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Or, I will
enemy for thee.
Jeremiah prayeth, and
receiveth a gracious promise. T 11 The LORD said, Verily it shall | 16 Thy words were found, and I Before about 601. be well with thy remnant; verily || I did meat them; and thy word was about 601.
will cause the enemy to entreat thee unto me the joy and rejoicing of eniteat the well in the time of evil and in the mine heart: for p I am called by thy Rev. 10.9. time of affliction.
name, O Lord God of hosts. name is called 12 Shall iron break the northern 17 I sat not in the assembly of the upon me. iron and the steel?
mockers, nor rejoiced ; I sat alone 13 Thy substance and thy treasures because of thy hand: for thou hast k Chap. 17.5. will I give to the k spoil without price, filled me with indignation.
and that for all thy sins, even in all 18 Why is my pain perpetual, n Chap. 30. thy borders.
and my wound incurable, which re14 And I will make thee to pass fuseth to be healed ? wilt thou be al
with thine enemies into a land which together unto me as a liar, and as 1 Deut. 32. 22. thou knowest not: for a 'fire is kin- waters that + fail?
dled in mine anger, which shall burn 19 4 Therefore thus saith the LORD,
If thou return, then will I bring thee
11. The Lord said, Verily it shall be well with thy rem- word translated “mockers” is more properly rendered nant; &c.] The sense is, That the Prophet himself, “ them that make merry," chap. xxx. 19; xxxi. 4. In his relations and family, should escape the evils coming the preceding verse the Prophet had declared, that he upon the Jewish nation when the “residue of them had felt great satisfaction at first in being appointed to should be delivered to the sword,” ver. 9. W. Lowth. the office of God's messenger. But his joy was not of
12. Shall iron break the northern iron and the steel?] | long continuance; the tenour of his commission was The meaning probably is, Shall the enemy crush or such as to affect him, like St. Paul, and much upon the overpower one whom I have made like the hardest iron same account, with “great heaviness and continual or brass ? alluding to what God said to the Prophet sorrow of heart.” Rom. ix. 2; so that, renouncing all when He first engaged him in His service, chap. i. 18. cheerful society, he indulged a solitary melancholy, in “ Iron from the north" is perhaps justly supposed to prospect of the dire effects of God's indignation against denote, in a primary sense, that species of hardened his unhappy country. Dr. Blayney. iron, or steel, called in Greek Chalybs, from the Chaly-! God's judgments, as they were represented to the bes, a people bordering on the Euxine sea, and conse- Prophets, often raised such dreadful ideas in their mind, quently lying to the north of Judea, by whom the art as to affect them in an extraordinary manner, especially of tempering steel is said to have been discovered. Strabo if their threatenings concerned their own country, or the speaks of this people as being known in former times : church of God: see chap. xxiii. 9; Ezek. iii, 14 ; Dan. by the name of the Chalybes, but afterwards called / vii. 28; Hab. iii. 2, 16. W. Lowth. Chaldæi; and mentions their iron mines. These how - because of thy hand :7 God's hand may be unever were a different people from the Chaldeans, who derstood either of His judgments, which, being dewere united with the Babylonians. Dr. Blayney. nounced by the Prophet, might be compared to a
13. — without price,] That is, not making thee any “hand” stretched out, and just ready to strike; or else compensation, but inflicting these losses upon thee as a of the prophetical impulse, which was strong upon Jepunishment for thy sins. Dr. Blayney.
remiah, and in a manner forced him to be the messen15. – take me not away in thy longsuffering :] The ger of evil tidings : compare 2 Kings iii. 15; Isai. viii. sense may be, according to our old version, “take me 11: Ezek. i. 3 ; iii. 14. W. Lowth. not away in the continuance of Thine anger:" the Pro- 18. — wilt thou be altogether unto me as a liar,] The phet seeming to think, that, during a long course of words might be better translated, “ Wilt Thou be altoGod's anger against His people, he himself, however gether unto me as a disappointment, and as waters that innocent, might naturally be involved in those suffer- fail ?" namely, that dry up and disappoint the thirsty ings, which were intended for the punishment of the traveller. The Prophet means, that God had in a manguilty. Dr. Blayney.
