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CHRIST about 590.
& 19. 5.
against Judah confirmed. Before city is given into the hand of the kings, their princes, their priests, Before about 590. Chaldeans.
| and their prophets, and the men of about 590. 26 4 Then came the word of the Judah, and the inhabitants of JeruLord unto Jeremiah, saying, salem.
27 Behold, I am the LORD, the 33 And they have turned unto me g Numb. 16. & God of all flesh: is there any thing the + i back, and not the face : though | Heb, neck,
i Chap. 2. 27. too hard for me?
I taught them, rising up early and
my name, to defile it.
fire on this city, and burn it with the the son of Hinnom, to cause their 1 Chap. 7. 31. h Chap. 19.
houses, h upon whose roofs they have sons and their daughters to pass
it into my mind, that they should do
shall be delivered into the hand of the 31 For this city hath been to me king of Babylon by the sword, and + Heb. for as ta provocation of mine anger and by the famine, and by the pestilence; ay anger.
of my fury from the day that they 37 Behold, I will n gather them n Deut. 30. 3.
32 Because of all the evil of the my fury, and in great wrath; and
provoke me to anger, they, their safely: equal, if not exceed, the top of the besieged walls. The through” the fire is certainly taken in this sense, Ezek. sides were walled in with bricks or stones, or secured xvi. 20, 21; and xxiii. 37; where it is explained by with strong rafters to hinder it from falling; the fore“ slaying them," "sacrificing them," and “giving them part only, being by degrees to be advanced near the walls, to be devoured.” remained bare. The pile itself consisted of all sorts of Some criticks are of opinion, that the exposition is materials, as earth, timber, boughs, stones, &c. : into taken in a milder sense, in other texts, particularly the middle were cast only wickers and twigs of trees, to 2 Kings xvi. 3 ; and that it only denotes holding the fasten, and, as it were, cement, the other parts. Move-children over the fire, or making them pass through the able towers of wood were usually placed upon the flame, by way of lustration or dedication to some idol. mount. They were formed of several stories, which To confirm this interpretation they observe, that the were able to carry, not soldiers only, but all sorts of Hebrew verb used in the text signifies to dedicate or portable engines." Hence we may perceive in what consecrate; see Exod. xiii. 12. W. Lowth. sense “the mounts came unto," or approached, “the The fact in all probability was, that the more tendercity," as in the text : and how a “mount” or “bank" | hearted parents were content simply to dedicate their might even “stand in the ditch,” or “trench," 2 Sam. children, waving them perhaps over the fire that was xx. 15 : as likewise of what use “trees" were in con- burning before the idol, without doing them any corstructing them, Jer. vi. 6; and how they might be said poral hurt; whilst the gloomy superstition of others to “throw down the houses," chap. xxxiii. 4. Park- prompted them to go greater lengths, and to perpetrate hurst.
the most inhuman barbarities under the notion of re35.- to cause their sons and their daughters to pass ligious worship. Both however were guilty of actions through the fire unto Molech ;] The words “through highly offensive to God, and provoking His resentment. the fire" are not in the Hebrew ; but in other places Dr. Blayney. which speak of the same thing, the words are expressed 36. And now therefore thus saith the Lord,] In this at full length ; see Deut. xviii. 10; 2 Kings xxiii. 10. and the following verses God gives an answer to the Elsewhere the same thing is expressed by “ burning doubt proposed by the Prophet in ver. 25. Or the words their sons and their daughters in the fire, and offering may be thus translated, “ But now, notwithstanding them for burnt offerings :" see chap. vii. 31 ; xix. 5; (all this), thus saith the Lord." See the note on chap. Deut. xii. 31. The idolatrous Jews are often upbraided xvi. 14. W. Lowth. with the practice of this inhuman rite; see Ps. cvi. 37; 37. — and I will cause them to dwell safely : 7 St. Jerome Isai. lvii. 5. And the phrase of “making children pass observes, that this promise, taken in its full extent, was
a gracious return. Before 38 And they shall be my people, of Benjamin, and in the places about Before about 590. and I will be their God:
Jerusalem, and in the cities of Judah, about 590. Ź 39 And I will p give them one and in the cities of the mountains, & 30. 22. &" heart, and one way, that they may and in the cities of the valley, and p Ezek. u. fear me + for ever, for the good of in the cities of the south : for I will
them, and of their children after them: cause their captivity to return, saith
40 And I will make an everlasting the Lord.
covenant with them, that I will not + Heb. from turn away 4 from them, to do them
CHAP. XXXIII. good; but I will put my fear in their
I God promiseth to the captivity a gracious hearts, that they shall not depart from
return, 9 a joyful state, 12 a settled go
vernment, 15 Christ the Branch of right41 Yea, I will rejoice over them eousness, 17 a continuance of kingdom and to do them good, and I will plant
priesthood, 20 and a stability of a blessed + Heb, in
seed. them in this land + assuredly with my whole heart and with my whole M OREOVER the word of the about 590. soul.
