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God's judgment upon
the prince of Tyrus. Before the seat of God, in the midst of the that slayeth thee, I am God? but Before
seas; a yet thou art a man, and not thou shalt be a man, and no God, in 588.
God, though thou set thine heart as the hand of him that || slayeth thee. à Isai. 31. 3. the heart of God:
| 10 Thou shalt die the deaths of the woundeth.
tation upon the king of Tyrus, and + Heb. By the 5 + By thy great wisdom and by say unto him, Thus saith the Lord iny wisdom. thy traffick hast thou increased thy God; Thou sealest up the sum, full
riches, and thine heart is lifted up of wisdom, and perfect in beauty.
| 13 Thou hast been in Eden the
and the diamond, the || beryl, the 10r, 7 Behold, therefore I will bring onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, strangers upon thee, the terrible of the || emerald, and the carbuncle, and I. Or,
chrysoprase. the nations : and they shall draw their gold": the workmanship of thy tabrets swords against the beauty of thy wis- and of thy pipes was prepared in thee dom, and they shall defile thy bright in the day that thou wast created. ness.
1 14 Thou art the anointed cherub 8 They shall bring thee down to that covereth ; and I have set thee the pit, and thou shalt die the deaths so : thou wast upon the holy mounof them that are slain in the midst of tain of God; thou hast walked up the seas.
and down in the midst of the stones 9 Wilt thou yet say before him of fire.
- though thou set thine heart as the heart of God :] 12. — Thou sealest up the sum, &c] In thine own Though thou hast in thy proud thoughts equalled thy- opinion thou art the perfect pattern of wisdom and all self with God. Bp. Hall.
other excellences. The expression is taken from vessels Ezekiel here censures the pride of the king of Tyre, and other repositories, which when full were sealed in as he had before condemned the people for their inso- order to preserve their contents. See Deut. xxxii. 32; lence. For these and their other vices, more especially | Job xiv. 17. W. Lowth. for their insults and injuries against the Jews, chap. | 13. Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God ;] xxvi. 2, the Prophets prophesied against them ; see Isai. Thou aboundedst in all delicacies, as if thou hadst lived xxiii. 9. Bp. Newton.
in paradise. Bp. Hall. 3. Behold, thou art wiser than Daniel ;] In thy own This expression, as well as the whole context, alludes conceit. Bp. Hall. The fame of Daniel's wisdom was to the complete happiness which Adam enjoyed in paraquickly spread over Chaldea upon his being advanced to dise before his apostasy and fearful fall. W. Louth. several posts of honour and dignity by Nebuchadnez - every precious stone was thy covering,] In the zar; see Dan. ii. 48. The Phenicians, of whom the canopy of thy throne; or, thy garments have been Tyrians were a colony, valued themselves for their wis- adorned with them. Abp. Newcome. dom and ingenuity, as being the inventors of navigation,
the workmanship of thy tabrets — was prepared of letters, and sciences ; compare Zech. ix. 2. W. in thee] The Prophet here notices the enjoyments of Lowth.
the Tyrians, their musick and songs, on instruments of 8. — of them that are slain in the midst of the seas.7 | the most exquisite workmanship: with allusion proAnd thou, that hast fondly imagined thyself a god, shall bably either to those solemnities, with which the birth die the death of thine ordinary vassals, notwithstanding of princes is celebrated, or to those which accompany thy strong forts and bulwarks of the sea. Bp. Hall. the coronation of a king, and his investiture with the
9. Wilt thou yet say before him that slayeth thee, I am royal dignity. Poole. God ] A keen taunt or sarcasm. What will become of 14. Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth ;] The thy divinity then ? Wilt thou then dream of immorta- particle of similitude “like” is understood; the two lity and almighty power, when thine enemy is killing cherubim of beaten gold were part of the ark, and therethee ? Appear then to thyself and others to be a mor- fore anointed, Exod. xxv. 18, 21; xxx. 26; the two tal, weak, conquered man, who dieth a sacrifice to the cherubim covered the mercy seat with their wings. In conqueror's pride and cruelty. Poole.
this lamentation, wisdom, beauty, magnificence, splen10. — of the uncircumcised] Circumcision being the dour and perfection are attributed to the king of Tyre; rite which distinguished God's people from the heathen, he likewise bore an exalted and sacred office : on these "uncircumcised” is equivalent in sense to “wicked or accounts he is compared to one of the angelick orders. profane.” W. Lowth. So the Greeks gave other na- Abp. Newcome, tions the contemptuous name of “ Barbarians ;" see - thou wast upon the holy mountain of God;] The i Sam. xvii. 36. Abp. Newcome.
| image of the cherub is pursued; such was thy eminent
A lamentation of his great glory. CHAP. XXVIII.
