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a Isai. 43. 20.
Rev. 18. 4.
all return it be a spoil. L. 17. 1. have driveria hath bedrezzar
The judgment of Babylon,
and redemption of Israel. c. Before habitation of justice, even the LORD, I bend the bow, shoot at her, spare no Before ** 595."- the hope of their fathers.
arrows: for she hath sinned against 595. 8 a Remove out of the midst of the Lord. ch. 51. 6. Babylon, and go forth out of the land 15 Shout against her round about:
of the Chaldeans, and be as the he she hath given her hand: her foun-
dations are fallen, her walls are thrown
10 And Chaldea shall be a spoil : every one to his own land.
the lions have driven him away: first
18 Therefore thus saith the LORD
19 And I will bring Israel again
Lord it shall not be inhabited, but it Carmel and Bashan, and his soul shall b. Chap. 49. shall be wholly desolate: bevery one be satisfied upon mount Ephraim and
that goeth by Babylon shall be as- Gilead.
14 Put yourselves in array against saith the Lord, the iniquity of Israel
7.--the habitation of justice,] A refuge and protection last &c.] After Nineveh, the metropolis of the Asfor those who are good and just. W. Lowth.
syrian empire, was destroyed, Babylon became the 11. – fat as the heifer] See notes at Deut. xxxii. 15. queen of the East. They were both equally enemies to
12. Your mother shall be sore confounded ; &c.] the people of God ; the one subverted the kingdom of Your mother city, Babylon, shall be sore confounded; Israel, and the other the kingdom of Judah : the one and Chaldea, which was the queen of all nations, shall carried away the ten tribes, and the other the two renow be cast behind all the rest, and become a very wil- maining tribes, into captivity. No wonder therefore derness and a barren desert. Bp. Hall.
that there are several prophecies relating to each of these 15. — she hath given her hand :] In token of subjec- cities, and that the fate of Babylon is foretold as was tion and homage. The phrase occurs in the same sense, that of Nineveh. Bp. Newton. See the notes on Isai. x ; i Chron. xxix. 24; Lam. v. 6. lt probably alludes to Nahum ii, iii ; Zeph. ii. 13; Ezek. xxxi. 3. the act of the vanquished, who, throwing down his arms, 18. — as I have punished the king of Assyria.] This and stretching forth his defenceless hands, acknowledges may most probably be understood of the destruction of himself in the power of the conqueror. Dr. Blayney. Nineveh, the chief seat of the Assyrian empire, by Ne
- her foundations are fallen,] The signification of buchadnezzar and Ahasuerus, or Astyages, as it is rethe Hebrew word, which occurs no where else, is uncer-lated in Tobit, chap. xiv. 15. At the taking of this tain. It probably means “the battlements,” which is great city, foretold by Jonah, Nahum, and Zephaniah, the rendering of the Greek version. Dr. Blayney. Chynaladanus the last king of the Assyrian race was
16. Cut off the sower from Babylon, Babylon resem- | killed : and the seat and title of the empire removed to bled a country walled in, rather than a city: the walls, Babylon, which was no longer called the Assyrian, but according to Herodotus, being sixty miles in circum- the Babylonian monarchy. W. Lowth. ference. Within this large circuit a great deal of ground 20. — the iniquity of Israel shall be sought for, &c.] was cultivated with corn : so that enough grew within Their sins shall be done away through My grace and the walls to support the inhabitants during a long siege. mercy. Bp. Hall. W. Lowth.
The promise contained in this verse seems evidently - they shall turn every one to his people,] They, to respect the Gospel times, and “the remnant" that that is, the allies of Babylon. Compare chap. xlvi. 15; shall be saved “according to the election of grace." Isai. xii. 14. W. Lowth.
Compare chap. xxxi. 34 ; xxxiii, 8 ; Isai, lix. 20; Rom. 17.- first the king of Assyria hath devoured him ; and I xi. 5, 26, 27. Dr. Blayney.