ner deserted him for a time, had left him to struggle 16. Thy words were found, and I did eat them ;] As with difficulties unforeseen or unexpected, thereby disapsoon as I received or understood Thy word, and the pointing in some measure his hopes of better success. messages Thou didst deliver to me, I treasured them Presently however, as if he had said too much, he corup in my memory; I meditated upon them, and did rects himself, and expresses his entire confidence in the inwardly digest them. It was a pleasure to me to think, Divine promises to support and strengthen him. See I should be an instrument of conveying Thy commands ver. 19–21. Dr. Waterland. to my brethren, and that I should have the honour of — as waters that fail?] Compare Job vi. 15. being called Thy prophet or messenger. The receiving 19. — If thou return, then will I bring thee again, &c.] of God's word, by which the soul is nourished, is else- If thou bethink thyself of this thine impatience, and of where compared to corporeal food : see Ezek. ii. 1, 3; thy too great regard to this murmuring and disobedient Rev. x. 9; Isai. lv. 1, 2; Amos viii. 11; John vi. 27. I people, I will so confirm thee that they shall be forced W. Louth.
to acknowledge thee My faithful servant; and, if thou 17. I sat not in the assembly of the mockers, The 'do wisely make difference betwixt erroneous doctrine
p Chap. 20.
o, even loving people, superka muy
The prophet foresheweth
the utter ruin of the Jews. 20 And I will make thee unto this 5 For thus saith the Lord, Enter Before about 601. people a fenced brasen wall: and not into the house of || mourning, about 601.
& they shall fight against thee, but neither go to lament nor bemoan o Chap. 1 18. & 6. 27. P they shall not prevail against thee : them: for I have taken away my mourning
for I am with thee to save thee and peace from this people, saith the
21 And I will deliver thee out of cies.
be buried, neither shall men lament
for them, nor d cut themselves, nor d Lev. 19.28. CHAP. XVI.
make themselves bald for them:
The more h ensives: por Deut. 14.1. 1 The prophet, under the types of abstaining! 7 Neither shall men 11 tear them- | Or, break
from marriage, from houses of mourning
selves for them in mourning, to com- them, as
1 8 Thou shalt not also go into the THE word of the Lord came also house of feasting, to sit with them to I unto me, saying,
eat and to drink. 2 Thou shalt not take thee a wife,' 9 For thus saith the Lord of hosts, neither shalt thou have sons or daugh- the God of Israel; Behold, e I will Isai. 24. ters in this place.
cause to cease out of this place in ch. 7. 34. & 3 For thus saith the LORD con- your eyes, and in your days, the voice Ezek!: 26. 13. cerning the sons and concerning the of mirth, and the voice of gladness, daughters that are born in this place, the voice of the bridegroom, and the and concerning their mothers that voice of the bride. bare them, and concerning their fa- 10 | And it shall come to pass,
thers that begat them in this land; when thou shalt shew this people all a Chap. 15.2. 4 They shall die of a grievous these words, and they shall say unto b Chap. 25. deaths; they shall not bbe lamented; thee, * Wherefore hath the LORD pro- f Chap. 5. 19.
& 13. 22. neither shall they be buried; but they nounced all this great evil against us? shall be as dung upon the face of the or what is our iniquity? or what is earth : and they shall be consumed by our sin that we have committed against
the sword, and by famine; and their the Lord our God? c Chap. 7. 33. C carcases shall be meat for the fowls 11 Then shalt thou say unto them, Ps. 79.2. of heaven, and for the beasts of the Because your fathers have forsaken earth.
me, saith the Lord, and have walked
and the truth, and betwixt godly and profane persons, Ver. 6. - neither shall men lament for them,] The then will I admit thee to be My mouth unto My peo- thoughts of men shall be wholly taken up with beple: do not thou give way to them in their vicious wailing themselves : their own calamities shall be so courses ; but let them, if it may be, come in to thee. great, they shall be unconcerned for the misfortunes of Bp. Hall.
others. W. Lowth.
