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God foretelleth the destruction of JEREMIAH. his people, and their great misery. c Before 5 So I went, and hid it by Eu- | unto them this word; Thus saith the Before about 602. phrates, as the LORD commanded me. LORD God of Israel, Every bottle about 602.
6 And it came to pass after many shall be filled with wine: and they
7 Then I went to Euphrates, and Thus saith the LORD, Behold, I will
all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, with
14 And I will dash them tone + Heb. a mar
10 This evil people, which refuse mercy, + but destroy them. to hear my words, which walk in the 15 | Hear ye, and give ear ; be them. || imagination of their heart, and walk not proud : for the Lord hath spoken. after other gods, to serve them, and 16 Give glory to the Lord your to worship them, shall even be as this God, before he cause a darkness, and a Isai. 8. 22. girdle, which is good for nothing. I before your feet stumble upon the
11 For as the girdle cleaveth to the dark mountains, and while ye look for loins of a man, so have I caused to light, he turn it into the shadow of cleave unto me the whole house of death, and make it gross darkness. Israel and the whole house of Judah, 17 But if ye will not hear it, my saith the LORD; that they might be soul shall weep in secret places for unto me for a people, and for a name, your pride; and mine eye shall weep b Lam. 1. 2, and for a praise, and for a glory: but sore, and run down with tears, because they would not hear.
the Lord's flock is carried away cap12 Therefore thou shalt speak tive.
+ Heb. from destroying
1. Or, stubbornness.
to signify the Jews being carried captive over that river, confound and destroy them all, as earthen vessels are called “the waters of Babylon," Ps. cxxxvii. 1. Most broken to pieces, when they are dashed one against commentators are of opinion, that this was performed by another. The words allude to the earthen bottles, which the Prophet only in a vision: it not being probable that were to be filled with wine, ver. 12. Compare chap. xix. God should send hiin on two such long journeys as are 10, 11; xlviii. 12. W. Lowth. mentioned here, and ver. 6, merely upon this errand : see 16. Give glory to the Lord your God, &c.] Confess a like instance chap. xxv. 17. Several things are related your faults, (compare Josh. vii. 19,) and humble yourin Scripture as actually done, which yet were only selves under His mighty hand, before He bring upon transacted in a vision. W. Lowth.
you the night of affliction. Light is the emblem of joy, From Jerusalem to the Euphrates is more than 150 and happy times are expressed by bright and pleasant leagues. Calmet.
days; as, on the contrary, troubles and calamities are 11.- for a name, and for a praise,] That they might represented by the night and darkness, when every have the honour of being called by My name, and that thing looks melancholy and dismal : see chap. iv. 23; I might be glorified by their shewing forth My truth xv. 9; Isai. v. 30; viii. 22; Joel ii, 10; Amos viii. 9, and praises to the world : see chap. xxxiii. 9. W. | 10. W. Lowth. Lowth.
- the dark mountains, 7 Before the time comes, 12. - Every bottle shall be filled with wine : &c.) My ) when ye shall be forced to fly by night upon the mounpeople is like to an earthen bottle; and every bottle tains, for fear of your enemies. See chap. xvi. 16; Ps. shall be filled up to the brim with wine. Then shall the xi. 1; Ezek. vii. 16; Matt. xxiv. 16. W. Lowth. hearers take this prophecy in scorn, and say, What 18.– Humble yourselves, sit down :) That sitting was wonders are these thou tellest us? As if we knew not a posture of humiliation under circumstances of aftlicthat the use of bottles is to be filled with wine. Bp. tion and distress, see Judg. xx. 26; Job ii. 8; Isai. ii. Hall.
26. Dr. Blayney. 13. — Behold, I will fill all the inhabitants &c.] Even 19. The cities of the south shall be shut up,] Judah thus every inhabitant of this land shall be filled up with lying south in respect of Chaldea, which in the next the wine of God's wrath; and shall be, as it were, verse is characterized by the name of “the north,” the drunken therewith. Bp. Hall.
“ cities of the south” may mean the cities of Judah in God's judgments are often represented under the general. Or, they may mean those cities in particular figure of a cup full of intoxicating liquor: see this me- which lay in the southern parts of Judah, at the greatest taphor at large pursued, chap. xxv. 15, &c. W. Lowth. distance from the enemy; which yet were subjected to See Bp. Lowth's note on Isai. li. 17.
the common calamity, as well as those which were nearer 14. And I will dash them one against another,] I will | at hand. Dr. Blayney.
the cause thereof. 18 Say unto the king and to the 24 Therefore will I scatter them Before about 602. queen, Humble yourselves, sit down : as the stubble that passeth away by about 602.
for your || principalities shall come the wind of the wilderness.
