, but what W. Lowth.
that temper and true spirit of piety is, which rules in
good men. Such likewise was the behaviour of Daniel Chap. LXIV. ver. 4. — men have not heard, &c.] St. and other worthies in the Old Testament; and of St. Paul, treating of God's extraordinary mercy in sending Paul and other good men in the New: they assumed His Son into the world, and that wonderful manifesta to themselves the characters, not of saints, but of sintion of God in the flesh, by the Gospel, not to the Jews ners; they gloried not in their perfection, but cononly, but to the Gentiles also, which he calls a mystery fessed their sins and unworthiness. Wogan. that had been hidden from the princes of the world, L 10. Thy holy cities are a wilderness,] Some refer this cites this passage from Isaiah: see the margin. The expression to all the cities of Judah; but the metroApostle indeed applies the passage to the mystery of polis only was properly and especially “the holy city :" Christ's incarnation, as if it were the primary and more see chap. lii. 1. This was divided into the upper and immediate sense of the prophecy. But as the coming lower city : see note on chap. xxii, 1. Vitringa, W. of Christ in the flesh is the foundation of all God's | Lowth. blessings to mankind, the words, both in the Prophet' 11. Our holy and our beautiful house, – is burned up and in the Apostle, are generally understood of the with fire:7 See our Saviour's prediction of the defuture and ultimate happy effects of the Divine mercy struction of the temple, Matt. xxiv. 2. W. Lowth. in the state of glory, and those joys and felicities of St. Jerome, and several other learned men, underheaven, which are "prepared” and reserved for them stood this chapter as a prayer for the manifestation of that love God, and “wait for Him." Wogan.
the Messiah. To Him indeed every part of it will, 5. Thou meetest him that rejoiceth and worketh right- upon examination, be found very applicable; especially eousness,] That is, Thou preventest with Thy bless- the fourth verse, which is applied by St. Paul to the ings him that rejoices to work righteousness. Dr. times of Christ, and which has been already verified by Wells.
Him in some degree; but will be more perfectly ful- behold, thou art wroth; for we have sinned: in filled at His second appearing, when He shall how the those is continuance, and we shall be saved. We have heavens, and come down in the glory of His Father been guilty of great offences, but Thy mercies endure with the holy angels, to judge the quick and the dead; for ever, and Thy gracious promises are still the same: and shall raise His servants out of the corrupt dust of see Mal. iii. 6. The pronoun those refers to God's the earth, and give them bodies like His own glorious ways, by which we may understand, not only His laws, I body; and shall cause them to ascend with Him into
Before CHRIST about 698.
25, 26. & 10. 20. Ephes. 2.12.
The calling of the Gentiles. CHAP. LXIV, LXV.
A remnant shall be saved. Beforer 12 Wilt thou refrain thyself for | || nose, a fire that burneth all the Before about 698. these things, O Lord? wilt thou hold day. thy peace, and afflict us very sore? | 6 Behold, it is written before me:..
I will not keep silence, but will re-
compense, even recompense into their
upon the mountains, and blasphemed
me upon the hills: therefore will I a Rom. 9. 24, I AM sought of them that asked measure their former work into their
1. not for me; I am found of them bosom.
one saith, Destroy it not; for a bless-
3 A people that provoketh me to of Jacob, and out of Judah an inheritor
sacrificeth in gardens, and burneth shall inherit it, and my servants shall Heb. upon incense + upon altars of brick; dwell there.
4 Which remain among the graves, 10 And Sharon shall be a fold
and lodge in the monuments, which of flocks, and the valley of Achor | Or, pieces. eat swine's flesh, and || broth of abo- a place for the herds to lie down
minable things is in their vessels; in, for my people that have sought
5 Which say, Stand by thyself, | me.
the day unth in a way Luchts;
those immortal joys and pleasures which we have not were no better than monuments of the dead,) in order at present tongues to express, nor thoughts to conceive; to obtain dreams that might be beneficial. W. Lowth. where He now liveth and reigneth, with the Father and which eat swine's flesh,] Which was expressly the Holy Ghost, God blessed for evermore Reading, forbidden by the law, (Lev. xi. 7,) but among the hea
then was in principal request in their sacrifices and Chap. LXV. This chapter contains a defence of festivals. Antiochus Epiphanes compelled the Jews to God's proceedings in regard to the Jews, with reference eat swine's flesh as a full proof of their renouncing to their complaint in the preceding chapter. God is their religion, 2 Mac. vi. 18; vii. 1. Bp. Lowth. introduced declaring that He had called the Gentiles, - broth of abominable things is in their vessels ; though they had not sought Him; and had rejected That is, they make no difference of those meats which His own people for their refusal to attend to His re- the law hath declared unclean. Bp. Hall. peated call; for their obstinate disobedience, their idol- 5. Which say, Stand by thyself, &c.] The extreme atrous practices, and detestable hypocrisy : that never- offensiveness to God of spiritual pride and hypocrisy is theless He would not destroy them all; but would compared to that of “smoke in the nose;" and the conpreserve a remnant, to whom He would make good tinual provocation kindled by it to “a fire that burneth His ancient promises. Severe punishments are threat- all the day.” Wogan. This description of a proud ened to the apostates; and great rewards are promised | hypocrite agrees exactly with the temper of the Scribes to the obedient, in a future flourishing state of the and Pharisees in our Saviour's time. W. Lowth. Church. Bp. Lowth.
