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God's severe judgment against

CHAP. LI.

Babylon in revenge of Israel. 32 And that the passages are stop- heaps, a dwellingplace for dragons, Before 595. ped, and the reeds they have burned an astonishment, and an hissing, with- 595.

with fire, and the men of war are out an inhabitant.
affrighted.

38 They shall roar together like
33 For thus saith the Lord of lions: they shall || yell" as lions' | Or, shake
hosts, the God of Israel; the daugh- whelps.

ter of Babylon is like a threshing- 39 In their heat I will make their 1 Or, in the floor, || it is time to thresh her: yet a feasts, and I will make them drunken, thresheth her. little while, and the time of her har- that they may rejoice, and sleep a vest shall come.

perpetual sleep, and not wake, saith
34 Nebuchadrezzar the king of the LORD.
Babylon hath devoured me, he hath 40 I will bring them down like
crushed me, he hath made me an lambs to the slaughter, like rams with
empty vessel, he hath swallowed me he goats.
up like a dragon, he hath filled his 41 How is Sheshach taken ! and
belly with my delicates, he hath cast how is the praise of the whole earth
me out.

surprised! how is Babylon become an
35 + The violence done to me and astonishment among the nations !
to my | flesh be upon Babylon, shall 42 The sea is come up upon Baby-
the + inhabitant of Zion say; and my lon: she is covered with the multitude
blood upon the inhabitants of Chaldea, of the waves thereof.
shall Jerusalem say.

43 Her cities are a desolation, a
36 Therefore thus saith the Lord; dry land, and a wilderness, a land
Behold, I will plead thy cause, and wherein no man dwelleth, neither
take vengeance for thee; and I will doth any son of man pass thereby.
dry up her sea, and make her springs 44 And I will punish Bel in Baby-

lon, and I will bring forth out of his
37 And Babylon shall become mouth that which he bath swallowed

+ Heb. My riglence. 1 Or, remainder. + Heb. inhabitress.

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32. -- that the passages are stopped,] Or rather, chapter. By the means there described, Babylon was “ surprised.” These were most probably the entrances taken, as here foretold. The city would have been into the city from the river side, which were secured by otherwise impregnable, as it was supplied with provisions gates, that ought, as Herodotus observes, to have been for many years, saith Herodotus; for more than twenty fast barred; which, if it had been done, would have years, according to Xenophon; for, as Herodotus saith, effectually frustrated the attempt of the enemy; but if the Babylonians had but known what the Persians being left open and unguarded on account of the publick were doing, by shutting the gates which opened upon festivity, the assailants were in possession of those en- | the river, and by standing upon the walls which were trances, and in the heart of the city, before the besieged built as banks, they might have taken and destroyed were aware of it. Dr. Blayney.

the Persians as in a net, or cage. Bp. Newton. - and the reeds they have burned with fire,] The 37. And Babylon shall become heaps, &c.] See the soldiers, seeing the Euphrates nearly dry, set fire to the notes on Isai. xiii. 20. reeds which covered its borders, in order to facilitate 38. They shall roar together like lions : ] Either for the approach of the troops to the walls. The messengers grief and anguish of mind: compare Zech. xi. 3 ; Isai. reported to the king this circumstance, for the purpose lix. 11; or else, the Prophet describes the revels and of signifying to him that all the waters round about riotous noise that they made on the night of the publick Babylon were dried up, and that there was no longer festival, on which the city was taken : see the following any thing to shelter the city from the enemy. These verse. W. Lowth. reeds are said to have been very large and high, and, 39. In their heat I will make their feasts, &c.] See the together with the mud on which they stood, to have note on ver. 31. formed as it were another wall round the city. Calmet, 41. - the praise of the whole earth] Compare chap. Poole.

xlix. 25 ; Dan. iv. 30; Isai. xiii. 19. See the note there. 33. - it is time to thresh her :1 To tread, or cause 42. The sea is come up upon Babylon :) By “the sea" the city to be trodden, as a threshingfloor. Park- any large collection of waters is denoted, and particuhurst.

larly the river Euphrates, ver. 36 : so that the fate of 34. Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon hath devoured Babylon is here alluded to, concerning which see ver. me,] A pathetick description of the calamities brought 64; and Isai. xiv. 23. Others by “ the sea” understand upon the Jews by Nebuchadnezzar and his forces, who metaphorically a numerous army, and by the overspreadafter they had devoured the wealth, and laid waste the ing of waters the invasion and conquest of the country. beauty of their country, then turned them out of it, and Dr. Blayney. led them captives into a strange land. W. Lowth.

