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The power of Nebuchadrezzar CHAP. XXVI.
against Tyrus. Before 6 And her daughters which are in 11 With the hoofs of his horses Before 588. the field shall be slain by the sword; shall he tread down all thy streets: 588.
and they shall know that I am the he shall slay thy people by the sword,
and thy strong garrison shall go down
8 He shall slay with the sword thy thy stones and thy timber and thy
daughters in the field: and he shall dust in the midst of the water. Or, pour make a fort against thee, and || cast a 13 a And I will cause the noise of a Isai. 24. 8.
mount against thee, and lift up the thy songs to cease; and the sound of & 16.9.
thy harps shall be no more heard.
10 By reason of the abundance of built no more : for I the LORD have
the horsemen, and of the wheels, and Tyrus; Shall not the isles shake at + Hleb of the chariots, when he shall enter the sound of thy fall, when the woundthe enterings into thy gates, tas men enter into a ed cry, when the slaughter is made in Broken up. city wherein is made a breach. the midst of thee?
out the engine of shot.
of a city
chiefly upon fishing, who seem to be preserved in this built on the continent, and part on an island adjoining. place by Divine Providence, as a visible argument how It is commonly said indeed, that when Old Tyre was God has fulfilled His word concerning Tyre.” Maun-closely besieged, and was near falling into the hands of drell.
the Chaldeans, then the Tyrians fled from thence, and The Jesuit Hadrianus Parvillerias resided ten years built New Tyre in the island: but the learned Vitringa in Syria; and Huetius heard him say, that when he hath proved at large, that New Tyre was founded several approached the ruins of Tyre, and beheld the rocks ages before, and was the station for ships, and constretched forth to the sea, and the great stones scattered sidered as part of Old Tyre : and Pliny, speaking of the up and down on the shore, made clean and smooth by compass of the city, reckons both the old and the new the sun, waves, and winds, and useful only for the dry. together. Bp. Newton. ing of fishermen's nets, many of which happened at the 8. — and lift up the buckler] In formning the testudo. time to be spread on them, it brought to his memory Michaelis. In the practice of this manæuvre the men this prophecy. Bp. Newton.
approached towards the wall with their bucklers lifted 6.- her daughters which are in the field] By the up above their heads, and so closely pressed together as daughters of Tyre are meant, the lesser towns which to form a shield impenetrable to the darts of the bewere under her jurisdiction, as the mother city or seat sieged. Calmet. of the kingdom. W. Lowth.
9. — and with his axes) Any instrument used in 7. – Behold, I will bring upon Tyrus Nebuchadrezzar demolishing buildings. W. Lowth, Abp. Newcome. &c.] The Prophet in this place expressly declares, that 10–12. — their dust shall cover thee: &c.] A lively the city should be taken and destroyed by Nebuchad- description of the tumult and desolation that attends nezzar king of Babylon. Shalmaneser king of Assyria a conquering army making themselves masters of a had besieged Tyre, but without success; the Tyrians great city; compare Nahum ii. 3, 4, 9; iii. 2, 3. W. had with a few ships beaten his large fleet : but yet | Lowth. Nebuchadnezzar should prevail. Ezekiel not only fore 12. — thy stones and thy timber and thy dust in the told the siege, but mentioned it afterwards as a past midst of the water.] The sea shall overflow thy ruins ; transaction. See chap. xxix. 18. Bp. Newton.