M Lord came unto Jeremiah the 42 For thus saith the LORD; Like second time, while he was yet a shut a Chap. 32.2, as I have brought all this great evil up in the court of the prison, saying, ". upon this people, so will I bring upon 2 Thus saith the Lord the maker b Isai. 37. 26. them all the good that I have pro- thereof, the LORD that formed it, to mised them.
establish it; the Lord is his name; 43 And fields shall be bought in 3 Call unto me, and I will answer this land, whereof ye say, It is deso- thee, and shew thee great and || mighty | Or, hidden. late without man or beast; it is given things, which thou knowest not. into the hand of the Chaldeans. 1 4 For thus saith the Lord, the
44 Men shall buy fields for money, God of Israel, concerning the houses and subscribe evidences, and seal of this city, and concerning the houses them, and take witnesses in the land of the kings of Judah, which are
Iruth, or, stability.
not made good to those that returned from captivity, of the kingdom of Judah, see chap. xvii. 26, and the because they were frequently infested with wars, as well note there. by the kings of Syria and Egypt, as by the rest of their neighbours, as appears from the history of the Chap. XXXIII. This chapter contains a prophecy, Maccabees; and were finally subdued and destroyed by which, though applicable in some parts to the restorathe Romans. W. Lowth.
tion of the Jews from Babylon, cannot however be so 39. And I will give them one heart, and one way,] I understood upon the whole. will give them unity of mind and judgment, as to the God reveals His gracious purpose of healing the things of God: they shall not be, some for superstitious wounds of Jerusalem, restoring the captivity of Judah, and idolatrous worship, and some for My true worship. forgiving their sins, and distinguishing them with such Poole.
blessings, as to strike the astonished nations with fear 40. And I will make an everlasting covenant with them, and trembling, ver. 1-9. He foretells that the land, The Jewish covenant, with respect to the ceremonial whose desolation they deplored, should again flourish ordinances contained in it, is sometimes called “an with multitudes, both of men and cattle, ver. 10-13. everlasting covenant;' see Gen. xvii. 13; Lev. xxiv. 8; He confirms His former promise of establishing a kingIsai. xxiv. 5; because those ordinances were to last till dom of righteousness in a branch of the house of David, the age of the Messiah, called the “age,” or “the world and rendering it perpetual, together with the priesthood to come,” Heb. ii. 5; vi. 5. But when this expression of the sons of Levi, ver. 14-18. He declares His is applied to the Gospel covenant, there is a peculiar covenant in this respect with David and the Levites to emphasis in it, implying that it should never be abo- be as sure as the covenant of day and night, ver. 19– lished, or give way to any other dispensation. See 22. And, to remove the reproach of having cast off chap. 1.5; Isai. lv. 3; compared with Ps. lxxxix. 34, 35. those families, whom He had once distinguished by W. Lowth.
His choice, He renews His protestations of infallibly 41. Yea, I will rejoice over them to do them good,] I restoring the seed of Jacob, and of appointing the seed will take pleasure in doing them good according to My of David to rule over them for ever, ver. 23 to the end. promise, Deut. xxx. 9; whereas before, “the Lord re- | Dr. Blayney. joiced over them to destroy them,” Deut. xxviii. 63; Ver. 2. — the maker thereof,] Rather, “the doer of which God is never said to do, but when men have filled it,” that is, of “the word,” or of the thing which God up the measure of their iniquities. See the notes upon says. Dr. Blayney. Gen. vi. 6; Deut. i. 34. W. Lowth.
3. — which thou knowest not.] Whether this means the 44. Men shall buy fields for money, &c.] There shall return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, or the be an ordinary course of bargains and purchases, and times of the Messiah, both had been already foretold by all those forms of legal transactions which are usual on Jeremiah as plainly as they are expressed here. Persuch occasions. Bp. Hall.
haps therefore God speaks not to the Prophet, but to - in the land of Benjamin, &c.] For these divisions the people, who were backward to know what they
Before CHRIST about 590.
d Chap. 7. 34.