44. - I will bring forth out of his mouth that which he 35. – to me and to my flesh) To me and to my chil-i hath swallowed up:7 This was literally fulfilled, when dren. Our nearest relations are called our flesh in the vessels of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar Scripture : see Judg. ix. 5; 2 Sam. v. 1; Nehem. y. 5. had brought from Jerusalem, and placed in the temple W. Lowth.

of Bel, Dan. i. 2, were restored by order of Cyrus, 36. — I will dry up her sea, and make her springs dry.] Ezra i. 7, and carried to Jerusalem again. Bp. NewSee the notes on Isai. xiv. 23; and ver, 31 of this ton,

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God's severe judgment against

JEREMIAH. * Babylon in revenge of Israel. Before up: and the nations shall not flow 53 Though Babylon should mount Before

CHRIST together any more unto him: yea, up to heaven, and though she should 595. the wall of Babylon shall fall. fortify the height of her strength, yet

45 My people, go ye out of the from me shall spoilers come unto her,
midst of her, and deliver ye every saith the LORD.
man his soul from the fierce anger of 54 A sound of a cry cometh from
the LORD.

Babylon, and great destruction from
46 And lest your heart faint, and the land of the Chaldeans:
ye fear for the rumour that shall 55 Because the Lord hath spoiled
be heard in the land; a rumour Babylon, and destroyed out of her
shall both come one year, and after the great voice; when her waves do
that in another year shall come a ru- roar like great waters, a noise of their
mour, and violence in the land, ruler voice is uttered :
against ruler.

56 Because the spoiler is come 47 Therefore, behold, the days upon her, even upon Babylon, and + Heb. visit come, that I will + do judgment upon her mighty men are taken, every one

the graven images of Babylon: and of their bows is broken : for the LORD
her whole land shall be confounded, God of recompences shall surely re-
and all her slain shall fall in the midst quite.
of her.

57 And I will make drunk her
48 Then the heaven and the earth, princes, and her wise men, her cap-
and all that is therein, shall sing for tains, and her rulers, and her mighty
Babylon: for the spoilers shall come men : and they shall sleep a per-
unto her from the north, saith the petual sleep, and not wake, saith the

LORD.

. 49 || As Babylon hath caused the hosts. fall, o ye slain of Israel to fall, so at Babylon 58 Thus saith the Lord of hosts; Israel, and shall fall the slain of all || the earth. lll The broad walls of Babylon shall | Or, The with Babylon, 50 Ye that have escaped the sword, I be utterly || broken, and her high Babylon. || Or, the go away, stand not still: remember gates shall be burned with fire; and naked

the Lord afar off, and let Jerusalem the people shall labour in vain, and
come into your mind.

the folk in the fire, and they shall be
51 We are confounded, because we weary.
have heard reproach: shame hath 59 I The word which Jeremiah 595.
covered our faces: for strangers are the prophet commanded Seraiah the
come into the sanctuaries of the son of Neriah, the son of Maaseiah,
Lord's house.

when he went || with Zedekiah the Lor, on the 52 Wherefore, behold, the days king of Judah into Babylon in the come, saith the Lord, that I will do fourth year of his reign. And this judgment upon her graven images : Seraiah was a || quiet prince.

1 OT, prince and through all her land the wounded 1 60 So Jeremiah wrote in a book all or, chief shall groan.

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46.- a rumour shall both come one year, &c.] De- or taking away out of Babylon the great noise, which noting that terrifying rumours shall continue year after during the time of her prosperity was constantly heard year. Dr. Blayney.

there; "the busy hum of men," as the poet calls it. - violence in the land, ruler against ruler.] This In this manner the mystical Babylon is threatened, should be a time of hostile depredations and invasions. Rev. xviii. 22, 23. Compare chap. vii. 34 ; xvi. 9; Cyrus and the king of Babylon should now appear at | xxv. 10. Dr. Blayney. the head of two contending armies. W. Lowth.