The judgment of Zidon. Before 15 Thou wast perfect in thy ways 21 Son of man, set thy face against Before from the day that thou wast created, Zidon, and prophesy against it,
588. till iniquity was found in thee.
22 And say, Thus saith the Lord
lence, and blood into her streets; and
a pricking brier unto the house of
they are scattered, and shall be sanc-
Jacob. 20 | Again the word of the LORD 26 And they shall dwell || safely || Or, with came unto me, saying,
therein, and shall build houses, and com)
+ Heb. terrors.
distinction, that thou wast, as it were, placed in the tude of thine iniquities, thou hast defiled those places of temple of God in His holy mountain. Thou wast, as majesty and devotion which thou wouldest have to be it were, conversant among the twelve precious stones thought sacred. Bp. Hall, Calmet. Or, the word transon the breastplate of the high priests which shone like lated “sanctuaries” may mean palaces, stately buildings. fire. W. Lowth, Abp. Newcome. Whenever God, who W. Lowth. dwelt between the cherubim, was approached, the high 21. - against Zidon,] Zidor. was the mother city of priest wore his breastplate, Exod. xxviii. 30; 1 Sam. Tyre; and possessed for a long time the empire of xxviii. 6. Abp. Newcome. Thinking himself more Phenicia and of the sea. Afterwards Tyre became more than mortal, is expressed by being as Adam was in powerful than the mother country, and obtained the paradise, and as the cherubim were in a place not to be sovereignty, both of Zidon and the other cities of Pheapproached. Abp. Secker. Tertullian paraphrases the nicia. We learn from Josephus, that Zidon revolted latter part of the verse thus: “ Thou hadst thy abode from Tyre, and submitted herself to Shalmaneser. They among glittering stars," as the angels are sometimes were however generally partakers of the same fate in called; see Job xxxviii. 7; Isai. xiv. 13. W. Lowth. prosperity and adversity, and the destruction of Zidon
16. By the multitude of thy merchandise &c.] By the followed close upon that of Tyre. Calmet, W. Lowth, confluence of much people upon the occasions of thy 24. And there shall be no more a pricking brier unto merchandise, and the oppressive bargains that are used the house of Israel, &c.] I will put an end to the sortherein, thou art full of fraud and violence, and art rows of My Church ; these heathens shall no more thereupon grown exceedingly sinful; therefore will I gall and grieve them; neither shall the nations round cast thee out from those vainly pretended rights which about insult upon their miseries, and trample upon thou claimest in the temple of God: I will destroy thee, them. Bp. Hall. O thou false cherub, from the ark whose covering thou 25. – When I shall have gathered &c.] These expreswouldest resemble, and strike thee down from those sions refer to the tiines of the Gospel, and are to be unclouds where thou affectest to walk among the fiery derstood in a spiritual sense. Junius. Or if we folmeteors. Bp. Hall.
low the literal sense of the words, it is a plain prophecy, 17.- by reason of thy brightness :) That height of either of the comparative safety and happiness which glory to which I had advanced thee has perverted thy the Jews enjoyed after the seventy years' captivity ; judgment, and made thee abuse thy wisdom to craft (Poole ;) or, of the general restoration of the Jews, and and deceit. W. Lowth. .
their future return into their own land; as will appear - I will lay thee before kings,] I will make thee a by comparing the words with the parallel texts of this spectacle and a warning or object of contempt to other Prophet, namely, chap. xi. 17; xx. 38, 41; xxxiv. 13; princes. W. Lowth, Poole.
xxxvi. 24 ; xxxvii. 12, 14, 21, 25; xxxix, 27. Compare 18. Thou hast defiled thy sanctuaries] By the multi- | Isai, lxv. 9, 10; Jer, xxx, 18 ; xxxii, 41; in which pre
The judgment of Pharaoh
for his treachery to Israel. Before , plant vineyards; yea, they shall dwell! 4 But I will put hooks in thy jaws, Before
with confidence, when I have exe- and I will cause the fish of thy rivers to 589.. recuted judgments upon all those that stick unto thy scales, and I will bring || Or, spoil. || despise them round about them; thee up out of the midst of thy rivers,
and they shall know that I am the and all the fish of thy rivers shall
stick unto thy scales.