- nor cut themselves, nor make themselves bald] See Chap. XVI. The prophecy, which begins here, is the notes on the places referred to in the margin. continued to the end of the 18th verse of the next chap- 7. Neither shall men tear themselves for them in mournter. It may have been delivered, as well as those of the ing,] If this translation be correct, it is only a repetition preceding chapters, towards the beginning of Jehoiakim's, of what went before. The translation in the margin, evil reign.
“neither shall men break bread for them,” is much to The Prophet is forbidden to marry or beget children, be preferred. As to the custom alluded to, see the note because of the judgments that were about to fall upon on 2 Sam. jii. 35. To this custom the writer of the all the inhabitants of the land, both old and young, ver. book of Tobit refers, when, amongst other good exhor1-1. For the like reasons he is desired not to join with tations to his son, he directs him to “pour out his bread any of his neighbours either in their mourning or in on the burial of the just," Tobit iv, 17. Sir J. Chardin their convivial mirth, ver. 5-9. He shews, that their tells us, that “the Oriental Christians still make bancalamities were the effect of their apostasy and disobe- quets of the same kind, by a custom derived from the dience, for which God would drive them into exile, and Jews; and that healths were also drunk to the survivors give them no quarter, till He had fully requited their of the family.” These latter meant, no doubt, or were wickedness, ver. 10–13. But their future restoration taken from, “the cup of consolation." In like manner is immediately foretold, ver. 14, 15; as is also the con- he explains (as many other commentators have also version of the Gentiles, ver. 19-21. Dr. Blayney. | done) “the bread of men," mentioned Ezek. xxiv, 17,
Prov. 5. 21.
God will recompense
the Jews' idolatry. rear after other gods, and have served | fishers, saith the Lord, and they shall before about 601. them, and have worshipped them, and fish them; and after will I send for about 601.
have forsaken me, and have not kept many hunters, and they shall hunt
them from every mountain, and from
your fathers; for, behold, ye walk rocks.
| face, neither is their iniquity hid from
of this land into a land that ye know 18 And first I will recompense their
cases of their detestable and abominiChap. 23. 7, 14 | Therefore, behold, the i days able things.
come, saith the Lord, that it shall no 19 O Lord, my strength, and my
unto thee from the ends of the earth,
16 9 Behold, I will send for many them to know mine hand and my
as signifying “the bread of others;" the bread sent to use all the methods of open force and secret wiles, fremourners; the bread that the neighbours, friends, and quently compared to nets, in order to make men their relations sent. Dr. Blayney.
prey: see Ezek. xii. 13; Hos. v. I. These two simi13. — there shall ye serve other gods] The opportuni- | fitudes imply, that the Chaldeans shall make an entire ties of frequenting the publick worship of the true God | conquest and booty of the whole land, of its inhabitants shall be taken from you, as a just judgment for your and their riches; and what shall escape one party, shall neglect of His service in your own country; and you fall into the hands of another. W. Lowth. shall be exposed to the peril of committing idolatry, 18.I will recompense their iniquity-double ;] Not and being seduced by the Chaldeans to the worship of double of what they deserved, but double of what, that their idols. Compare Deut. iv. 28; xxviii. 36; 1 Sam. is, much greater than, would have been inflicted on the xxvi. 19. W. Lowth.
heathen for the like offences. Compare Rev. xviii. 6. 14. Therefore, behold, the days come, saith the Lord,] | Parkhurst. See the note on Isai. xl. 2. The particle rendered “therefore,” sometimes signifies with the carcases of their detestable and abomi“nevertheless;" (W. Lowth ;) here it seems more pro- nable things. With the carcases of their abominable perly to signify, “after this.” Dr. Blayney.
sacrifices, which they have made to their idols; and with God here gives the people notice of a future restora- | those very shameful idols, to which they have sacrificed. tion, on purpose to guard them during their exile from Bp. Hall. Idols are elsewhere called “carcases,” not falling into idolatry through despair, by letting them see only because they are without life, but also because of they had still a prospect of recovering. God's wonted their filthiness and hatefulness in the eyes of God: see favour and protection. Dr. Blayney.