58. — The broad walls,her high gates &c.] See the

Though Babylon prides herself in the glory of her em - and the people shall labour in vain, &c.] In vain pire, placed above the common height of human great- shall the people labour to quench that fire, which is ness; compare Isai. xlvii. 7, 8; though she thinks her- kindled for the consuming of Babylon. Bp. Hall. self never so secure in her high gates, ver. 58, and 59. with Zedekiah] Rather, “from Zedekiah," or, strength of her walls, which were three hundred and“ on his behalf," as in the margin; or, by virtue of his fifty feet high, according to Herodotus, yet this shall commission : for we have no reason to suppose that not place her cut of the reach of My vengeance: com Zedekiah went in person to Babylon at that time. W. pare chap. xlix. 16. W. Lowth.

Lowth, Dr. Blayney. 55. — destroyed out of her the great voice ;] When - Seraiah was a quiet prince.) « The chief chamcities are populous, they are of course noisy. See Isai. berlain," as in the margin. W. Lowth. So the word xxii. 2. Silence is therefore a mark of depopulation ; seems to mean; or, as we might call him, Lord Chamand in this sense we are to understand God's destroying | berlain. Parkhurst.;

CHRIST

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Zedekiah rebelleth.
CHAP. LI, LII.

His eyes are put out. Before lon, even all these words that are lon came, he and all his army, against Before * 595.- written against Babylon.

Jerusalem, and pitched against it, and 590. 61 And Jeremiah said to Seraiah, built forts against it round about. When thou comest to Babylon, and 1 5 So the city was besieged unto shalt see, and shalt read all these the eleventh year of king Zedekiah. words;

6 And in the fourth month, in the 588. 62 Then shalt thou say, O Lord, ninth day of the month, the famine thou hast spoken against this place, was sore in the city, so that there was to cut it off, that none shall remain in no bread for the people of the land. it, neither man nor beast, but that it 7 Then the city was broken up, shall be + desolate for ever.

and all the men of war fled, and went
63 And it shall be, when thou hast forth out of the city by night by the
made an end of reading this book, way of the gate between the two
that thou shalt bind a stone to it, and walls, which was by the king's gar-
cast it into the midst of Euphrates: den; (now the Chaldeans were by

64 And thou shalt say, Thus shall the city round about :) and they went
Babylon sink, and shall not rise from by the way of the plain.
the evil that I will bring upon her: 8 | But the army of the Chaldeans
and they shall be weary. Thus far pursued after the king, and overtook
are the words of Jeremiah.

Zedekiah in the plains of Jericho;

and all his army was scattered from CHAP. LII.

him.
1 Zedekiah rebelleth. 4 Jerusalem is besieged

9 Then they took the king, and
and taken. 8 Zedekiah's sons killed, and
his own eyes put out. 12 Nebuzar-adan carried him up unto the king of Baby-
burneth and spoileth the city. 24 He car-| lon to Riblah in the land of Hamath;
rieth away the captives. 31 Evil-merodach where he gave judgment upon him.
advanceth Jehoiachin.

10 And the king of Babylon slew
EDEKIAH was a one and the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes:
U twenty years old when he + began he slew also all the princes of Judah
to reign, and he reigned eleven years in Riblah.
in Jerusalem. And his mother's name 11 Then he + put out the eyes of Heb.
was Hamutal the daughter of Jere- Zedekiah; and the king of Babylon
miah of Libnah.

bound him in |chains, and carried | Or, fetters. 2 And he did that which was evil him to Babylon, and put him in in the eyes of the LORD, according to + prison till the day of his death. Heb. house all that Jehoiakim had done.

| 12 9 Now in the fifth month, in 3 For through the anger of the the tenth day of the month, which Lord it came to pass in Jerusalem was the nineteenth year of Nebuchadand Judah, till he had cast them out rezzar king of Babylon, came Nebufrom his presence, that Zedekiah re- zar-adan, il + captain of the guard, 11 Or, chief belled against the king of Babylon. I which + served the king of Babylon, 4 Heb. chies