5 And I will leave thee thrown into 1 The judgment of Pharaoh for his treachery
the wilderness, thee and all the fish to Israel. 8 The desolation of Egypt. 13
13 of thy rivers : thou shalt fall upon The restoration thereof after forty years. the + open fields; thou shalt not be + Heb. face of 17 Egypt the reward of Nebuchadrezcar. brought together, nor gathered: I" 21 Israel shall be restored.
have given thee for meat to the beasts
I month, in the twelfth day of the heaven.
shall know that I am the Lord, be-
Isai. 36. 6. phesy against him, and against all 7 When they took hold of thee by Egypt:
thy hand, thou didst break, and rend 3 Speak, and say, Thus saith the all their shoulder: and when they Lord God; Behold, I am against leaned upon thee, thou brakest, and
thee, Pharaoh king of Egypt, the madest all their loins to be at a stand. a Ps. 74. 13, great a dragon that lieth in the midst 8 9 Therefore thus saith the Lord Isai. 27. 1. & of his rivers, which hath said, My God; Behold, I will bring a sword
river is mine own, and I have made upon thee, and cut off man and beast
out of thee.
diction most of the other Prophets agree with him. W. able to deprive him of his kingdom. Grotius, Abp. Lowth.
4. But I will put hooks in thy jaws, &c.] But I will put Chap. XXIX. Ver. 1. In the tenth year, in the tenth the hooks of the king of Babylon into thy jaws, and month, &c.] This and the three following chapters are will drag thee out of those watery forts of thine to the joined together, because they treat of the same subject; dry land; and for thy princes and people, which are as though they consist of prophecies uttered at very dif- the lesser sort of fishes, they also, as sticking to thy ferent periods of time. The period assigned at the scales, shall be plucked out with thee. Bp. Hall. This head of this chapter is during the siege of Jerusalem, prophecy may also relate to the unsuccessful expedition and, agreeably to ver. 6, 7, may be immediately after of Apries against the Cyrenians. W. Lowth. To the Pharaoh's retreat, foretold by Jeremiah, chap. xxxvii. 7. mutiny of his own people, and to his defeat by Amasis. Abp. Newcome.
Abp. Newcome. 2. — against Pharaoh] Pharaoh being a common 5. — thrown into the wilderness, This seems to be a name to all the kings of Egypt, this prince was called plainer allusion to the heavy loss which Apries and his Pharaoh-hophra by Jeremiah, chap. xliv. 30; and Apries Egyptian army sustained amongst the deserts of Libya by Herodotus. W. Lowth.
and Cyrene. Apries did not perish there, he was 3. — the great dragon] The crocodile is alluded to. strangled afterwards in his palace. Abp. Newcome, W. Bochart remarks, that the word Pharaoh signifies a Lowth. Thrown upon the shore. Calmet. crocodile in the Arabick tongue. Among the ancients 6.- a staff of reed] A deceitful and untrusty stay it was a symbol of Egypt, and appears so in Roman to the house of Israel. Canes or reeds abounded on coins. W. Lowth, Michaelis.
the banks of the Nile. Abp. Newcome, W. Lowth. - that lieth in the midst of his rivers, Memphis 7. When they took hold of thee by thy hand, thou is thought to have been the residence of the ancient didst break, and rend all their shoulder :] Or their arm. kings of Egypt. There were large lakes to the north The sharp fragment pierced the arm that leaned on it. and west of Memphis, which made the strength of the The king, who was Zedekiah's confederate, came with place surprising ; and Dr. Pococke saw some near Ale- a great army to raise the siege of Jerusalem; but durst trahenny, which he supposes were these very lakes. not venture a battle with the Chaldeans, and in a little Nothing then could be more natural than these words time returned into his own country, deserting Zedekiah, of Ezekiel. Harmer. The expression however is to whom he had engaged to rebel against Nebuchadnezbe understood figuratively: and, as Pharaoh is intended zar; whereby they became the occasion of his own and by the “great dragon,” so the power, riches, and forces his people's ruin, chap. xvii. 15; Jer. xxxvii. 5, 7. W. of his kingdom are denoted by “his rivers :" as it fol Lowth. lows, “ My river is mine own," that is, all the strength
and madest all their loins to be at a stand.] Or, and glory of Egypt are mine. Poole.
“ and didst strain all their loins." Abp. Newcome. — I have made it for myself. This vaunting lan- 8.- a sword] This may be understood of Nebuchadguage agrees with what Herodotus relates of Pharaoh- nezzar, who, taking advantage of Amasis' revolt, overhophra, (see Jer. xliv. 30,) or Apries. This is said to ran that country, and made a prey of the whole kinghave been the persuasion of Apries, that no God was dom. W. Lowth.