see ver. 19. W. Lowth. It hath been questioned among learned men, which 14. — be built no more :) This is true of Old Tyre; of the Tyres was the subject of these prophecies; whe- it has been built no more : New Tyre, taken by Alexther Old Tyre, that was seated on the continent, or ander, was built upon an island: Nebuchadnezzar New Tyre, that was built in an island almost over quite destroyed Old Tyre, and the ruins were made against it. The truest and best answer I conceive to use of by Alexander to effect the destruction of New be, that the prophecies appertain to both, some expres-Tyre. sions being applicable only to the former, and others. The prophecy was also fulfilled upon New Tyre, only to the latter. Compare chap. xxvii. 3, with ver. 4 whose inhabitants were quite destroyed by Alexander and 25; xxvi. 7, &c. with Isai. xxiii. 2, 4, 6; and chap. when he took the city, and afterwards the city itself xxvi. 10, with ver. 12, and xxviii. 8. From these pas- / became desolate. W. Lowth. sages it appears that the insular Tyre, as well as the 15. — Shall not the isles shake Shall not all the sea Tyre upon the continent, is included in these prophe-coasts round about be afraid and amazed at thy decies : they are both comprehended under the same struction ? Bp. Hall. See the note from Vitringa, on name, and both spoken of as one and the same city, part' Isai. xi. 11. .
# Heb. tremblings.
The mourning at
the fall of Tyrus. Before. 16 Then all the princes of the sea / with them that descend into the pit, Before
shall come down from their thrones, with the people of old time, and shall 588.
21 I will make thee + a terror, and + Heb. b Rev. 18. 9. 17 And they shall take up a b la- thou shalt be no more : though thou
mentation for thee, and say to thee, be sought for, yet shalt thou never
How art thou destroyed, that wast in- be found again, saith the Lord God.
of 1 The rich supply of Tyrus. 26 The great
L a nd unrecoverable fall thereof.
18 Now shall the isles tremble in THE word of the LORD came
a lamentation for Tyrus ;
Heb. perfect 20 When I shall bring thee down 4 Thy borders are in the midst i Heb. heart.
16, 17. Then all the princes of the sea &c.] All the 20. — with them that descend into the pit, &c.] Into princes and rich merchants of Sidon, Carthage, and the place of departed souls, as our Saviour speaks conother maritime cities, that maintained a trade with cerning Capernaum, Luke x. 15; compare Isai. xiv. 11, Tyre, and got great wealth by that means; they whose 15; Ezek. xxxii. 18, 24; and brought to utter desola“merchants are princes," as Isaiah speaks of the mer- tion, like cities which have been long ago buried in obchants of Tyre, chap. xxiii. 8; they shall express a deep livion. W. Lowth. sense and concern for her misfortunes ; compare chap. set glory in the land of the living ;) When I xxvii. 30–32; xxxii. 10. W. Lowth.
| shall restore other cities, conquered by the king of - shall clothe themselves with trembling ;) See the Babylon, to that flourishing condition they formerly like bold expressions, chap. vii, 27; Ps. XXXV. 26; cix. enjoyed among the inhabitants of this world. W. 29; cxxxii. 18.
Lowth. 17. — strong in the sea,] Tyre is called “the strength 21.- a terrour,] A terrible example of My vengeance of the sea," Isai. xxiii. 4; being strong both by its si- to all cities and countries. W. Lowth. tuation and the strength of its naval forces, upon which
though thou be sought for, yet shalt thou never be account it was formidable to all who had any trading found again,] Compare ver. 14, and note. The exupon the sea. W. Lowth.
pression denotes utter destruction, Ps. xxxvii. 36. W. 18. Now shall the isles tremble] Ver. 15. St. Je- Lowth. rome translates it, “Now shall the ships tremble,” that is, all seafaring men ; see chap. xxvii. 29, 30; Isai. Chap. XXVII. ver. 2. — take up a lamentation) This xxiii. 14. W. Lowth."
alludes to the mournful ditties used at funerals, wherein - at thy departure.] Into captivity. W. Louth, the mourning women recounted every thing that was Chaldee Paraphrase. At thy forsaking of the city and valuable or praiseworthy belonging to the deceased, and Alying in ships. Houbigant. See Bp. Lowth on Isai. then lamented his loss, Jer. ix. 17, 18. In like manxxiii. 1.