19 The cities of the south shall be thy measures from me, saith the
skirts upon thy face, that thy shame
them that come from the north: where 27 I have seen thine adulteries, and
whoredom, and thine abominations on
+ Heb. afler
when yel! over thee: shall not sorrows take thee, as a woman in travail ?
CHAP. XIV. 22 | And if thou say in thine e Chap. 5. 19. heart, c Wherefore come these things
1 The grievous famine 7 causeth Jeremiah to
pray. 10 The Lord will not be entreated upon me? For the greatness of thine for the people. 13 Lying prophets are no
iniquity are thy skirts discovered, and excuse for them. 17 Jeremiah is moved to 10r, skall be thy heels || made bare.
complain for them.
& 10. 10.
skin, or the leopard his spots? then 1 to Jeremiah concerning the + Heb. the + Heb. laught. may ye also do good, that are + ac- dearth. customed to do evil.
2 Judah mourneth, and the gates
+ Heb. the words of the dearths, or, restraints.
20. — where is the flock that was given thee,] Judah These threats are mixed with exhortations to repentance, seems here to be addressed as a person, being asked and then follow the words, “Can the Ethiopian" &c.; with a sarcastical sneer what was become of all the nu- which must not therefore be taken as a declaration that merous multitudes, which God had given her formerly, they could not possibly repent : for then the Prophet constituting, like flocks of sheep, the national wealth ought not to have pressed them in the same discourse and glory? Dr. Blayney.
to amend their ways, and to give glory to the Lord, 21.- for thou hast taught them to be captains, &c.] before He caused darkness, and before their feet stumSome have understood the alliances, contracted hereto- bled, that they should fall to rise no more. Dr. Jortin. fore with the Assyrians by Ahaz, and the conduct of 24. — the wind of the wilderness. 7 See Bp. Lowth's Hezekiah towards the ambassadours of the king of Ba- | note on Isai. xxi. 1. bylon, to be here alluded to, as having paved or pre- 25. — thy lot, the portion of thy measures from me,] pared the way for the future invasion of the country by Or, “ of thine inheritance," as the Chaldee paraphrase the Chaldeans. But I rather think the irreligious and explains it. The expression is taken from the division wicked manners of the people are principally designed ; of the land of Canaan, by line or measure. W. Lowth. which put them out of the protection of Almighty God,
trusted in falsehood.] In false gods, who canand rendered them an easy conquest to any enemy that not help men in their troubles. See chap. x. 14. W. came against them. Thus they taught their enemies to Lowth. oppress and to be lords over them ; against whom, but for their own faults, they might have maintained their Chap. XIV. It may be presumed, that this prophecy security and independence. Dr. Blayney.
| was delivered in the beginning of Jehoiakim's reign, 22. -- are thy skirts discovered, and thy heels made not long after the foregoing. The six first verses of bare.] Thine enormous crimes deserve no less punish- this chapter foretell great distress that should be occament than that of captivity ; when thou shalt be carried sioned in Judah by means of a long drought. The away unto a strange country, stripped and bare, without Prophet in the name of the people makes a confession any covering to thy nakedness; for such was the bar- of sins, and supplicates the Divine mercy, ver. 7-9. barous cruelty of conquerors to their captives : see Isai. God declareth His resolution to punish, and will not be iii. 17; xx. 4 ; xlvii. 3; Lam. i. 8; iv. 21; Nahum iii. entreated, ver. 10–12. Jeremiah complains of false 5. W. Lowth.
prophets, who amuse the people with contrary predic23. — then may ye also do good, &c.] The meaning of tions ; God disclaimeth them, and threatens both them, this is, that they who are accustomed to do evil will find and the people who listen to them, with sword and fathe work of repentance and reformation to be, not in- mine, ver. 13-18. The Prophet renews his supplicadeed impossible, but extremely difficult. The genius of tions in the people's name and behalf, ver. 19. to the sublime and figurative language requires such lively end of the chapter. Dr. Blayney. expressions, and describes things which are hard to bel Ver. 1. - concerning the dearth.] Or, “the drought:”. accomplished as quite impossible. That the words are so the word is rendered by the Greek, Chaldee, and to be thus understood appears from the whole chapter, Syriack versions; and so it is rendered by our translawhich contains terrible denunciations against the Jews, tors also in chap. xvii. 8. The Hebrew word signifies of evils which should come upon them for their impiety, restraint ; that is, “when the heaven is shut up, that
Before CHRIST about 601.
id the Leople for their parent
& 11. 14.