Lev, xxvi. 30; Ezek. xliii. 7, 9. W. Lowth. - it shall no more be said, The Lord liveth, &c.] 19. O Lord,—the Gentiles shall come unto thee &c.] The The days come, wherein God shall not be celebrated so more emphatically to demonstrate the absurdity of formuch by the memory of His deliverance of His people saking the true God, and apostatizing to idolatry, the out of Egypt, which was long since done; as by the Prophet foretells, that the time will come when the fresh remembrance of the great mercy, which He hath Gentiles shall be ashamed of the idolatry of which they wrought for them, in bringing them back from their and their forefathers have been so long guilty, shall captivity in Babylon, and in all those lands whither they humbly confess this their sin, and address themselves were driven. Bp. Hall.
| in all their wants to the true God, as their only refuge 16. Behold, I will send for many fishers, &c.] But, in and protection. W. Lowth. the mean time, their desolation shall be grievous and 20. Shall a man make gods unto himself, and they are universal : I will call for the Chaldeans, who shall be as no gods ?] This seems to be a reply from God, accountso many fishers, to drag them out of their good land; and ing for what was said before, that the heathens had no as so many hunters, to chase them from their houses, benefit from the objects in which they placed their reliand to drive them from all their refuges. Bp. Hall. gious confidence, by asking whether it was likely that
Enemies and oppressors are elsewhere represented men could create gods, giving them power and perfecunder the metaphors of “ fishers” and “hunters :" see tions, which they had not in themselves ? Dr. Blayney. Gen. x. 9; Amos iv. 2; Hab. i. 14, 15: because they ! 21. Therefore, behold, I will this once cause them to VOL. II.
The captivity of Judah for her sin. JEREMIAH. Trust in man cursed, in God blessed.
CHRIST about 601. name is the LORD.
gave thee; and I will cause thee to about 601.
serve thine enemies in the land which CHAP. XVII.
thou knowest not: for ye have kin
dled a fire in mine anger, which shall
rust burn for ever.
| 5 q Thus saith the LORD; Cursed
1 6 For he shall be like the heath in THE sin of Judah is written with the desert, and shall not see when a Job 19. 24. 1 a a pen of iron, and with the good cometh; but shall inhabit the + Heb. nail t point of a diamond: it is graven parched places in the wilderness, in a
upon the table of their heart, and salt land and not inhabited.
7 d Blessed is the man that trusteth d Ps. 2. 12.
& 34, 8. & 2 Whilst their children remem- | in the Lord, and whose hope the 125. 1.**
Prov, 16, 20. b Judg.3.7. ber their altars and their bgroves Lord is.
Isai. 30. 18. by the green trees upon the high 8 For he shall be eas a tree planted e Ps. 1. 3. hills.
by the waters, and that spreadeth out c Chap. 15. 13. 3 O my mountain in the field, 'I her roots by the river, and shall not
will give thy substance and all thy see when heat cometh, but her leaf
shall cease from yielding fruit. + Heb, in
4 And thou, even + thyself, shalt 91 The heart is deceitful above thyself.
--- - ----know,] The phrase, which our translation renders “this most durable impression upon their hearts, as upon a once," may be translated “at this time,” as it is 2 Sam. writing tablet, and upon their altars, so as to be for ever xvii. 7. If we understand the verse of the Gentiles, present before their eyes. Compare Deut. xi. 18—20; mentioned in the foregoing verse, the sense is, that God Prov. iii. 3; vii. 3. Dr. Blayney. will, at the time foretold, ver. 19, exert His power in an 3. O my mountain in the field, I will give thy substance extraordinary manner for their conversion : compare &c.] Rather, “O My mountain, I will give thy subIsai. lii. 10. If we apply the words to the Jews, they stance in the field,” &c. Nations and princes of great import, that He will manifest His power, in bringing power and eminence are figuratively called “mountains," upon them all the evils already threatened against them, in regard to their strength and elevation : see chap. li. and they should know that He is the LORD, a fulfiller 25; Isai. xli, 15; Zech. iv. 7. Judah is therefore styled of all His threatenings, as well as a performer of His God's mountain, as having been chosen by Him, and promises. Compare Ezek. vi. 7; xii. 20; xxiv, 24, 27, thereby raised to a degree of elevation above all other W. Lowth. See the note on Exod. vi. 3.
| people. See chap. xxxi. 23. Dr. Blayney.
