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a Isai. 43. 20.

Rev. 18. 4.

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The judgment of Babylon,

JEREMIAH.

and redemption of Israel. c. Before habitation of justice, even the LORD, I bend the bow, shoot at her, spare no Before ** 595."- the hope of their fathers.

arrows: for she hath sinned against 595. 8 a Remove out of the midst of the Lord. ch. 51. 6. Babylon, and go forth out of the land 15 Shout against her round about:

of the Chaldeans, and be as the he she hath given her hand: her foun-
goats before the flocks.

dations are fallen, her walls are thrown
99 For, lo, I will raise and cause down : for it is the vengeance of the
to come up against Babylon an as- Lord: take vengeance upon her; as
sembly of great nations from the she hath done, do unto her.
north country: and they shall set 16 Cut off the sower from Babylon,
themselves in array against her; from and him that handleth the || sickle in Or, scythe.
thence she shall be taken: their the time of harvest: for fear of the
arrows shall be as of a mighty || expert oppressing sword they shall turn every
man; none shall return in vain. one to his people, and they shall flee

10 And Chaldea shall be a spoil : every one to his own land.
all that spoil her shall be satisfied, 17 q Israel is a scattered sheep;
saith the Lord.

the lions have driven him away: first
11 Because ye were glad, because the king of Assyria hath devoured
ye rejoiced, O ye destroyers of mine him; and last this Nebuchadrezzar
heritage, because ye are grown † fat | king of Babylon hath broken his
as the heifer at grass, and bellow as bones.
bulls;

18 Therefore thus saith the LORD
12 Your mother shall be sore con- of hosts, the God of Israel; Behold,
founded; she that bare you shall be I will punish the king of Babylon
ashamed: behold, the hindermost of and his land, as I have punished the
the nations shall be a wilderness, a king of Assyria.
dry land, and a desert.

19 And I will bring Israel again
13 Because of the wrath of the to his habitation, and he shall feed on

Lord it shall not be inhabited, but it Carmel and Bashan, and his soul shall b. Chap. 49. shall be wholly desolate: bevery one be satisfied upon mount Ephraim and

that goeth by Babylon shall be as- Gilead.
tonished, and hiss at all her plagues. 20 In those days, and in that time,

14 Put yourselves in array against saith the Lord, the iniquity of Israel
Babylon round about : all ye that shall be sought for, and there shall be

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17.

7.--the habitation of justice,] A refuge and protection last &c.] After Nineveh, the metropolis of the Asfor those who are good and just. W. Lowth.

syrian empire, was destroyed, Babylon became the 11. – fat as the heifer] See notes at Deut. xxxii. 15. queen of the East. They were both equally enemies to

12. Your mother shall be sore confounded ; &c.] the people of God ; the one subverted the kingdom of Your mother city, Babylon, shall be sore confounded; Israel, and the other the kingdom of Judah : the one and Chaldea, which was the queen of all nations, shall carried away the ten tribes, and the other the two renow be cast behind all the rest, and become a very wil- maining tribes, into captivity. No wonder therefore derness and a barren desert. Bp. Hall.

that there are several prophecies relating to each of these 15. — she hath given her hand :] In token of subjec- cities, and that the fate of Babylon is foretold as was tion and homage. The phrase occurs in the same sense, that of Nineveh. Bp. Newton. See the notes on Isai. x ; i Chron. xxix. 24; Lam. v. 6. lt probably alludes to Nahum ii, iii ; Zeph. ii. 13; Ezek. xxxi. 3. the act of the vanquished, who, throwing down his arms, 18. — as I have punished the king of Assyria.] This and stretching forth his defenceless hands, acknowledges may most probably be understood of the destruction of himself in the power of the conqueror. Dr. Blayney. Nineveh, the chief seat of the Assyrian empire, by Ne

- her foundations are fallen,] The signification of buchadnezzar and Ahasuerus, or Astyages, as it is rethe Hebrew word, which occurs no where else, is uncer-lated in Tobit, chap. xiv. 15. At the taking of this tain. It probably means “the battlements,” which is great city, foretold by Jonah, Nahum, and Zephaniah, the rendering of the Greek version. Dr. Blayney. Chynaladanus the last king of the Assyrian race was