1 Or, tisitation.
The judgment of Babylon,
and redemption of Israel. Before none; and the sins of Judah, and 29 Call together the archers against c Before 595., they shall not be found : for I will Babylon : all ye that bend the bow, 595.
pardon them whom I reserve. I camp against it round about; let none 11 Or, of the
21 I Go up against the land || of thereof escape : recompense her ac-
fall in the streets, and all her men of
thou 4 most proud, saith the Lord + Hleb, pride.
| him up: and I will kindle a fire in
26 Come against her + from the ther: and all that took them captives
Lord of hosts is his name: he shall
35 1 A sword is upon the Chal-
and they shall dote: a sword is upon + Heb. bars.
1 Or, tread her.
21. Go up against the land of Merathaim, — and — of Dan. v. 1-3, 5, 30 : and compare chap. li. 51. W. Pekod :] Go up, ye Medes and Persians, against the Lowth. territories of Babylon : even against the land of these 30. Therefore shall her young men fall in the streets,] proud “rebels,” against the land of those who have Xenophon relates, that Gadatas and Gobryas with their “ visited” My people with the sword and merciless de- soldiers, when they were got into the town, marched distruction. Bp. Hall. There is no certainty, and indeed rectly toward the palace, and killing all they met, became little probability, that there were any places to which masters of the place, and slew the king himself. W. belonged the names in the text. Dr. Blayney. See the Lowth. margin.
32. — I will kindle a fire in his cities, 7 This may be 23. How is the hammer of the whole earth cut asunder meant of the destructions made in the Babylonian and broken!] That oppressive empire, “ which smote territories in the several expeditions which Cyrus the people with a continual stroke," as it is described undertook against that monarchy during the space by Isaiah, chap. xiv. 6. W. Lowth.
of twenty years before the taking of Babylon; from 24. I have laid a snare for thee, &c.] See the note the year before Christ 559, to the year® 539. W. on chap. li. 31.
Lowth. 28. The voice of them that flee &c.7 Some of 35. A sword is upon — her princes,] Who were slain those, who were more than ordinarily zealous for the together with their king Belshazzar at a feast : see chap. welfare of God's Church and people, were ready, upon li. 39 ; Dan. v. 2–30 : “and upon her wise men;" the first news of the taking of Babylon, to bring the glad who, though famous for their skill in astrology and the tidings thereof into Judea, how God had avenged the other arts of divination, could not foresee or prevent the cause of His people, and executed His judgments on dangers coming upon themselves in the common calamity. those who destroyed His temple, and profaned the holy See Isai. xlvii. 13, 14. W. Lowth. vessels of it, that were dedicated to His service. See 36. - upon the liars ;] The false pretenders to the
ch. 49. 18.
The judgment of Babylon.
God's severe judgment c Before her mighty men; and they shall be that I may appoint over her? for who Before dismayed."
is like me ? and e who will || appoint 595. 37 A sword is upon their horses, me the time? and who is that shepand upon their chariots, and upon all herd that will stand before me? the mingled people that are in the 45 Therefore hear ye the counsel midst of her; and they shall become of the Lord, that he hath taken as women: a sword is upon her trea- against Babylon; and his purposes, sures; and they shall be robbed. that he hath purposed against the
38 A drought is upon her waters; land of the Chaldeans: Surely the
tation desolate with them.
1 The severe judgment of God against Baby
lon in revenge of Israel. 59 Jeremiah degeneration.
livereth the book of this prophecy to Seraiah, c Gen. 19. 25. 40 c As God overthrew Sodom and to be cast into Euphrates, in token of the
Gomorrah and the neighbour cities perpetual sinking of Babylon.
and against them that dwell in the
ners, that shall fan her, and shall
dine : and spare ye not her young
1 5 For Israel hath not been forsaken, d. Chap. 49. 44 Behold, he shall come up a like nor Judah of his God, of the Lord
a lion from the swelling of Jordan of hosts; though their land was filled
a Chap. 50. 8. Rev. 18. 4.
knowledge of future events. Compare chap. xlviii. 30; fied, and thereby fulfilled the prophecies of the cruelty Isai. xliv. 25. W. Lowth.
which the Medes and Persians should use towards the - upon her mighty men ; &c.] See the note on Babylonians. Bp. Newton. chap. li. 30.
43. The king of Babylon hath heard the report of them, 37. — upon all the mingled people that are in the midst &c.] Belshazzar was a weak and dissolute prince, and of her ;] Her auxiliaries, made up of several nations : | dismayed upon the first apprehension of danger, when see Ezek. xxx. 5. W. Lowth. See the note on chap. he understood that Cyrus's army laid siege to the city. li. 27.