ner those that traded with Tyre should mourn over her The Tyrians having planted colonies at Tarshish and and lament the loss of her riches and greatness; comupon the coasts of Chittim, it was natural for them, pare chap. xxvi. 16, 17; and see ver, 32, of this chapwhen pressed with dangers and difficulties at home, to ter. W. Lowth. fly to their friends and countrymen abroad for refuge 3. — at the entry of the sea,] A seaport commodiand protection. That they really did so, St. Jerome ously situated for the commerce of the Mediterranean. asserts upon the authority of Assyrian histories, now | Calmet. lost and perished. Bp. Newton.
which art a merchant of the people Tyre is 19. — when I shall bring up the deep upon thee, &c.] called by Isaiah “a mart of nations," chap. xxiii. 3. This may mean literally, that the sea should come up Ezekiel, as it were commenting upon those words of and cover the ruins of the city ; see ver. 12. W. Lowth. Isaiah, recounts in this chapter the various nations, Or, that the Babylonians should break in like a deluge whose commodities were brought to Tyre, and were upon the city, and swallow it up. Bp. Hall. Jeremiah | bought and sold by the Tyrians. Bp. Newton. compares the army of the king of Egypt to a flood ; 4. Thy borders are in the midst of the seas,) See see Jer. xlvi. 7.
| chap. xxvi. 5. 19.
U Or, stoppers
+ Heb. strengtheners.
The riches and
large commerce of Tyrus. Before of the seas, thy builders have perfect-1 9 The ancients of Gebal and the Before 588. ed thy beauty.
wise men thereof were in thee thy 588. 7. 5 They have + made all thy ship || + calkers : all the ships of the sea
boards of fir trees of Senir: they have with their mariners were in thee to of chinks.
10 They of Persia and of Lud and of 6 Of the oaks of Bashan have Phut were in thine army, thy men of 1 Or, ther, they made thine oars; 11 of the com- war: they hanged the shield and helmet watches ang pany of the Ashurites have made thy in thee; they set forth thy comeliness.
benches of ivory, brought out of the 11 The men of Arvad with thine Alleb, the isles of Chittim.
army were upon thy walls round about, 7 Fine linen with broidered work and the Gammadims were in thy
from Egypt was that which thou towers : they hanged their shields | Or, purple spreadest forth to be thy sail ; || blue upon thy walls round about; they
and purple from the isles of Elishah have made thy beauty perfect.
12 Tarshish was thy merchant by
13 Javan, Tubal, and Meshech,
irory well trodden.
- thy builders Shipbuilders chiefly, in which on the Red sea, sails of linen must have been extremely the strength and glory of Tyre consisted; see ver. 5. magnificent. Harmer. 5. — thy ship boards] The decks of thy ships. W.
blue and purple from the isles of Elishah] Blue Lowth.
and purple are elsewhere reckoned among those colours of Senir :) A part of the ridge of mount Her- which set off the richest attire; see Exod. xxv. 4 ; Jer. mon, in the eastern half tribe of Manasseh, Deut. iii. x. 9. They were brought from the islands of the Egean 9; 1 Chron. v. 23. Abp. Newcome.
sea, particularly Coos, famed for purple among heathen 6.- the company of the Ashurites have made thy benches authors. Elishah denotes the countries upon the coast of ivory,] The Assyrians have made the seats of ivory of Greece; a part of Peloponnesus retains the name of for the rowers in a very costly manner. W. Lowth. | Elis. W. Lowth. Bochart explains “Elishah” of PeProbably they were the seats in the cabins of the royal | loponnesus; and Michaelis remarks the resemblance of galleys that were thus ornamented. Abp. Newcome. the name to Hellenes, who are said by Herodotus to
- Chittim] The isles of Chittim are the islands have settled in the Peloponnesus. Abp. Newcome. and countries lying upon the coast of the Mediterra -- which covered thee.] Perhaps the awning placed nean sea, Jer. ii. 10. See note at Numb. xxiv. 24. over the ship. Harmer. "St. Jerome suggests, that it
7. Fine linen with broidered work from Egypt] Mi- might have been the dress of the pilots and the rowers. chaelis calls this chapter the most ancient monument of Calmet. mercantile history. Abp. Newcome.