He reneweth his promise
to the captive Jews. Before thrown down by the mounts, and by man, and without inhabitant, and about 590. the sword;
the Lord is good; for his mercy
cause to return the captivity of the
without man and without beast, and 8 And I will cleanse them from in all the cities thereof, shall be an
all their iniquity, whereby they have habitation of shepherds causing their Chap. 31. sinned against me; and I will par- flocks to lie down.
don all their iniquities, whereby they
cities of the south, and in the land of
unto the house of Israel and to the 10 Thus saith the LORD; Again house of Judah. there shall be heard in this place, 15 9 In those days, and at that which ye say shall be desolate without time, will I cause the e Branch of ¢ Chap: 23. 5. man and without beast, even in the righteousness to grow up unto David; & 4. 2. cities of Judah, and in the streets of and he shall execute judgment and Jerusalem, that are desolate, without righteousness in the land.
y have habeks to lie dowings of the mountaithie
might have known; and as some presumed on false 11.- the voice of them that shall say, Praise the Lord predictions in their favour, so some despaired of the &c.) We read, that those who returned from captivity true, chap. xxxii. 36. Abp. Secker. Or, probably, it used this very hymn, Ezra üi. 11. W. Lowth. means “ things which thou neither didst nor couldst - the sacrifice of praise] Such as was offered upon know," but by revelation. Dr. Blayney.
any great deliverance. See Levit. vii. 12; Psal. cvii. 4. — by the mounts, and by the sword;] By the bat- 22'; cxvi. 17. The word here used signifies praise and tering engines, placed upon the mounts : see note on thanksgiving in general; and is used for those choirs or chap. xxxii. 24 ; and by the violence of war. W. Lowth. companies, who make a solemn thanksgiving-procession
8. And I will cleanse them from all their iniquity, I upon the dedication of the new wall of Jerusalem, will not impute their sins any longer to them, but remit Nehem. xii. 31, 38, 40. This is called by St. Paul “the the punishments I have inflicted upon them for their sacrifice of praise, that is, the fruit of our lips,” Heb. iniquities. The whole verse implies that general pro- xiji. 15, to distinguish it from the oblations commanded mise of pardon of sins, which is elsewhere spoken of as by the law, which consisted of the fruits of the ground, the peculiar blessing of the Gospel : compare chap. / or of the flock and herd. W. Lowth. xxxi. 34; Ezek. xxxvi. 25. W. Lowth.
13. — under the hands of him that telleth them,] That 9. And it shall be to me a name of joy, &c.] God's is, of their shepherds, who number their cattle by especial providence over the Jews, in restoring their city striking with their rod every one as it comes out of the and temple, shall be taken notice of by the heathen fold. See Levit. xxvii. 32. W. Lowth. world, and make them give glory to that God, whom 14. — I will perform that good thing which I have prothey worship: see Ezra i. 2; vi. 12. To the same sensemised] The coming of the Messiah was that good thing God is said to “ make Jerusalem a praise in the earth,” which God had promised, which is therefore called in Isai. lxii. 7; that is, the subject of men's praise and ad- a peculiar manner, “ The promise made unto the miration, the glory of which redounds to God, who is fathers,” Acts xiii. 32, as being the greatest of all the her Protector. This promise is more signally fulfilled promises, and that in which all the rest were comprein the Christian Church, which the heathens resorted hended. Bp. Beveridye. to, as the seat and temple of truth : see Isai. ii. 3 ; Zech. / 15. In those days, will I cause the Branch of rightviü. 21, 23. W. Lowth.
eousness &c.] See the notes on chap. xxüi. 6.
Before UMU CHRIST
Poncu Day 1 SY L
shall not be
A continuance of kingdom promised, JEREMIAH.
and a stability of a blessed seed. Before 16 In those days shall Judah bel people have spoken, saying, The two Before about 590." saved, and Jerusalem shall dwell safe- families which the Lord hath chosen, about 590.
ly; and this is the name wherewith he hath even cast them off? thus
they should be no more a nation
and if I have not appointed the ordi1 Kings 2. 4. 18 Neither shall the priests the nances of heaven and earth;
Levites want a man before me to 26 Then will I cast away the seed
to be rulers over the seed of Abra-
cause their captivity to return, and g Chap. 31. 20 Thus saith the LORD; & If ye have mercy on them.
can break my covenant of the day,
1 Jeremiah prophesieth the captivity of Zede
kiah and the city. 8 The princes and the 21 Then may also my covenant be
people having dismissed their bondservants, broken with David my servant, that contrary to the covenant of God, reassume he should not have a son to reign them. 12 Jeremiah, for their disobedience, upon his throne; and with the Levites
giveth them and Zedekiah into the hands of
their enemies. the priests, my ministers. h Chap 31. 22 As h the host of heaven cannot THE word which came unto Je- about 591.
be numbered, neither the sand of the 1 remiah from the LORD, a when a 2 Kings 25.