16. Cut off the sower from Babylon, Babylon resem- | killed : and the seat and title of the empire removed to bled a country walled in, rather than a city: the walls, Babylon, which was no longer called the Assyrian, but according to Herodotus, being sixty miles in circum- the Babylonian monarchy. W. Lowth. ference. Within this large circuit a great deal of ground 20. the iniquity of Israel shall be sought for, &c.] was cultivated with corn : so that enough grew within Their sins shall be done away through My grace and the walls to support the inhabitants during a long siege. mercy. Bp. Hall. W. Lowth.

The promise contained in this verse seems evidently - they shall turn every one to his people,] They, to respect the Gospel times, and “the remnant" that that is, the allies of Babylon. Compare chap. xlvi. 15; shall be saved “according to the election of grace." Isai. xii. 14. W. Lowth.

Compare chap. xxxi. 34 ; xxxiii, 8 ; Isai, lix. 20; Rom. 17.- first the king of Assyria hath devoured him ; and I xi. 5, 26, 27. Dr. Blayney.

Before CHRIST

Before CHRIST

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The judgment of Babylon,

CHAP. L.

and redemption of Israel. Before none; and the sins of Judah, and 29 Call together the archers against c Before 595., they shall not be found : for I will Babylon : all ye that bend the bow, 595.

pardon them whom I reserve. I camp against it round about; let none 11 Or, of the

21 I Go up against the land || of thereof escape : recompense her ac-
Merathaim, even against it, and against cording to her work; according to all
the inhabitants of || Pekod: waste and that she hath done, do unto her : for
utterly destroy after them, saith the she hath been proud against the
Lord, and do according to all that I Lord, against the Holy One of Is-
have commanded thee.

rael.
22 A sound of battle is in the land, 30 Therefore shall her young men
and of great destruction.

fall in the streets, and all her men of
23 How is the hammer of the whole war shall be cut off in that day, saith
earth cut asunder and broken ! how is the LORD.
Babylon become a desolation among 31 Behold, I am against thee, O
the nations !

thou 4 most proud, saith the Lord + Hleb, pride.
24 I have laid a snare for thee, and God of hosts : for thy day is come,
thou art also taken, O Babylon, and the time that I will visit thee.
thou wast not aware : thou art found, 32 And + the most proud shall + Heb. pride.
and also caught, because thou hast stumble and fall, and none shall raise
striven against the LORD.

| him up: and I will kindle a fire in
25 The Lord hath opened his ar- his cities, and it shall devour all round
moury, and hath brought forth the about him.
weapons of his indignation : for this 33 g Thus saith the Lord of hosts;
is the work of the Lord God of hosts The children of Israel and the chil-
in the land of the Chaldeans. dren of Judah were oppressed toge-

26 Come against her + from the ther: and all that took them captives
utmost border, open her storehouses : held them fast; they refused to let
|| cast her up as heaps, and destroy them go.
her utterly : let nothing of her be 34 Their Redeemer is strong; the

Lord of hosts is his name: he shall
27 Slay all her bullocks ; let them throughly plead their cause, that he
go down to the slaughter: woe unto may give rest to the land, and disquiet
them ! for their day is come, the time the inhabitants of Babylon.
of their visitation.

35 1 A sword is upon the Chal-
28 The voice of them that filee and deans, saith the Lord, and upon the
escape out of the land of Babylon, to inbabitants of Babylon, and upon her
declare in Zion the vengeance of the princes, and upon her wise men.
Lord our God, the vengeance of his 36 A sword is upon the || + liars; ! Or, chief
temple.

and they shall dote: a sword is upon + Heb. bars.