8. — Armed] The island Aradus at the mouth of - to be thy sail ; ] This shews to what an excess the river Eleutherus, on the coast of Phenicia, opposite of prodigality the Tyrians were come, to use such costly to Tyre. The Arvadite is mentioned, Gen. x. 18. It manufactures for sails to their ships. Suetonius, in is also called Arpad or Arphad, 2 Kings xvii. 34; Isai. his Life of Caligula, reckons this among several in- x. 9; Jer. xlix. 23. W. Lowth. The Tyrians were so stances of that emperor's extravagance, that he furnished , opulent, that they employed the inhabitants of other his pleasure boats with costly sails, and other expensive cities in the servile office of rowers and mariners. Calornaments. Bishop Newton compares this luxury in met. the Tyrian shipping with the elegance and magnificence 9. — of Gebal] Probably Biblos on the coast of Pheof Cleopatra's galley, when she sailed down the river | nicia. Cydnus to meet Antony. W. Lowth, Abp. Newcome. ! 10. — Lud] Probably an Egyptian colony. Abp. Maillet says of Egypt, “there is still a considerable | Newcome. quantity of cloth made here, but it is far short of the
Phut] The African shepherds. Bochart. These perfection of that which was formerly brought from people, though Africans, are joined with the Persians, Egypt.” Hasselquist is of a different opinion: “By chap. xxxviii. 5. W. Lowth. what we can see of the linen wrapped round the mum- - they hanged the shield and helmet in thee ;] In mies, the famous linen of the Egyptians was no better their garrisons which they kept in time of peace. W. than what is made at present in this country; it is how. Lowth. Sandys speaks of one of the gates of the seraglio ever softer and of a looser texture, for which reason it at Constantinople being “hung with shields and scimilasts longer, and does not wear out so soon as ours." | tars.” Parkhurst. Now as the persons embalmed were of great distinc. 11. The men of Arvad? See ver. 8. tion, it is probable that the linen, in which the mum - The Gammadims These were, as many think, mies were wrapped, was the finest at that time in Egypt; a people in Phenicia. W. Lowth. but if it was so coarse, why is it represented in this 12. Tarshish] See note at 1 Kings x. 22. passage of Ezekiel as such a piece of magnificence for 13. Javan,] Greece, Dan. viii. 21. It was so called the ships of Tyre to have their sails of the linen of from Javan the son of Japhet, Gen. x. 2: from whom Egypt? Certainly, because though coarse in our eyes, the Greeks are called Iones in their own tongue. Michaeit was thought to be very valuable when used even for lis. All Greece, except Peloponnesus, was anciently clothing; and if matting was then commonly used for called Ionia. W. Lowth. sails, as appears from Niebuhr to be the case at present Tubal, and Meshech,] Sons of Japhet, Gen. x.
The riches and
large commerce of Tyrus. Before, they were thy merchants: they traded : 18 Damascus was thy merchant in Before 588.- the persons of men and vessels of the multitude of the wares of thy 588. brass in thy || market.
making, for the multitude of all riches;
19 Dan also and Javan || going to Or, Meuzal.
f precious clothes for chariots. 16 Syria was thy merchant by rea- 21 Arabia, and all the princes of son of the multitude of f the wares Kedar, # they occupied with thee in + Heb. they of thy making : they occupied in thy | lambs, and rams, and goats: in these merchants of fairs with emeralds, purple, and broi- were they thy merchants. dered work, and fine linen, and coral, 22 The merchants of Sheba and and † agate.
Raamah, they were thy merchants : 17 Judah, and the land of Israel, they they occupied in thy fairs with chief were thy merchants: they traded in thy of all spices, and with all precious
market wheat of Minnith, and Pannag, stones, and gold. || Or, rosin. and honey, and oil, and || balm. 23 Haran, and Canneh, and Eden,
+ Heb. clothes of freedom.