See Dan. v. 6. W. Lowth. 38. A drought is upon her waters ; &c.] See the 44. Behold, he shall come up &c.] He, that is, the note on chap. li. 36.
invading army. See the notes on chap. xlix. 19–21. 39. Therefore the wild beasts of the desert &c.] See the notes on Isai. xiii. 20.
Chap. LI. ver. 1.- a destroying wind ;) In allusion 42. — they are cruel, and will not shew mercy :] Upon to the hot pestilential wind, as the Arabick version the second capture of Babylon, as soon as Darius had renders these words, which is frequent in those parts, made himself master of the place, he ordered three and concerning which see the note on 2 kings xix. thousand of the principal men of the city to be crucia 1 35.
Rev. 14. 8. & 18. 2.
in revenge of Israel. Before lon, and deliver every man his soul : devised and done that which he spake Before
be not cut off in her iniquity; for this against the inhabitants of Babylon. 595.
7 Babylon hath been a golden cup end is come, and the measure of thy
fill thee with men, as with caterpilb Isai. 21. 9. 8 Babylon is suddenly b fallen and lers; and they shall + lift up a shout + Heb. utter.
destroyed : howl for her; take balm against thee.
his power, he hath established the
heavens; and he causeth the vapours 10 The Lord hath brought forth to ascend from the ends of the earth : our righteousness: come, and let us he maketh lightnings with rain, and declare in Zion the work of the Lord bringeth forth the wind out of his our God.
treasures. 11 Make + bright the arrows; ga- 17 e Every man || is brutish by his e Chap. 10. ther the shields: the LORD hath knowledge; every founder is con- 11 Or, is more raised up the spirit of the kings of founded by the graven image: for his the Medes : for his device is against molten image is falsehood, and there Babylon, to destroy it; because it is is no breath in them. the vengeance of the Lord, the ven- ! 18 They are vanity, the work of geance of his temple.
errors: in the time of their visitation 12 Set up the standard upon the they shall perish. walls of Babylon, make the watch 19 * The portion of Jacob is not a Chap. 10.16.
strong, set up the watchmen, prepare like them; for he is the former of all ** the fambushes: for the Lord hath both things: and Israel is the rod of his
brutish than to know.
7. Babylon hath been a golden cup in the Lord's hand, thousand Persians to join the Medes commanded by &c.] In what sense Babylon is called “a cup” may Cyaxares : this Cyaxares king of Media, called Darius be seen by comparing chap. xxv. 15. She was a splen- the Mede in Scripture, was Cyrus's uncle; and it was did instrument of vengeance ordained by God against properly his army that made the expedition against the the neighbouring nations; and as all these had suffered Babylonians, he employing Cyrus as his general. Perby her, all are represented as ready to glory over her, sia was then a small part of the empire of Media, and or rejoice when her turn of suffering came. Dr. Blay was of little account till Cyrus made a figure in the ney.
world : and even then it was called the kingdom of the 9. We would have healed Babylon,] This is spoken Medes and Persians, the Medes having still the pre. in the name of God's Prophets, and the other witnesses ference. And in aftertimes the Greek historians style of His truth, importing that they had sufficiently tes- those wars, in which their country encountered with tified against her errours, and idolatries, but she was Xerxes, by the name of the Median wars, because the irreclaimable. And therefore it was time for all the Medes were the founders of that empire. W. Lowth. lovers of truth to depart out of her, lest they be involved 12. Set up the standard upon the walls of Balylon, 7 in her punishments : see ver. 6. W. Lowth. Or they | The Prophet ironically encourages the Babylonians to are the words of the allies of Babylon, who say that use their best skill and bravery for the defence of their they had endeavoured to support her sinking cause, but city, which yet he foresees will be of no avail. See the in vain; and therefore, as the case was desperate, they like figure, ver. 8. W. Lowth. call one another to leave her to herself, and return every 13. O thou that dwellest upon many waters, abundant man to his own country. Poole, Dr. Blayney.