4 | And it came to pass in the into Jerusalem. þ 2 Kings 25. b ninth year of his reign, in the tenth 13 And burned the house of the slaughtermen. ch. 39. 1. month, in the tenth day of the month, Lord, and the king's house; and all ver. 14, &c.

that Nebuchadrezzar king of Baby- the houses of Jerusalem, and all the before 63. — thou shalt bind a stone to it, &c.] See the note body. It contains a brief history of the captivity, on Gen. xxxii. 25. The Prophets sometimes gave sen- nearly the same, word for word, as it is related in the sible representations of the judgments they foretold : second book of Kings, chap. xxiv. 18—20, and xxv.; see chap. xix. 10. This was a significative emblem of together with some few additions. Some have supposed Babylon's sinking irrecoverably under the judgments it placed here as a proper introduction to the book of here denounced against her. Compare Rev. xviii. 21. Lamentations. But more probably the design was, by This threatening was in a literal sense fulfilled. See the immediately subjoining this historical narrative of the note on Isai. xiv. 23. W. Lowth.

desolations of the Jewish nation to the predictions of 64. — Thus far are the words of Jeremiah.] This is Jeremiah concerning them, to hold forth a nearer view probably mentioned to shew that the next chapter was of the exact accomplishment of the Divine word of proadded by Ezra, or Baruch, or whoever collected this phecy. Dr. Blayney. prophecy into one volume. W. Lowth.

Ver. 12. - in the tenth day of the month,] In the

| parallel place, 2 Kings xxv. 8, we read, “on the seventh Chap. LII. This chapter was confessedly added by day of the month.” It is probable that Nebuzar-adan some one after Jeremiah's time, probably by Ezra, or came to Jerusalem on the seventh, but did not set fire whoever revised the sacred writings after the return of to the city and temple till the tenth. Josephus rethe Jews from Babylon, and collected them into one lates this remarkable circumstance attending the burnVol. II.

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Nebuzar-adan spoileth the temple. JEREMIAH.

The nobles of Judah are slain. Before houses of the great men, burned hel 21 And concerning the pillars, the Before with fire:

height of one pillar was eighteen 588. 14 And all the army of the Chal-cubits; and a + fillet of twelve cubits deans, that were with the captain of | did compass it; and the thickness 15.

2 Kings 25. the guard, brake down all the walls of thereof was four fingers : it was hol- 17.

2 Chron. 3. Jerusalem round about.

low. 15 Then Nebuzar-adan the captain 22 And a chapiter of brass was + Heb. thread. of the guard carried away captive cer- upon it; and the height of one chapitain of the poor of the people, and ter was five cubits, with network and the residue of the people that re- pomegranates upon the chapiters mained in the city, and those that fell round about, all of brass. The seaway, that fell to the king of Babylon, cond pillar also and the pomegranates and the rest of the multitude. were like unto these.

16 But Nebuzar-adan the captain 23 And there were ninety and six of the guard left certain of the poor of pomegranates on a side; and all the the land for vinedressers and for hus- pomegranates upon the network were bandmen.

an hundred round about.
c Chap. 27. 17 Also the pillars of brass that 24 9 And the captain of the guard

were in the house of the Lord, and took Seraiah the chief priest, and
the bases, and the brasen sea that Zephaniah the second priest, and the
was in the house of the Lord, the three keepers of the + door:

+ Heb.
Chaldeans brake, and carried all the 25 He took also out of the city an
brass of them to Babylon.

eunuch, which had the charge of the 18 The caldrons also, and the men of war; and seven men of them !1 Or, instru- || shovels, and the snuffers, and the that + were near the king's person, 4 Heb. saw remove the bowls, and the spoons, and all the which were found in the city; and king ns. vessels of brass wherewith they mi- the || principal scribe of the host, who ! Or, scrive of

the captain of nistered, took they away.