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21. Go up against the land of Merathaim, and of Dan. v. 1-3, 5, 30 : and compare chap. li. 51. W. Pekod :] Go up, ye Medes and Persians, against the Lowth. territories of Babylon : even against the land of these 30. Therefore shall her young men fall in the streets,] proud “rebels,” against the land of those who have Xenophon relates, that Gadatas and Gobryas with their “ visited” My people with the sword and merciless de- soldiers, when they were got into the town, marched distruction. Bp. Hall. There is no certainty, and indeed rectly toward the palace, and killing all they met, became little probability, that there were any places to which masters of the place, and slew the king himself. W. belonged the names in the text. Dr. Blayney. See the Lowth. margin.

32. I will kindle a fire in his cities, 7 This may be 23. How is the hammer of the whole earth cut asunder meant of the destructions made in the Babylonian and broken!] That oppressive empire, “ which smote territories in the several expeditions which Cyrus the people with a continual stroke," as it is described undertook against that monarchy during the space by Isaiah, chap. xiv. 6. W. Lowth.

of twenty years before the taking of Babylon; from 24. I have laid a snare for thee, &c.] See the note the year before Christ 559, to the year® 539. W. on chap. li. 31.

Lowth. 28. The voice of them that flee &c.7 Some of 35. A sword is upon her princes,] Who were slain those, who were more than ordinarily zealous for the together with their king Belshazzar at a feast : see chap. welfare of God's Church and people, were ready, upon li. 39 ; Dan. v. 2–30 : “and upon her wise men;" the first news of the taking of Babylon, to bring the glad who, though famous for their skill in astrology and the tidings thereof into Judea, how God had avenged the other arts of divination, could not foresee or prevent the cause of His people, and executed His judgments on dangers coming upon themselves in the common calamity. those who destroyed His temple, and profaned the holy See Isai. xlvii. 13, 14. W. Lowth. vessels of it, that were dedicated to His service. See 36. - upon the liars ;] The false pretenders to the

Before CHRIST

595.

Before CHRIST

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ch. 49. 18.

The judgment of Babylon.

JEREMIAH.

God's severe judgment c Before her mighty men; and they shall be that I may appoint over her? for who Before dismayed."

is like me ? and e who will || appoint 595. 37 A sword is upon their horses, me the time? and who is that shepand upon their chariots, and upon all herd that will stand before me? the mingled people that are in the 45 Therefore hear ye the counsel midst of her; and they shall become of the Lord, that he hath taken as women: a sword is upon her trea- against Babylon; and his purposes, sures; and they shall be robbed. that he hath purposed against the

38 A drought is upon her waters; land of the Chaldeans: Surely the
and they shall be dried up: for it is least of the flock shall draw them
the land of graven images, and they out: surely he shall make their habi-
are mad upon their idols.

tation desolate with them.
39 Therefore the wild beasts of 46 At the noise of the taking of
the desert with the wild beasts of the Babylon the earth is moved, and the
islands shall dwell there, and the owls cry is heard among the nations.
shall dwell therein : and it shall be

CHAP. LI.
no more inhabited for ever; neither
shall it be dwelt in from generation to

1 The severe judgment of God against Baby

lon in revenge of Israel. 59 Jeremiah degeneration.

livereth the book of this prophecy to Seraiah, c Gen. 19. 25. 40 c As God overthrew Sodom and to be cast into Euphrates, in token of the

Gomorrah and the neighbour cities perpetual sinking of Babylon.
thereof, saith the LORD; so shall no T HUS saith the Lord; Behold,
man abide there, neither shall any 1 I will raise up against Babylon,
son of man dwell therein.

and against them that dwell in the
41 Behold, a people shall come from t midst of them that rise up against + Heb. heart.
the north, and a great nation, and me, a destroying wind;
many kings shall be raised up from 2 And will send unto Babylon fan-
the coasts of the earth.

ners, that shall fan her, and shall
42 They shall hold the bow and empty her land: for in the day of
the lance: they are cruel, and will trouble they shall be against her
not shew mercy: their voice shall round about.
roar like the sea, and they shall ride 3 Against him that bendeth let the
upon horses, every one put in array, archer bend his bow, and against him
like a man to the battle, against thee, that lifteth himself up in his brigan-
O daughter of Babylon.

dine : and spare ye not her young
43 The king of Babylon hath heard men; destroy ye utterly all her host.
the report of them, and his hands í 4 Thus the slain shall fall in the
waxed feeble: anguish took hold of land of the Chaldeans, and they that
him, and pangs as of a woman in tra- are thrust through in her streets.
vail.