A grievous dearth. The Lord will JEREMIAH. not be intreated for the people.
Before, thereof languish ; they are black unto midst of us, and t we are called by a
10 9 Thus saith the Lord unto
11 Then said the LORD unto me, 4 Because the ground is chapt, for a Pray not for this people for their a Chap. 7. 16. there was no rain in the earth, the good.
Exod. 32. 10. plowmen were ashamed, they covered 12 b When they fast, I will not b Prov. 1. 28. their heads.
| hear their cry; and when they offer ch. u. 11.
them by the sword, and by the fa-
Ye shall not see the sword, neither
80 the hope of Israel, the saviour name: c1 sent them not, neither have c Chap. 23.
thing of nought, and the deceit of
there is no rain," as the Scriptures express it, Deut. xi. countries : and if the cracks are so deep from the com17; 1 Kings viii. 35, W. Lowth. That drought was mon dryness of their summers, what must they be when a calamity incident to the land of Israel, and applied as the rains are withheld, as in the present case, beyond a punishment for sin, may be seen from comparing the usual time? Sir J. Chardin. Deut. xi. 17; xxviii. 23; 1 Kings viii. 35. Dr. Blayney. 5.- forsook it, 7 Namely, what she had just calved ;
2. -- the gates thereof languish ;] The gates of cities, I (Dr. Blayney :) to seek for sustenance in some other being places of publick resort, where the courts of jus- | place. W. Lowth. tice were held, and other common business transacted, 6. - they snuffed up the wind like dragons ;] They seem here to be put for the persons that meet there : as sucked in the air for want of water to cool their internal when we say, “the court is in mourning," we mean heat. Bochart observes, that the comparison to dragons the persons that attend the court or king's palace. So or great serpents is very just ; for Ælian describes these by this passage we are to understand, that all the per- animals as standing daily for some hours with their sons who appear in publick are dejected, and put on heads erect and their mouths wide open towards the black or mourning, on account of the national distress. sky, and drawing in the air. Bochart adds, that the eyes Dr. Blayney. Or, that they look black and ghastly, of the wild asses are properly noticed, as being by naand cast themselves down upon the ground out of ture extremely sharp-sighted. But for want of nourishgrief and despair. Compare chap. viii. 21; xiii. 18. ment these must fail and be exhausted. Dr. Blayney. W. Lowth.
7.- do thou it for thy name's sake :] Deal not with 3. — their little ones) The meaner people. Bp. Hall. us according to our deservings, but so as not to give The younger members of their family, or their children. occasion to strangers to speak evil of Thy name, to Dr. Blayney.
question Thy power, wisdom, or goodness. So God - to the pits,] Or, “to the cisterns." Jerusalem says, Ezek. xx. 9, 14, 22, 44, that amidst the various was supplied with water by two lakes or pools, called provocations He had received, He had still acted uni“the upper pool,” and “the lower pool;" see Isai, vii. formly upon that principle. Dr. Blayney. 3; xxii. 9; whence the water was conveyed in cisterns 8. — why shouldest thou be as a stranger in the land, ] for the use of the city. W. Lowth.
Thou that wert wont to dwell and continue among Thy - they were ashamed and confounded,] At the people, why shouldest Thou now be as a stranger that disappointment. W. Lowth. See Job vi. 20.
passes through the land, and lodges there a night, and - covered their heads.] See note on chap. ii. 37. away? Bp. Hall. As one who, having no permanent
4. Because the ground is chapt,] See note at Ps. interest in the land, is little concerned for its welfare. cxliii. 6. The Prophet, by speaking of ploughmen, Dr. Blayney. shews that he is speaking of the autumnal state of those 15. Therefore thus saith the Lord concerning the pro
Jeremiah is moved
to complain for them. Before in my name, and I sent them not, healing for us? e we looked for peace, Before
not be in this land ; By sword and of healing, and behold trouble!
e Chap. 8. 15. famine shall those prophets be con- ! 20 We acknowledge, O Lord, our sumed.
wickedness, und the iniquity of our 16 And the people to whom they fathers : for f we have sinned against f Ps. 106. 6. prophesy shall be cast out in the thee. streets of Jerusalem because of the 21 Do not abhor us, for thy name's famine and the sword; and they shall sake, do not disgrace the throne of have none to bury them, them, their thy glory: remember, break not thy wives, nor their sons, nor their daugh- covenant with us. . ters : for I will pour their wickedness 22 Are there any among the vaupon them.