6. he shall be like the heath &c.] That man shall be Chap. XVII. In this chapter the Prophet describes like the heath in a dry wilderness, that shall not partake in the four first verses the attachment of Judah to idol- of the sweet showers when they fall. Bp, Hall. atry, and foretelleth the fatal consequences. He con- ' - in a salt land] Saltness in Hebrew expresses trasteth the accursed condition of him, who resteth his barren ground; see Deut. xxix. 23; Ps. cvii. 34; Zeph. trust on man, with the blessedness of one that trusteth ii. 9. W. Lowth. in God; and illustrates both by apt comparisons, ver. 5 The borders of the Dead sea, and of the Red sea, and -8. He sheweth, that, be the human heart ever so part of Arabia Petrea, were barren from containing a wily, God can detect, and will finally punish, its double- quantity of various salts. Calmet. dealing, ver. 9-11. He acknowledgeth, that sure sal- 9. The heart is deceitful above all things, &c. 1 The vation cometh from God and from Him only, ver. 12– words were spoken by Jeremiah concerning his own 14. And, complaining of those that scoffed at his pre- countrymen, not all of them, probably, but the more dictions, he prayeth for the Divine countenance and corrupted part of the nation, who to their other vices support against them, ver. 15—18.
had added a consummate hypocrisy; and of the hearts The remaining part of the chapter is taken up with a of these men he draws a most hideous picture, and distinct prophecy relative to the strict observance of the describes them under three bad characters. The first is sabbath day; which the Prophet was sent, most proba- fraud and treachery : “ the heart is deceitful above all bly immediately after the delivery of the foregoing, to things." The second is excessive malice: it is “desproclaim aloud, in all the gates of Jerusalem, as a matter perately wicked.” The third is deep dissimulation and which concerned the conduct of every individual, and hypocrisy, expressed in the way of question, “who can the general happiness of the whole. Dr. Blayney. know it?” A worse representation than this can hardly
Ver. 1. — with a pen of iron, and with the point of a be made of any creature: and therefore it must not be diamond :) This is spoken metaphorically, and is meant supposed that this was intended to be a description of to denote that idolatry was indelibly fixed in their affec-human nature, or of the heart of man in general, but tions and memory, as much as if it had been engraved rather of the most habitual and depraved sort of sinners. with instruments, capable of making the strongest and Dr. Jortin.
Before CHRIST about 601.
f 1 Sam. 16.7.
she hath not
The salvation of God.
CHAP. XVII. The prophet complaineth of mockers. all things, and desperately wicked: Where is the word of the Lord? Before about 601. who can know it?
let it come now. 10 I the LORD 'search the heart, I 16 As for me, * I have not hastened, Ps. 7.9. try the reins, even to give every man from being a pastor p to follow thee : k Chap. 1. 4, & 20.12. according to his ways, and according neither have I desired the woeful | Heb. aster to the fruit of his doings.
| day; thou knowest: that which came thee. 11 As the partridge || sitteth on out of my lips was right before thee. young which eggs, and hatcheth them not; so he 17 Be not a terrour unto me: thou brongiti forth, that getteth riches, and not by right, art my hope in the day of evil.
shall leave them in the midst of his 18 Let them be confounded that 1 Ps. 35. 4. & days, and at his end shall be a fool. persecute me, but let not me be con- '
12 1 A glorious high throne from founded : let them be dismayed, but the beginning is the place of our let not me be dismayed: bring upon sanctuary.
them the day of evil, and f m destroy + Heb. break 13 O Lord, the hope of Israel, them with double destruction. . Ps. 73, 27. Sall that forsake thee shall be ashamed, 19 | Thus said the LORD unto m Chap. 11.
and they that depart from me shall be me; Go and stand in the gate of the
written in the earth, because they children of the people, whereby the h Chap. 2. 13. have forsaken the LORD, the h foun- kings of Judah come in, and by the tain of living waters.
which they go out, and in all the
15 | Behold, they say unto me, Judah, and all Judah, and all the
them the dabe dismayed:S1
hope of Israel
them with a double breach.