2. The people called Tibareni and Moschi are here own growth. The Jews supplied them therewith from meant, who are generally mentioned together, and were their own or the neighbouring countries ; see 1 Kings situated towards mount Caucasus and the Euxine sea. v. 9, 11; Ezra iii. 7; Acts xii. 20. Minnith was a place Bochart, Michaelis.
| belonging to the Ammonites ; see Judges xi. 33. W. - they traded the persons of men) Sellers of men Lowth. for slaves are branded by St. Paul as highly criminal, - and Pannag,] This word is not elsewhere to be i Tim. i. 10. Thessaly abounded with them. Bochart found ; some suppose it to be not the name of a place, observes, that Pontus, to which the Tibareni extended but of some rich ointment or gum. W. Lowth. themselves, was remarkable for slaves; and that the 18. — wine of Helbon,] Helbon is supposed the same Grecian slaves were the most valuable of any. Abp. part of Syria which is called Chalybonitis by Ptolemy ; Newcome
now Aleppo : Strabo and Hesychius mention Chaly- vessels of brass] Mines of copper are worked | bonian wine as the produce of Syria. Athenæus says, in Caucasus to this day; and a village called Kubescha, “ It was so excellent, that the Persian king drank no on that mountain, is celebrated for the elegance of its other ;" and Posidonius says, “that it grew in Damasbrasen vessels. Michaelis.
cus of Syria.” W. Lowth. 14. — Togarmah] By “Togarmah” Bochart under 1 - and white wool.] The wool was dyed purple at stands Cappadocia. The Septuagint reads “Thorgama,” | Tyre. W. Lowth. Gen. x. 3; which comes near in sound to Trogma or 19. Dan -- and Javan) By “ Dan" St. Jerome unTrocma, a part of Cappadocia. W. Lowth.
derstands the town afterwards called Cesarea Philippi, 15.- Dedan) A city in the Persian gulph, now called in the tribe of Dan. The Javan here mentioned is Dadan. Bochart, Michaelis. To this place the inha- thought by Bochart to mean the southern part of Arabitants of the Eastern isles or seacoasts brought their bia. W. Lowth. wares. Abp. Newcome.
- bright iron,] Steel or wrought iron. Abp. The Dedan here spoken of was derived from that | Newcome. Dedan mentioned Gen. x. 7, the son of Raamah or - cassia, and calamus,] These articles being aroRegina. W. Lowth.
| matick gums, confirm Bochart's interpretation in the - many isles were the merchandise of thine hand :) note above; they are known not to grow in Greece but They exported thy manufactures, “the wares of thy in Arabia. W. Lowth. making, as they are called in the following verse; and 20. Dedan) This is probably to be understood of the by way of return brought thee in ivory and other rari- | posterity of that Dedan, who was Abraham's grandson; ties from India. W. Lowth.
see chap. xxv. 13. W. Lowth. 16. Syria was thy merchant] Although it be certain - in precious clothes In the margin, “clothes that some of the wares mentioned in this verse were not of freedom :" literally, “ clothes of stripping off for the natural product of Syria, yet they might all have riding :" it seems to mean such clothes as were used in formed articles of the Syrian trade. The ingenious riding, and occasionally stripped off the horse or other author of the Ruins of Palmyra supposes, that it was beast ; that is, a kind of horsecloths, on which the anthe East India trade which so enriched that city, and cients used to ride, before the invention of saddles with he imagines that this was at least as ancient as the time stirrups, which were not known till long after : in one of Solomon; Tyre therefore might have had these com word, housings. Parkhurst. modities conveyed to it in the time of Ezekiel, through 22. - Raamah,] Raamah was son of Cush, and father Palmyra, and Syria might have been its merchant for of Sheba. According to Bochart, Raamah is a city of them. E.
| Arabia on the Persian gulph. 17.- wheat of Minnith,] These were the commodities 23. Haran, See Gen. xi. 31. which the Jews imported to Tyre, chiefly the necessary - Canneh, and Eden,] Supposed by some to be provisions for food; the Tyrians having none of their ports in Arabia Felix. W. Lowth.
| Or, excellent things. + Heb. foldings.