23 Moreover the word of the LORD and all the people, fought against his hand. came to Jeremiah, saying,
Jerusalem, and against all the cities 24 Considerest thou not what this thereof, saying,
16. — and this is the name wherewith she shall be tively to denote the offices of a more spiritual worship called, &c.] The simplest interpretation of the original substituted in their stead. Dr. Blayney. See the notes words is, “ He that shall call her," that is, to be His on Isai. xix. 19; lxvi. 23. peculiar people, “is the Lord our Righteousness.” Bp. 24. - The two families which the Lord hath chosen, 7 Pearson.
Some suppose the two kingdoms of Israel and Judah 17. - David shall never want a man, &c.] So long to be intended; others the royal and sacerdotal families as Israel remained a kingdom, those of the line of Da- of David and Levi. Dr. Blayney. vid ruled over it: when that failed, Christ came in the 25. — my covenant — the ordinances] The « coveflesh, who ruleth, and shall rule, over the Israel of God nant" is that above mentioned “ of the day and of the for ever. Poole. In a spiritual sense, the kingdom of night,” (ver. 20,) which continually succeed each other Christ, the Son of David, has been for some time esta-without interruption : “the ordinances of heaven and blished over those whom the Apostle calls “ the Israel earth” are the stated order of things in both, such as of God,” Gal. vi. 16; and the “children of Abraham," the system of numberless stars in the heavens, and the Gal. iïi. 7 ; meaning thereby all true believers, whether immeasurable sand of the sea, (ver. 22,) all which God of the Jews or of the Gentiles. And in the Church of claims to be of His ordering and appointment. Dr. Christ there hath been a constant and uninterrupted Blayney. succession of persons appointed to perform the publick offices of religion in the room of, although not taken Chap. XXXIV. This chapter contains two distinct out of, the family of the priests the Levites. And the prophecies. The first of which is dated at the time perpetuity of this kingdom and this priesthood is, in when Nebuchadnezzar was carrying on the siege of the opinion of many learned expositors, looked upon as Jerusalem, and of the cities of Lachish and Azekah, a full and authentick completion of the intention of this most probably towards the latter end of the ninth year prophecy. Dr. Blayney. These promises can only re- of Zedekiah, the siege having been begun in the tenth spect the eternal priesthood of Jesus, exercised by Him- month of that year. The second prophecy was deliself and His ministers in the Christian Church. Calmet. vered some time afterwards, when the Chaldeans had
18. – to offer burnt offerings, &c.] It is not neces- broken up the siege, and were marched off to meet the sary to suppose, that the same sacrifices shall continue Egyptian army, which made a shew of coming to the to be offered in the Christian Church, which are pre-relief of Jerusalem. Dr. Blayney. scribed by the Mosaick law; but as that law is abro- Ver. 1.-- all the cities thereof, 7 See ver. 7; the lesser gated, we may fairly understand those sacrifices figura- l cities of Judea, which were subject to Jerusalem, as
Before CHRIST about 591.
The prophet foretelleth
CHAP. XXXIV. the destruction of Jerusalem. Before 2 Thus saith the LORD, the God | Ah lord! for I have pronounced the Before about 591. of Israel; Go and speak to Zedekiah word, saith the LORD.
king of Judah, and tell him, Thus 6 Then Jeremiah the prophet spake
army fought against Jerusalem, and 3 And thou shalt not escape out of against all the cities of Judah that • Chap. 32.4. his hand, but shalt surely be b taken, were left, against Lachish, and against
and delivered into his hand; and thine Azekah: for these defenced cities re
eyes shall behold the eyes of the king mained of the cities of Judah. + Heb. his of Babylon, and the shall speak with 8 This is the word that came about 591. speak to thy thee mouth to mouth, and thou shalt unto Jeremiah from the LORD, after go to Babylon.