nities of the Gentiles that can cause 17 I Therefore thou shalt say this rain ? or can the heavens give d Chap. 13. word unto them; d Let mine eyes run showers? art not thou he, O Lord Lam. 1. 16. & down with tears night and day, and our God ? therefore we will wait
let them not cease: for the virgin upon thee : for thou hast made all
1 The utter rejection and manifold judgments behold the slain with the sword! and
of the Jews. 10 Jeremiah, complaining of if I enter into the city, then behold their spite, receiveth a promise for himself,
them that are sick with famine ! yea, 12 and a threatening for them. 15 He 1 Or, make both the prophet and the priest il go
prayeth, 19 and receiveth a gracious pro
mise. against a about into a land that they know
THEN said the LORD unto me, knocledge it 19 Hast thou utterly rejected Ju- 1 a Though Moses and · Samuel a Ezek. 14. chap. 5. 31. dah ? hath thy soul loathed Zion? why stood before me, yet my mind could b'Exod. 32.
hast thou smitten us, and there is no l not be toward this people: cast them - Sam. 7. 9.
1 Or, make merchandise
phets &c.] The ministers of the Lord ought seriously kingdom : see chap. iii. 17. But the words are chiefly to reflect upon what is here said of the crime and pu- to be understood of the temple; and the Prophet benishment of those false prophets, who promised peace seeches God not to give that up to be profaned by infito the Jews at the very time their ruin was approach-dels; the place which He had chosen for His peculiar ing; that it may be a warning to them never to flatter residence; where He sat between the cherubims as sinners, nor lull them into security ; but to speak always upon a throne : see the note upon Isai. lxvi. 1. W. with zeal and sincerity what God has commanded. And | Lowth. the people ought likewise to learn from hence to hearken diligently to those who declare the truth to them sin- Chap. XV. To the supplication at the close of the cerely and without flattery. Ostervald.
preceding chapter God replies by declaring, that not 17. — the virgin daughter of my people] Those cities even the intercession of His favoured servants Moses are called “virgins" which never came into a con- and Samuel should divert Him from executing His queror's hands. In the same sense the Prophet here purpose of vengeance against Judah, which is decalls Jerusalem "a virgin,” because she had been hi- nounced in terms of great severity, ver. 1-9. At ver.
by Him from all attempts of her enemies : compare on account of the odium and persecution that was Amos v. 2. The dissolution of a government or body brought upon him. God reproves him for speaking politick is called a “breach," by way of allusion to the slightingly of the Divine aid, the benefit of which he breaking or disjointing of the limbs of a human body: had already experienced ; and threatens Him with the see chap. viii. 21; Lam. ii. 13. W. Lowth.
loss of his fortunes, as a punishment for his sins, ver. 18 — both the prophet and the priest go about Or, 11-14. The Prophet deprecates the ill effects of God's wander “into a land that they know not.” The priests displeasure, representing the cheerful readiness with and prophets confirmed the people in their corruptions which he had obeyed the Divine call, and the continual and impenitence, thereby seeking to advance their own uneasiness he had felt in contemplating the melancholy interest and authority: see chap. ii. 8; v. 31. To subject of his commission, ver. 15—18. Assurances of which sense the marginal reading renders the former protection and security are renewed to him, on condition part of the sentence thus, “The prophet and the priest of obedience and fidelity on his part, ver. 19 to the end. make merchandise against a land ;" and now they re- Dr. Blayney. ceive the reward of their prevarications, by going into Ver. i. — Though Moses and Samuel stood before me, captivity with those they have misled. See ver. 15. W. &c.] Moses obtained pardon for the people after their Lowth.
sin of making the golden call, Exod. xxxii. 34 ; and 21. - do not disgrace the throne of thy glory :) Jeru- again, after their despising the promised land, Numb. salem is called the “ city of God," Ps. xlviii. 1 ; lxxxvii. xiv. 20: Samuel's intercession prevailed for their de3; as He was in a peculiar manner the King of the liverance out of the hands of the Philistines, 1 Sam. Jews, and this was His royal city, or chief seat of His / vii. 9: and these two persons are mentioned together,
CHRIST about 601.