Jer. 46. 26.
The desolation of Egypt.
The restoration thereof. Before. 9 And the land of Egypt shall be among the nations, and will disperse 589., desolate and waste; and they shall them through the countries.
know that I am the Lord: because 13 Yet thus saith the Lord God;
gather the Egyptians from the peo-
thee, and against thy rivers, and I 14 And I will bring again the + Heb, wastes will make the land of Egypt + utterly captivity of Egypt, and will cause
waste and desolate, from the tower them to return into the land of Pa-
tion; and they shall be there a + base + Heb. low.
any more above the nations : for I 12 And I will make the land of will diminish them, that they shall Egypt desolate in the midst of the no more rule over the nations. countries that are desolate, and her 16 And it shall be no more the cities among the cities that are laid confidence of the house of Israel, waste shall be desolate forty years : which bringeth their iniquity to reand I will scatter the Egyptians membrance, when they shall look
+ Heb. Sereneh.
10.- from the tower of Syene even unto the border of 15. It shall be the basest of the kingdoms ;] And, as Ethiopia.] From the south borders of Egypt unto the it follows in the next chapter, “there shall be no more north, shall the land be desolate. Bp. Hall. Others a prince of the land of Egypt,” ver. 13. It is now a prefer the translation, “from Migdol to Syene even great deal above two thousand years since this prophecy unto the border of Ethiopia.” Compare chap. xxx. 5, was first delivered : and what likelihood or appearance 9. Migdol, or Magdolus, was a town near the Red sea, was there, that the Egyptians should for so many ages as appears from Exod. xiv. 2; Numb. xxxiii. 7. It lay bow under a foreign yoke, and never in all that time therefore towards the north, at the entrance of Egypt be able to recover their liberties, and have a prince of from Palestine. And Syene was to the south of Egypt, their own to reign over them? Bp. Newton. In Egypt under the tropick of Cancer, and bordering upon Afri- the human mind had made some of its earliest and can Ethiopia.” Dean Prideaux, W. Lowth, Åbp. New- most auspicious efforts. It was long the general opicome.
nion, that there the laws of society had been discovered, 11. — neither shall it be inhabited forty years. After and the fountains of science opened. Unquestionably the total defeat of Apries by the Cyrenians, in which so that ingenious people were very early distinguished by many Egyptians fell, that the whole nation was enraged an ardent spirit of enterprise, and a peculiar happiness against their king, a civil war with Amasis followed; of invention. The stupendous monuments of art, which after that a conquest and a desolation of Egypt by Ne- lie scattered over the banks of the Nile, attest the vastbuchadnezzar, and another conquest of it by Cyrus. ness of their designs, and the extent of their power. We learn from this passage, during what period of The earliest professors of literature, and the first founyears Egypt was laid waste, and in a manner deserted. ders of civil polity, in Europe, and in the more western Abp. Newcome, W. Lowth. Amasis reigned forty-four provinces of Asia, travelled into Egypt, and there acyears according to Herodotus. The forty years of de-quired a knowledge of the fundamental principles of solation must have ended in the time of Cyrus, who science and government. Egypt was possessed likeprobably permitted the Egyptian captives to return. wise of natural advantages, which could seldom fail. Calmet."
Its situation was singularly calculated to defend it 12.— I will scatter the Egyptians among the nations, l 1 against the attacks of foreign invaders : whilst its unSome of them shall flee for refuge into foreign coun- common fruitfulness promised to secure the country, tries, and some shall be carried captive by the Babylo- which it enriched, from poverty, baseness, and subjecnians. Compare Jer. xlvi. 19. W. Lowth.
tion. Yet after a long course of grandeur, and in conWe cannot prove from heathen authors that this de- tradiction to its natural advantages, Ezekiel pronounced solation of the country continued exactly forty years, that “the kingdom should be the basest of kingdoms,” though it is likely enough that this, as well as the other and that “there should be no more a prince of the land conquered countries, did not shake off the Babylonian of Egypt.” Richards. As is the prophecy, so is the yoke till the time of Cyrus : but we are assured by Be- | event. For not long afterwards Egypt was conquered rosus, that Nebuchadnezzar took several captives in by the Babylonians; and after the Babylonians, by the Egypt, and carried them to Babylon; and from Megas- | Persians; and after the Persians, it became subject to thenes we learn, that he transplanted and settled others the Macedonians; and after the Macedonians, to the in Pontus. So true it is that they were “scattered Romans; and after the Romans, to the Saracens; and among the nations, and dispersed through the coun- then to the Mamelucks; and is now a province of the tries;” and might, upon the dissolution of the Babylo- Ottoman empire. Bp. Newton. nian empire, return to their native country. Bp. New-' 16. — which bringeth their iniquity to remembrance,] ton.
| Causing God to punish the iniquity of His people. 14. – into the land of Pathros,] That part of Egypt Abp. Newcome. God never forgets; but when He visits, which is called Thebais, as Bochart proves by several punishes, and judges a nation for their sin, then their arguments. W. Lowth.
| sin is said to come up into remembrance. Poole.
le bannst Tyrus: Thus saith iman, proping,
Israel shall be restored.