that the king Zedekiah had made a 4 Yet hear the word of the LORD, covenant with all the people which 0 Zedekiah king of Judah; Thus were at Jerusalem, to proclaim li- c Exod. 21. 2. saith the Lord of thee, Thou shalt berty unto them; not die by the sword:
| 9 That every man should let his 5 But thou shalt die in peace: and manservant, and every man his maidwith the burnings of thy fathers, the servant, being an Hebrew or an Heformer kings which were before thee, brewess, go free; that none should so shall they burn odours for thee; serve himself of them, to wit, of a and they will lament thee, saying, Jew his brother.
their metropolis ; called elsewhere “the daughters of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, to say nothing Judah," by way of distinction from the mother city. of other Jews, were men of great authority in the court Compare chap. xlix. 2; li. 43. W. Lowth.
of the king of Babylon, before and after the commence2. — Thus saith the Lord ; Behold, I will give this ment of the imprisonment of Zedekiah; and Daniel city, &c.] This prophecy was fulfilled in all its parts. continued in power till the subversion of the kingdom “I will give this city into the hand of the king of Ba- of Babylon by Cyrus. Now it seems very probable, bylon, and he shall burn it with fire:" so says the Pro- that Daniel and the other Jews would have both incliphet; the history relates, “They," that is, the forces of nation to request, and influence enough with the king the king of Babylon, “burnt the house of God, and of Babylon to obtain, permission to bury their deceased brake down the wall of Jerusalem, and burnt all the prince Zedekiah after the manner of his fathers. But palaces thereof with fire,” 2 Chron. xxxvi. 19. “ Thou if there had been no Jews at Babylon of consequence shalt not escape out of his hand, but shalt surely be enough to make such a request, still it is probable that taken, and delivered into his hand :" so says the Pro- the king of Babylon would have ordered the Jews to phet; the history relates, “ The men of war fled by bury and lament their departed prince after the manner night, and the king went the way toward the plain, and of their country. Monarchs, like other men, are conthe army of the Chaldeans pursued after the king, and scious of the instability of human condition; and when overtook him in the plains of Jericho ; and all his army 'the pomp of war has ceased, when the insolence of conwere scattered from him : so they took the king, and quest is abated, and the fury of resentment is subsided, brought him up to the king of Babylon, to Riblah, 2 they seldom fail to revere royalty even in its ruins, and Kings xxv. 4–6. The Prophet goes on: “Thine eyes 'grant without reluctance proper obsequies to the reshall behold the eyes of the king of Babylon, and he mains of captive kings. Bp. Watson. shall speak with thee mouth to mouth.” No pleasant 5. — so shall they burn odours for thee;7 It was cuscircumstance this to Zedekiah, who had provoked the tomary among the Jews, at the funeral of their kings, king of Babylon, by revolting from him. The history to prepare “a bed of spices,” 2 Chron. xvi. 14, of which says, “The king of Babylon gave judgment upon Zede- they made a perfume by burning them, and therein to kiah," or, as it is more literally rendered from the He deposit the body of the deceased prince. Compare 2 brew, “spake judgment with him at Riblah.” The Chron. xxi. 19. W. Lowth. Prophet concludes this part with, “and thou shalt go ' 8. — to proclaim liberty unto them :) By the law of to Babylon;" the history says, “ The king of Babylon Moses, (Exod. xxi. 2; Deut. xv. 12,) the Israelites were bound him in chains, and carried him to Babylon, and not allowed to detain their brethren of the Hebrew race put him in prison till the day of his death,” Jer. lii. 11. in perpetual bondage, but were required to let them go “ Thou shalt not die by the sword.” He did not die free after having served six years. This law had, it by the sword, he did not fall in battle. “But thou seems, fallen into disuse; but king Zedekiah, upon the shalt die in peace.” He did die in peace; he expired approach of the Chaldean army, whether from religious neither on the rack nor on the scaffold; was neither motives, or a political view to employ the men, who strangled, nor poisoned; no unusual fate of captive were set free, in the service of the war, engaged the kings! he died peaceably in his bed, though that bed people to act conformably to the law; and they released was in a prison. “And with the burnings of thy fathers their brethren accordingly. But no sooner were their shall they burn odours for thee.” It cannot be proved fears abated by the retreat of the Chaldeans, than, in from history, that this part of the prophecy was accom- defiance of every principle of religion, honour, and huplished; though the probability is, that it was so; the manity, they imposed the yoke of servitude anew upon probability is grounded on these two reasons. Daniel, those unhappy persons, ver. 11. Dr. Blayney.