1 5 For Israel hath not been forsaken, d. Chap. 49. 44 Behold, he shall come up a like nor Judah of his God, of the Lord

a lion from the swelling of Jordan of hosts; though their land was filled
unto the habitation of the strong: but with sin against the Holy One of
I will make them suddenly run away Israel.
from her : and who is a chosen man, 6 a Flee out of the midst of Baby- kent

19.

a Chap. 50. 8. Rev. 18. 4.

knowledge of future events. Compare chap. xlviii. 30; fied, and thereby fulfilled the prophecies of the cruelty Isai. xliv. 25. W. Lowth.

which the Medes and Persians should use towards the - upon her mighty men ; &c.] See the note on Babylonians. Bp. Newton. chap. li. 30.

43. The king of Babylon hath heard the report of them, 37. — upon all the mingled people that are in the midst &c.] Belshazzar was a weak and dissolute prince, and of her ;] Her auxiliaries, made up of several nations : | dismayed upon the first apprehension of danger, when see Ezek. xxx. 5. W. Lowth. See the note on chap. he understood that Cyrus's army laid siege to the city. li. 27.

See Dan. v. 6. W. Lowth. 38. A drought is upon her waters ; &c.] See the 44. Behold, he shall come up &c.] He, that is, the note on chap. li. 36.

invading army. See the notes on chap. xlix. 19–21. 39. Therefore the wild beasts of the desert &c.] See the notes on Isai. xiii. 20.

Chap. LI. ver. 1.- a destroying wind ;) In allusion 42. they are cruel, and will not shew mercy :] Upon to the hot pestilential wind, as the Arabick version the second capture of Babylon, as soon as Darius had renders these words, which is frequent in those parts, made himself master of the place, he ordered three and concerning which see the note on 2 kings xix. thousand of the principal men of the city to be crucia 1 35.

CHRIST

595.

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Rev. 14. 8. & 18. 2.

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against Babylon

CHAP. LI.

in revenge of Israel. Before lon, and deliver every man his soul : devised and done that which he spake Before

be not cut off in her iniquity; for this against the inhabitants of Babylon. 595.
is the time of the Lord's vengeance; 13 O thou that dwellest upon many
he will render unto her a recompence. waters, abundant in treasures, thine

7 Babylon hath been a golden cup end is come, and the measure of thy
in the Lord's hand, that made all covetousness.
the earth drunken : the nations have 14 The Lord of hosts hath sworn c Amos 6. 8.
drunken of her wine; therefore the + by himself, saying, Surely I will + Heb. by his
nations are mad.

fill thee with men, as with caterpilb Isai. 21. 9. 8 Babylon is suddenly b fallen and lers; and they shall + lift up a shout + Heb. utter.

destroyed : howl for her; take balm against thee.
for her pain, if so be she may be 1 15 d He hath made the earth by d Gen. 1. 1,6.
healed.

his power, he hath established the
9 We would have healed Babylon, world by his wisdom, and hath stretch-
but she is not healed : forsake her, ed out the heaven by his understand-
and let us go every one into his own | ing.
country: for her judgment reacheth 16 When he uttereth his voice,
unto heaven, and is lifted up even to there is a || multitude of waters in the 11 Or, noise.
the skies.

heavens; and he causeth the vapours 10 The Lord hath brought forth to ascend from the ends of the earth : our righteousness: come, and let us he maketh lightnings with rain, and declare in Zion the work of the Lord bringeth forth the wind out of his our God.