The desolation of Egypt Before or after them: but they shall know that
CHAP. XXX. about 589. I am the Lord God.
17 And it came to pass in the 1 The desolation of Egypt and her helpers. seven and twentieth year, in the first
20 The arm of Babylon shall be strength-
ened to break the arm of Egypt.
I again unto me, saying,
4 And the sword shall come upon
of Babylon; and he shall take her multitude, and her foundations shall + Heb. spoil multitude, and † take her spoil, and be broken down.
nd. take her prey; and it shall be the 5 Ethiopia, and + Libya, and Lydia, + Heb. Phut. wages for his army.
and all the mingled people, and Chub, 20 I have given him the land and the + men of the land that is in + Heb. | Or, for his of Egypt II for his labour wherewith league, shall fall with them by the “
he served against it, because they sword.
21 [ In that day will I cause the that uphold Egypt shall fall; and the
7 And they shall be desolate in the
her spoil, and prey her prey.
17. – in the seven and twentieth year,] See the note lived to be animated by it in his prophetical office, as apon ver. 1.
pears from the following clause. Abp. Newcome, Calmet. 18.- to serve a great service] The siege lasted thir - the opening of the mouth] When thy prophecies teen years. The heads of the soldiers were made bald are made good by the event, this shall add a new authoby the helmet, by disease, and by labour: and their rity to what thou speakest. W. Lowth. shoulders galled by carrying earth to raise mounts and fortifications against it. W. Lowth, Bp. Hall.
Chap. XXX. ver. 2. — howl ye,] The Egyptians are yet had he no wages, nor his army,] This was addressed. W. Lowth. literally true : for when the Tyrians saw that the works - Woe worth the day !] “To worth,” or “wurth,” for carrying on the siege were perfected, and the foun- is a Saxon verb, signifying to be. It is now only redations of the walls were shaken by the battering of the tained in “ woe worth," that is, woe be, a denunciation, rams, whatsoever precious things in gold, silver, clothes, or exclamation of sorrow. Dr. Johnson. Unhappy be ! and various kinds of furniture, the nobility had, they | or, W'oe be to! Tyrwhitt. put them on board their ships, and carried them to the 3.- the day is near,] The day when the Lord will islands; so that the city being taken, Nebuchadnezzar take vengeance of the heathen, who have oppressed His found nothing worthy of his labour. Bp. Newton. people. Bp. Hall.
20. — because they wrought for me,] The destruction 5. Ethiopia, and Libya, and Lydia,] The names in of cities and countries is a work of God's providence, the Hebrew are “ Cush, Phut, and Lud," who are menfor the effecting of which He makes use of kings and tioned together as the Egyptian allies, Jer. xlvi. 9. Cush princes as His instruments. Upon this account He probably signifies Ethiopia here, (see chap. xxix, 10,) as calls Nebuchadnezzar His servant, Jer. xxv. 9, because being joined with Phut and Lud, who were people of “he wrought for Him," as it is here expressed; that is, Africa. See the note on chap. xxvii. 10. W. Lowth. executed His judgments upon Tyre, and the other | -- all the mingled people,] See the note on Jer. cities and countries which God delivered into his hand. xxv. 20. W. Lowth.
- and Chub,] In Mareotis, an Egyptian province 21. -- the horn of the house of Israel to bud forth,] according to Ptolemy. They are called Cubü. W. The enlargement of Jehoiakim may be referred to. See Lowth, Grotius. 2 Kings xxv. 27. Or, Zerubbabel, who was born at - and the men of the land that is in league, The Babylon, of the house of David. Daniel was also ad- Septuagint translates it, “the men of my league or covanced to authority, Dan. ii. 48, 49. These marks of venant;" that is, the Jews, who took refuge in Egypt favour bestowed upon the Jews were preludes to their after the murder of Gedaliah. Abp. Newcome, W. Lowth. general restoration. Whatever event is foretold, Ezekiel | 6. - They also that uphold Egypt] Either the princes,