Or, against the mother
The utter rejection and
JEREMIAH. manifold judgments of the Jews. rer out of my sight, and let them go / fore will I stretch out my hand against c Recores
thee, and destroy thee; I am weary about 601, 2 And it shall come to pass, if they | with repenting. say unto thee, Whither shall we go 7 And I will fan them with a fan
forth? then thou shalt tell them, in the gates of the land; I will be1 Chap. 43. Thus saith the Lord; Such as are reave them of || children, I will destroy ! Or, Zech. 11. 9. for death, to death; and such as are my people, since they return not from dear.
for the sword, to the sword; and such their ways.
have brought upon them || against ) e Lev. 26. 16. 3 And I will e appoint over them the mother of the young men a spoiler city a young
four + kinds, saith the Lord: the at noonday: I have caused him to fall &c. or,
guisheth : she hath given up the 1 Heh. I will 4 And + I will cause them to be ghost; h her sun is gone down while h Amos 8. 9. a removing. ? removed into all kingdoms of the it was yet day: she hath been ashamed ch24.9. 20. earth, because of 8 Manasseh the son and confounded : and the residue of 5,2 Kings of Hezekiah king of Judah, for that them will I deliver to the sword bewhich he did in Jerusalem.
fore their enemies, saith the LORD. 5 For who shall have pity upon 10 q i Woe is me, my mother, that i Job 3.,!, &c.
thee, O Jerusalem ? or who shall be- thou hast borne me a man of strife and + Hleb. to ask moan thee? or who shall go aside fto a man of contention to the whole ask how thou doest?
earth! I have neither lent on usury, 6 Thou hast forsaken me, saith the nor men have lent to me on usury; Lord, thou art gone backward: there | yet every one of them doth curse me.
+ leb. families,
against the mother and the young mon.
as remarkably prevalent by their prayers, Psal. xcix. 6, - a spoiler] Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon is 8. But here God saith, that, if these very persons were undoubtedly here designed. In the margin, the prealive, and in that near attendance to Him, which they ceding word is rendered “a young man :" this would formerly enjoyed, (for that is the import of the phrase very properly characterize the same person. For Jose“to stand before Him," see ver. 19; chap. xviii. 20; phus cites from Berosus, the Chaldean historian, a pasDeut. x. 8; 1 Kings xvii. 1 ;) yet even their prayers sage to the following purport; “that Nabopollassar should not avert His judgments from His people : com- king of Babylon, hearing that the provinces of Egypt, pare Ezek. xiv. 14. 'W. Lowth.
Cæle-Syria, and Phenice had revolted, and being him2. — for death,] It is obvious from the foregoing self infirm from age, sent a part of his forces under his enumeration, that death here means the pestilence. See son Nebuchadnezzar, then in the prime of youth, by chap. xiv. 12. Dr. Blayney.
whom these provinces were again reduced.” This was 4. And I will cause them to be removed into all king. the expedition said to have been undertaken by him in doms of the earth,] Several Jews were carried captive the third year of Jehoiakim king of Judah : in the course into other countries, besides Chaldea ; see note on chap. of which, after having defeated the Egyptian army at xii. 14 ; others turned voluntary exiles, to avoid the Carchemish, he laid siege to Jerusalem, took, and plunmiseries they saw coming upon their country; see chap. dered it, carrying away much spoil and many captives xl. 11. The words here are taken out of Deut. xxviii. to Babylon. See chap. xlvi. 2; Dan. i. 1-3; 2 Kings 25; where Moses threatens them with a general dis- xxiv. 1. Dr. Blayney. persion over the world, which received its utmost com 9. She that haih borne seven “ Seven" is put for pletion after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Ro- | many: and the multitude of the inhabitants or children mans. W. Lowth,
of Jerusalem, the mother city, is here alluded to. Dr. 6.- I am weary with repenting.] When God sus- Blayney. pends the execution of His judgments, He is said to 10. — that thou hast borne me a man of strife &c.] “ repent of the evil” He had threatened: see chap. | The Prophet here complains of the opposition he met xvi. 8. This He had done so often, that He is re- with from his countrymen, for speaking unwelcome presented as a man whose patience is at last quite tired truths, which had occasioned him so much uneasiness, out, it being to no purpose to withhold His hand any as if he had engaged in the most invidious of all occulonger from striking. Compare Isai. xliii. 24; Hos. pations, and the most likely to engender strife, that of xiii. 14; Mal. ii. 17. W. Lowth.
lending and borrowing upon usury. Dr. Blayney. 7. And I will fan them with a fan in the gates of the The Jews were forbidden to take usury of their breland ;] I will toss and scatter them in all the defenced thren, Deut. xxiii. 19; especially of the poor, Exod. cities of the land, as corn is shaken and dispersed in the xxii. 25; which was thought so great an oppression, winnowing. Bp. Hall.
that it made the man who was guilty of it hated and 8. -- against the mother of the young men] The na-cursed by every one. The Prophet saith, this was just tion in general is called “the mother” of each Jew in his own case, every body was his enemy for delivering particular; Isai. 1. 1; Hos. 11. 2-5; or, as Lowth thinks, those messages which he had received from God. 1. Jerusalem. Abp. Secker,