- who can know it? The meaning is, that the 13. — they that depart from me shall be written in the wicked intentions of bad men are so covered over with earth,] They that forsake My laws, saith God, and their fair appearances, that none but God can see through the reliance upon Me, shall not be registered among My disguise, as it follows in the next verse, “ I the Lord people, nor shall their names be written in heaven, or search the heart." Abp. Sharp.
in the book of life : compare Ezek. xiii. 9; Ps. lxix. 10. I the Lord search the heart, I try the reins,] Sig- 28; Luke x. 20; Phil. iv. 3; Ezra ii. 59. W. Lowth. nifying the most secret thoughts and motions of the 14. Heal me, O Lord, and I shall be healed ; &c.] It soul : these God is said to “search” and “ try," not as is from Thee only that I expect comfort and relief in all if it were a work of labour and difficulty to the Divine my troubles and afflictions : see ver. 15–17. And as I knowledge to penetrate the hearts of men, and to dive acknowledge that all the blessings I enjoy come from into their thoughts, but to signify to us the perfection thee, so it is to Thee that I return all thanks and praise: and exactness of the Divine knowledge : as, when men compare Ps. cix. 1; cxlviii. 14; Deut. x. 21. The exwould know a thing exactly, they search into every part pression, “ Save me, and I shall be saved," is much of it, and examine every thing narrowly. On the same the same with that in chap. xxxi. 18, “Turn Thou me, account He is elsewhere said “ to weigh the spirits” of and I shall be turned ;” and both of them import, that men, Prov. xvi. 2; intimating that He has that perfect it is the Divine assistance and blessing alone which can knowledge of the secrets of men's hearts, which men crown human endeavours with success. See the note have of those things that they weigh in a balance with there. W. Lowth. the greatest exactness. Abp. Tillotson.
15. Behold, they say unto me, Where is the word of the 11. As the partridge sitteth on eggs, &c.] It is here Lord ?? This is an objection common in the mouths of said of the partridge, rather than of any other bird, that infidels and libertines, that God doth not speedily fulfil it “sitteth and hatcheth not,” because the partridge's His promises and threatenings, so as to give them ocular nest being made on the ground, the eggs are frequently demonstration of their certainty : see Isai. v. 19; Amos broken by men or other animals, and the bird is often v. 18; 2 Pet. iï. 4. This was objected against the truth obliged to quit them for fear of cattle, dogs, or sports- of Jeremiah's prophecy by the unprincipled persons of men, which chills the eggs, and makes them unfruitful. | the age. W. Lowth. Rain and moisture also may spoil them. Calmet, Park- / 16. As for me, I have not hastened from being a pastor hurst.
&c.] It is Thou, O Lord, that hast called me; and I - and at his end shall be a fool.) In the end shall have not dared to be averse from following Thee in that find that he hath been a fool. Bp. Hall. So God calls charge which Thou hast laid upon me; neither have I the rich man, Luke xii. 20; who was cut off in the been ambitious and desirous of this sad and busy task, midst of his life, when he promised himself the enjoy- as Thou well knowest, and that which I have spoken is ment of many years. W. Lowth.
| Thy true message, and no other. Bp. Hall. 12. A glorious high throne from the beginning &c.] As 19. — the gate of the children of the people,] This in the preceding verses was set forth the vain depend- probably means the gate most frequented by the people, ence of him who seeks to advance himself by indirect being that nearest the palace, where the kings of Judah methods; so here we are taught the solid foundation, held their most solemn courts of judicature. Dr. which he builds upon, who has recourse to the Divine Blayney. blessing, and seeks to recommend himself to the favour 20. — Hear ye the word of the Lord, ye kings of Judah,] of that Being, to whom Israel was taught to look up for Compare chap. xix. 3. The words are directed both to support, and whose kingdom from all eternity ruleth the king himself, and likewise to the princes, or those over all. Dr. Blayney.
I of the blood royal : see ver. 25. The word “king," in