treasures. 11 Make + bright the arrows; ga- 17 e Every man || is brutish by his e Chap. 10. ther the shields: the LORD hath knowledge; every founder is con- 11 Or, is more raised up the spirit of the kings of founded by the graven image: for his the Medes : for his device is against molten image is falsehood, and there Babylon, to destroy it; because it is is no breath in them. the vengeance of the Lord, the ven- ! 18 They are vanity, the work of geance of his temple.

errors: in the time of their visitation 12 Set up the standard upon the they shall perish. walls of Babylon, make the watch 19 * The portion of Jacob is not a Chap. 10.16.

strong, set up the watchmen, prepare like them; for he is the former of all ** the fambushes: for the Lord hath both things: and Israel is the rod of his

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7. Babylon hath been a golden cup in the Lord's hand, thousand Persians to join the Medes commanded by &c.] In what sense Babylon is called “a cup” may Cyaxares : this Cyaxares king of Media, called Darius be seen by comparing chap. xxv. 15. She was a splen- the Mede in Scripture, was Cyrus's uncle; and it was did instrument of vengeance ordained by God against properly his army that made the expedition against the the neighbouring nations; and as all these had suffered Babylonians, he employing Cyrus as his general. Perby her, all are represented as ready to glory over her, sia was then a small part of the empire of Media, and or rejoice when her turn of suffering came. Dr. Blay was of little account till Cyrus made a figure in the ney.

world : and even then it was called the kingdom of the 9. We would have healed Babylon,] This is spoken Medes and Persians, the Medes having still the pre. in the name of God's Prophets, and the other witnesses ference. And in aftertimes the Greek historians style of His truth, importing that they had sufficiently tes- those wars, in which their country encountered with tified against her errours, and idolatries, but she was Xerxes, by the name of the Median wars, because the irreclaimable. And therefore it was time for all the Medes were the founders of that empire. W. Lowth. lovers of truth to depart out of her, lest they be involved 12. Set up the standard upon the walls of Balylon, 7 in her punishments : see ver. 6. W. Lowth. Or they | The Prophet ironically encourages the Babylonians to are the words of the allies of Babylon, who say that use their best skill and bravery for the defence of their they had endeavoured to support her sinking cause, but city, which yet he foresees will be of no avail. See the in vain; and therefore, as the case was desperate, they like figure, ver. 8. W. Lowth. call one another to leave her to herself, and return every 13. O thou that dwellest upon many waters, abundant man to his own country. Poole, Dr. Blayney.

in treasures,] Upon the river Euphrates, which en10. The Lord hath brought forth our righteousness :1 compassed Babylon, and ran through it, and by means He hath declared our cause to be just, (compare Ps. of which it thought itself secure and impregnable. W. xxxvii. 6) by bringing such remarkable judgments Lowth. upon our enemies. And therefore we ought to give 14. — with men, as with caterpillers ;] Or locusts. glory to Him in the assemblies of His Church, and in Armies are often compared to caterpillers, locusts, and the most publick manner imaginable. W. Lowth. such like devouring insects : see Nahum iii. 15, 16;

11.- the kings of the Medes :) Neriglissar king of Joel ii. 2, 3, &c. W. Lowth. Babylon having formed an alliance against the Medes, 15-19. These verses are repeated from chap. x. 12 Cambyses sent his son Cyrus with an army of thirty | -16. See the notes there.

D. Planes

Before

Before CHRIST

+ Heb. ererlasting desolations,

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prith thee Whis riders will I bred with the 28 Preprings of a

God's severe judgment against

JEREMIAH.

Babylon in revenge of Israel. Beforear inheritance: the Lord of hosts is his! 26 And they shall not take of thee Before 595. name.

a stone for a corner, nor a stone for 595. 20 Thou art my battle ax and wea- foundations; but thou shalt be + de|| Or, in thee, pons of war: for || with thee will Isolate for ever, saith the LORD.

break in pieces the nations, and with 27 Set ye up a standard in the
thee will I destroy kingdoms; land, blow the trumpet among the