Ver. 3. - that sacrificeth in gardens, &c.] Instances 1 7. — which have burned incense upon the mountains,
which the Jews were immoderately addicted before the mountains.” Babylonish captivity. See note on chap. i. 29. These 8. — As the new wine is found in the cluster, &c.] As apostates sacrificed upon altars built of bricks ; in op- a few good grapes are found among a cluster of bad position to the command of God in regard to His altar, ones, and one speaks to another, that would pluck it which was to be of unhewn stone, Exod. xx. 25. Bp. from the tree, to spare it; so will I not destroy the Louth.
whole nation for the sake of the few good persons which 4. Which remain among the graves, and lodge in the spring out from among the rest. W. Louth. monuments,] For the purposes of necromancy and di- 10. And Sharon shall be a fold of flocks, and the valley vination, to obtain dreams and revelations ; for “monu- of Achor &c.] These are two of the most fertile parts ments," we might render “caverns.” Bp. Lowth. It of Judea, famous for their rich pastures: the former to was a common custom among the heathens for persons the west, not far from Joppa ; the latter north of Jeto lodge all night in the temples of their idols, (which I richo, near Gilgal. Bp. Lowth.
upon the heart.
Judgments on the wicked.
The blessed state forestain, that prepare a table for that of truth; because the former troubles Before about 698. || troop, and that furnish the drink are forgotten, and because they are about 698. w offering unto that || number. hid from mine eyes.
c Chap. 66. 12 Therefore will I number you to 17 For, behold, I create new 22.
the sword, and ye shall all bow down heavens and a new earth : and the Rev. 21. 1. b Prov. 1. 24, to the slaughter: b because when I former shall not be remembered, nor + Heb.come
called, ye did not answer; when I + come into mind.
hold, I create Jerusalem a rejoicing,
14 Behold, my servants shall sing an infant of days, nor an old man that
the sinner being an hundred years old
vineyards, and eat the fruit of them.
+ lieb. breaking.
11.— that prepare a table for that troop, &c.] It was that new and refined state which is to succeed to the customary both among the Jews and Gentiles, after some dissolution of this world, and in which righteousness is part of the sacrifice had been offered upon the altar, to to dwell, agreeably to what is said chap. IX. 20, 21 ; see make a feast of the remainder. See chap. lvii. 7; Ezek. also Rev. xxi. 1. Jos. Mede, W. Lowth. And many xxiii. 41. We read, i Cor. x. 21, of the “ table of devils ;" have taken this for the primary and principal sense of to whom the Gentiles sacrificed. W. Lowth.
the passage; but it appears that the establishment of The disquisitions and conjectures of the learned re- the Christian Church and religion is what is more obspecting the names “Gad and Meni" (see the margin) | viously and primarily pointed at in the expression, are infinite and uncertain : perhaps the most probable“ new heavens and new earth;" (see chap. li. 16 ;) and may be, that Gad means good fortune, and Meni the that it is only to their more hidden and fullest meaning moon. Bp. Lowth.
that St. Peter (referring to this and other passages of 12. Therefore will I number you to the sword, An Isaiah) applies them as above. This creation of new allusion to the derivation of the word Meni, which sig. heavens and earth began at the time when the Gospel nifies “ number:" such plays upon the words are fre- of Christ began its progress; is to be completed at that quent in the Prophets. W. Lowth.
other time, when it shall please God (the Creator) to 15. And ye shall leave your name for a curse unto my render it perfect, in the consummation of all things. chosen :] Mine elect shall look upon you as a standing The beginning and end are here blended together. monument of God's indignation; your name shall be Vitringa. The two advents of Christ are for the most mentioned in a common form of imprecation, God do part not distinguished in the Old Testament. Dr. to me, as He has done to the wicked Jews, &c. The Berriman. other name mentioned here may mean, that of Christ. 18. - rejoice for ever in that which I create :] Rather, ians. W. Lowth. But see note on chap. lxii. 2. “rejoice in the age to come, which I create," agreeing
16. — the God of truth ;7 The God of Amen in the with ver. 17. Bp. Chandler. Hebrew, rightly translated, “the God of truth :" Rev. 20. There shall be no more thence an infant of days, iii. 14, Jesus Christ is called Amen; being the faithful &c.) There shall be no untimely deaths : the Prophet and true witness, yea, the “Truth” itself, John xiv, 6, describes this renovation of the world as a state similar and perhaps in allusion to this place. Compare 2 Cor. to that which the Patriarchs enjoyed before the flood; i. 20. Bp. Beveridge, W. Lowth.
the purport of the latter part of this verse is, that he 17. For, behold, I create new heavens and a new earth :1 that died an hundred years old might be looked on That is, in prophetick language, will institute a “new” as dying in childhood, cut off in the beginning of his dispensation of religion ; different from that which God days, as a punishment for sin ; it may be more plainly had given to the Jews, and subversive of it; for it rendered, “He that dies an hundred years old, shall follows, “the former shall not be remembered, nor die a child; and the sinner that dies an hundred years come into mind.” Bp. Hurd. The Prophet describes, old, shall be accursed.” W. Lowth. Or, “He that under this character, the state of things in the days of dies an hundred years old, shall be (esteemed) accursed the Messiah. Dr. Berriman. St. Peter, in his second as a sinner." Dr. Wells. Epistle, chap. iii. 13, applies this passage of Isaiah tol 22. - as the days of a tree are the days of my people,]