mustered the people of the land; and the host [ Or, censers. 39 And the basons, and the firepans, threescore men of the people of the

and the bowls, and the caldrons, and land, that were found in the midst of
the candlesticks, and the spoons, and the city.
the cups; that which was of gold in gold, 26 So Nebuzar-adan the captain of
and that which was of silver in silver, the guard took them, and brought
took the captain of the guard away. them to the king of Babylon to

20 The two pillars, one sea, and Riblah.
twelve brasen bulls that were under 27 And the king of Babylon smote

the bases, which king Solomon had them, and put them to death in Riblah + Heb. their made in the house of the Lord: *the in the land of Hamath. Thus Judah

brass of all these vessels was without was carried away captive out of his
weight.

own land. ing of the temple under Nebuchadnezzar and Vespasian, side ;] Thus the pomegranates on the four sides, togethat it happened both times on the same day of the year. ther with those which may have been at the corners of W. Lowth.

the building, make up the four hundred, mentioned at 17, 18. Also the pillars of brass &c.] See 2 Kings 1 Kings vii. 42; 2 Chron. iv, 13. Dr. Blayney. xxv. 14, &c The temple was rifled of its riches and 24. — and the three keepers of the door :] These were furniture at three several times. The first was, when not the ordinary porters, who were taken from among Nebuchadnezzar came up against Jehoiakim, Dan. i. 2. the Levites, but were priests, who stood at the door to The second time was at the captivity of Jeconiah ; see receive the offerings of the people, and thus were keepers chap. xxvii. 19; and 2 Kings xxiv. 13. And now at of the sacred treasury; an office of high trust and conthe destruction of the city and temple, they entirely sideration. See 2 Kings xii. 9; xxiii. 4. Dr. Blayney. stripped it of all its ornaments. W. Lowth.

1 25. the principal scribe of the host, ] In the margin 19. that which was of gold in gold, &c.] That is, the translation is, as the scribe of the captain of the host." the utensils above mentioned, some of which were of It appears however, that there were certain officers begold, and some of silver; he took them away of both longing to the Jewish armies called scribes, who were kinds. Dr. Blayney.

what we call mustermasters of the troops. See 1 Mac. 20. — twelve brasen bulls that were under the bases,] v. 42. And the person here spoken of was probably Rather, “ which were instead of bases,” to support the the mustermaster or intendant general of the army : the brasen sea. See 1 Kings vii. 25. W. Lowth.

secretary at war. Dr. Blayney. 21. - the height of one pillar was eighteen cubits; 7) - and threescore men &c.] Eminent persons, who See 1 Kings vii. 15; but in 2 Chron. ii. 15, it is said, had concealed themselves, but were afterwards discothat both the pillars made thirty-five cubits: perhaps vered. W. Lowth. one cubit should be allowed for the basis. W. Lowth. 27.- Thus Judah was carried away captive out of his

23. And there were ninety and six pomegranates on a own land.] The transplanting of people or nations has

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CHAP. LII. Evil-merodach advanceth Jehoiachin. Before.p 28 This is the people whom Nebu- | twentieth day of the month, that Before CHRIST

CHRIST 600.- chadrezzar carried away captive: in Evil-merodach king of Babylon in the 562.

the seventh year three thousand Jews first year of his reign lifted up the
and three and twenty:

head of Jehoiachin king of Judah, and 590. 29 In the eighteenth year of Ne- brought him forth out of prison, buchadrezzar he carried away captive 32 And spake + kindly unto him, 4 Heb, good

things with from Jerusalem eight hundred thirty and set his throne above the throne him. + Heb. souls. and two | persons :

of the kings that were with him in
30 In the three and twentieth year Babylon,
of Nebuchadrezzar Nebuzar-adan the 33 And changed his prison gar-
captain of the guard carried away cap- ments: and he did continually eat
tive of the Jews seven hundred forty bread before him all the days of his
and five persons: all the persons were life.
four thousand and six hundred.