in treasures,] Upon the river Euphrates, which en10. The Lord hath brought forth our righteousness :1 compassed Babylon, and ran through it, and by means He hath declared our cause to be just, (compare Ps. of which it thought itself secure and impregnable. W. xxxvii. 6) by bringing such remarkable judgments Lowth. upon our enemies. And therefore we ought to give 14. — with men, as with caterpillers ;] Or locusts. glory to Him in the assemblies of His Church, and in Armies are often compared to caterpillers, locusts, and the most publick manner imaginable. W. Lowth. such like devouring insects : see Nahum iii. 15, 16;
11.- the kings of the Medes :) Neriglissar king of Joel ii. 2, 3, &c. W. Lowth. Babylon having formed an alliance against the Medes, 15-19. These verses are repeated from chap. x. 12 Cambyses sent his son Cyrus with an army of thirty | -16. See the notes there.
+ Heb. ererlasting desolations,
prith thee Whis riders will I bred with the 28 Preprings of a
God's severe judgment against
Babylon in revenge of Israel. Beforear inheritance: the Lord of hosts is his! 26 And they shall not take of thee Before 595. name.
a stone for a corner, nor a stone for 595. 20 Thou art my battle ax and wea- foundations; but thou shalt be + de|| Or, in thee, pons of war: for || with thee will Isolate for ever, saith the LORD.
break in pieces the nations, and with 27 Set ye up a standard in the
21 And with thee will I break in nations, prepare the nations against
chenaz; appoint a captain against
thereof, and all the land of his do-
lon a desolation without an inhabit-
25 Behold, I am against thee, O hath failed; they became as women :
that his city is taken at one end,
20. Thou art my battle ax and weapons of war :) God &c.] It was here foretold, that the Babylonians should speaks here to Cyrus, and tells him, that He will make be terrified and hide themselves within their walls ; and use of him as an instrument of Providence, for the de- | accordingly the Babylonians, after the loss of a battle stroying of the whole power of the Babylonish empire, or two, never recovered their courage so as to face and of all orders and degrees of men in it; as He had the enemy in the field again; they retired within their formerly made that empire the executioner of His judg- walls, and Cyrus could never draw them forth to try ments upon other countries : see chap. 1. 23. W. Lowth. the fortune of arms. Bp. Newton. Or, the army of the Medes and Persians is intended; ! 31. One post shall run to meet another, &c.] That is, as elsewhere the instrument of God's vengeance is Couriers shall run from different parts, and so fall in called a “sword,” a “ rod,” a “scourge.” Dr. Blayney. / with one another, all carrying the same intelligence to
25. – O destroying mountain,] Though Babylon was the same person, that the city was taken on the side seated in a low watery plain, yet it is here called a that each came from. Dr. Blayney. “ mountain," on account of its power and greatness, as Babylon was taken by surprise, by unexpectedly well as of the vast height of its walls and towers, its draining the river Euphrates, and entering through the palaces and temples : and Berosus, speaking of some of channel into the city, as Herodotus relates. its buildings, says, that they appeared most like moun | For the carrying on of this stratagem, Cyrus took the tains. Bp. Newton, Poole. “The rocks," from whence opportunity of a publick festival, when the whole night it was to be “rolled,” were its strong holds. Dr. was usually spent in revellings, and all manner of disBlayney.
orders, see ver. 39. In this time of riot the gates lead27. — the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz ;] ing down to the river, that used to be shut every night, The two former of these Bochart reasonably concludes were left open, and gave a passage to Cyrus and his to be the greater and less Armenia : the latter to be a army into the city, which he became master of, while part of Phrygia near the Hellespont. Homer appears they thought themselves in the utmost security, both to speak of it by the name of Ascania. And that both froin the height and strength of their walls, and depth the Armenians and Phrygians composed part of the of their river : Cyrus having as yet made little progress army which Cyrus led against Babylon, may be seen in in the siege, though he had invested the city with his Xenophon. Dr. Blayney.
army two years before. This surprise caused so many - as the rough caterpillers. Or chafers; to which messengers to run one after the other, to acquaint the the hostile cavalry are compared, chiefly, I suppose, on king with this unexpected news. The vast compass of account of their numbers. Parkhurst.
this city has been observed in the notes on chap. I. 16. 30. The mighty men of Babylon have forborn to fight, W. Lowth,