21 And with thee will I break in nations, prepare the nations against
pieces the horse and his rider; and her, call together against her the
with thee will I break in pieces the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ash-

chenaz; appoint a captain against
22 With thee also will I break in her; cause the horses to come up as
pieces man and woman; and with the rough caterpillers.
thee will I break in pieces old 28 Prepare against her the nations
and young; and with thee will I with the kings of the Medes, the
break in pieces the young man and captains thereof, and all the rulers
the maid;

thereof, and all the land of his do-
23 I will also break in pieces with minion.
thee the shepherd and his flock; and 29 And the land shall tremble and
with thee will I break in pieces the sorrow: for every purpose of the
husbandman and his yoke of oxen; LORD shall be performed against
and with thee will I break in pieces Babylon, to make the land of Baby-
captains and rulers.

lon a desolation without an inhabit-
24 And I will render unto Babylon ant.
and to all the inhabitants of Chaldea 30 The mighty men of Babylon
all their evil that they have done in have forborn to fight, they have re-
Zion in your sight, saith the Lord. mained in their holds : their might

25 Behold, I am against thee, O hath failed; they became as women :
destroying mountain, saith the LORD, they have burned her dwellingplaces;
which destroyest all the earth : and I her bars are broken.
will stretch out mine hand upon thee, 31 One post shall run to meet
and roll thee down from the rocks, another, and one messenger to meet
and will make thee a burnt moun- another, to shew the king of Babylon
tain.

that his city is taken at one end,

20. Thou art my battle ax and weapons of war :) God &c.] It was here foretold, that the Babylonians should speaks here to Cyrus, and tells him, that He will make be terrified and hide themselves within their walls ; and use of him as an instrument of Providence, for the de- | accordingly the Babylonians, after the loss of a battle stroying of the whole power of the Babylonish empire, or two, never recovered their courage so as to face and of all orders and degrees of men in it; as He had the enemy in the field again; they retired within their formerly made that empire the executioner of His judg- walls, and Cyrus could never draw them forth to try ments upon other countries : see chap. 1. 23. W. Lowth. the fortune of arms. Bp. Newton. Or, the army of the Medes and Persians is intended; ! 31. One post shall run to meet another, &c.] That is, as elsewhere the instrument of God's vengeance is Couriers shall run from different parts, and so fall in called a “sword,” a “ rod,” a “scourge.Dr. Blayney. / with one another, all carrying the same intelligence to

25. – O destroying mountain,] Though Babylon was the same person, that the city was taken on the side seated in a low watery plain, yet it is here called a that each came from. Dr. Blayney. “ mountain," on account of its power and greatness, as Babylon was taken by surprise, by unexpectedly well as of the vast height of its walls and towers, its draining the river Euphrates, and entering through the palaces and temples : and Berosus, speaking of some of channel into the city, as Herodotus relates. its buildings, says, that they appeared most like moun | For the carrying on of this stratagem, Cyrus took the tains. Bp. Newton, Poole. “The rocks," from whence opportunity of a publick festival, when the whole night it was to be “rolled,” were its strong holds. Dr. was usually spent in revellings, and all manner of disBlayney.

orders, see ver. 39. In this time of riot the gates lead27. the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz ;] ing down to the river, that used to be shut every night, The two former of these Bochart reasonably concludes were left open, and gave a passage to Cyrus and his to be the greater and less Armenia : the latter to be a army into the city, which he became master of, while part of Phrygia near the Hellespont. Homer appears they thought themselves in the utmost security, both to speak of it by the name of Ascania. And that both froin the height and strength of their walls, and depth the Armenians and Phrygians composed part of the of their river : Cyrus having as yet made little progress army which Cyrus led against Babylon, may be seen in in the siege, though he had invested the city with his Xenophon. Dr. Blayney.

army two years before. This surprise caused so many - as the rough caterpillers. Or chafers; to which messengers to run one after the other, to acquaint the the hostile cavalry are compared, chiefly, I suppose, on king with this unexpected news. The vast compass of account of their numbers. Parkhurst.

this city has been observed in the notes on chap. I. 16. 30. The mighty men of Babylon have forborn to fight, W. Lowth,

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