34 And for his diet, there was a 562. 31 1 And it came to pass in the continual diet given him of the king seven and thirtieth year of the capti- of Babylon, + every day a portion Heb. the

matter of the vity of Jehoiachin king of Judah, in until the day of his death, all the days mayin nidke

day in his the twelfth month, in the five and of his life. been practised by more modern conquerors. Thus into conclude with Archbishop Usher, that by the latter the year 796, “Charlemagne transplanted the Saxons three the historian meant to point out deportations of from their own country, to oblige them to remain faith a lesser kind, not elsewhere noticed in direct terms in ful to him, into different parts of his kingdom, either Scripture. The first of these, said to have been in the Flanders, or the country of the Helvetians, &c. Their seventh year of Nebuchadnezzar, was of those who had own country was repeopled by the Adrites, a Sclavonian been picked up in several parts of Judah by the bands nation.” Henault. So in much later times, “ It was the of Chaldeans, Syrians, and others, whom the king of policy of Abbas the First, who ascended the throne of Babylon sent against the land previously to his own Persia in 1585, to transplant the inhabitants of con- coming, 2 Kings xxiv. 2. That in the eighteenth year quered places from one country to another, with a view, corresponds with the time, when the Chaldean army not only of preventing any danger from their disaffec- broke off the siege before Jerusalem, and marched to tion, but likewise of depopulating the countries exposed to fight the Egyptian army; at which time they might an enemy.Hanway's Revolutions of Persia, Parkhurst. think it proper to send off the prisoners that were in

28.-30. This is the people &c.] It is not to be sup-camp under a guard to Babylon. And the last in the posed, that the whole number of the Jews, whom Ne twenty-third year of Nebuchadnezzar was, when that buchadnezzar carried into captivity, was no more than monarch, being engaged in the siege of Tyre, sent off four thousand six hundred. He carried away more than Nebuzar-adan against the Moabites, Ammonites, and twice that number at one time, in the eighth year of his other neighbouring nations, who at the same time reign, 2 Kings xxiv. 12-16. Before that time he had carried away the last gleaning of Jews that remained carried off a number of captives from Jerusalem, in the in their own land, amounting in all to no more than first year of his reign, among whom were Daniel and seven hundred and forty-five. Dr. Blayney. his companions, Dan. i. 3—6. These are confessedly 31.- Evil-merodach-lifted up the head of Jehoiachin] not taken notice of here. And as the taking and burn-St. Jerome reports, from an ancient tradition of the ing of Jerusalem is in this very chapter said to have Jews, that Evil-merodach, having had the government been in the fourth and fifth months of the nineteenth of the Babylonish empire during the distraction of his year of Nebuchadnezzar, those who were carried into father, used his power so ill, that as soon as the old captivity at the date of those events, cannot possibly be king came to himself he put him in prison for it, where the same with those that are said to be carried away, he contracted a particular acquaintance with Jehoiaeither in the eighteenth or the twenty-third year of that chin, who was his fellow prisoner, and that this was the prince. Nor indeed is it credible, that the number car- cause of the great kindness he expressed towards him. ried away at the time the city was taken, and the whole W. Lowth. country reduced, could be so few as eight hundred and! 32. set his throne above the throne of the kings) That thirty-two, supposing a mistake in the date of the year, is, he showed him more respect and honour than he which some are willing to do, though without sufficient did to any other of the captive princes, by placing him grounds. Here then we have three deportations, and nearest himself. See Esth. ii. i. Dr. Blayney. It is those the most considerable ones, in the first, the eighth, I probable the phrase may have proceeded from the cusand the nineteenth years of Nebuchadnezzar, sufficiently tom of placing cushions for persons of more than distinguished from those in his seventh, eighteenth, and ordinary distinction in the places allotted them to sit in. twenty-third years. So that it seems most reasonable Harmer.

The following are the Chapters from Jeremiah appointed for Proper Lessons, or as Portions of Scripture for

Epistles, on Sundays and Holydays : Chap. V. ............. 14th Sunday after Trinity, Morning. Chap. XXXI. ... Thursday before Easter, ...... Evening. -- XXII. ........ ditto, ......................... Evening. - XXXV. ..15th Sunday after Trinity, ... Morning. XXIII.5-9. 25th Sun. after Trin. For the Epistle. XXXVI. .ditto, ......

... Evening. XXX1,1-18.Innocents' day, ............. Morning. I

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