The great and
unrecoverable fall thereof. Before or the merchants of Sheba, Asshur, and for thee with bitterness of heart and Before.com · Chilmad, were thy merchants. bitter wailing.
24 These were thy merchants in 32 And in their wailing they shall
33 When thy wares went forth out
riches and of thy merchandise.
thee into great waters: the east wind broken by the seas in the depths of + Hleb. heart. hath broken thee in the + midst of the waters thy merchandise and all the seas.
thy company in the midst of thee shall a Rev. 18. 9, 27 Thy a riches, and thy fairs, thy fall.
merchandise, thy mariners, and thy 35 All the inhabitants of the isles
of thy merchandise, and all thy men kings shall be sore afraid, they shall | Or, eren of war, that are in thee, || and in all be troubled in their countenance.
thy company which is in the midst 36 The merchants among the peo+ Heb. heart. of thee, shall fall into the + midst of ple shall hiss at thee; thou shalt be
the seas in the day of thy ruin. ta terror, and † never shalt be any + Heb. Or, waves. 28 The || suburbs shall shake at more.
the sound of the cry of thy pilots.
tion of his great glory corrupted by sin.
20 The judgment of Zidon. 24 The restobe heard against thee, and shall cry
ration of Israel. bitterly, and shall cast up dust upon THE word of the Lord came again 588. their heads, they shall wallow them- 1 unto me, saying, selves in the ashes:
2 Son of man, say unto the prince 31 And they shall make themselves of Tyrus, Thus saith the Lord God; utterly bald for thee, and gird them Because thine heart is lifted up, and with sackcloth, and they shall weep thou hast said, I am a god, I sit in
terrors. + Heb. shall not be for eter.
- and Chilmad,] Carmania ; according to the 30. — against thee,] Over thee; as persons mourn Septuagint and Chaldee. Abp. Newcome.
over the dead or the unfortunate; Septuagint and Vul24. — bound with cords, and made of cedar,] Care gate. W. Lowth. fully packed up in chests of cedar, to give these clothes - and shall cast up dust &c.] See 1 Sam. iv. 12 ; a fine scent, and to preserve them from decay. W. | Job ii. 12. Lowth.
1 31.- utterly bald? Another expression of publick 25. The ships of Tarshish did sing of theel Ships of sorrow, Jer. xlvii. 5; Micah i. 16. Tarshish signify sometimes in Scripture any trading' or 34. In the time when thou shalt be broken) In the merchant ships ; see Isai. ii. 16. W. Lowth, Calmet. time when thou shalt be destroyed by the Babylonian The Prophet, having reckoned up the principal coun- | forces, which like a raging sea shall come in upon thee; tries which traded with Tyre, now adds, in comprehen thy trade, and all the commerce that thou hadst with sive terms, that all merchant adventurers sung or spake other nations, shall utterly fail. Bp. Hall. great things of her riches ; or as the word may be ren- 36. — shall hiss at thee;] By way of insult and dedered, “they ruled or governed in thy markets." W. rision ; see 1 Kings ix. 8; as men are apt to despise Lowth.
those in adversity, whom they courted and respected in 26. — into great waters :) Under these beautiful and prosperity. The Chaldee Paraphrase renders it, “they expressive figures Tyre is represented as brought into shall be astonished ;” and this sense agrees better with danger by her statesmen, and destroyed by Nebuchad | the lamentations of the seafaring men, mentioned in the nezzar ; see the like comparison Isai. xxxiii. 23. Abp. foregoing verses. W. Lowth. Newcome, W. Lowth. The Prophet is here speaking of Tyre under the image of a ship. Bp. Warburton.
Chap. XXVIII. ver 2. — the prince of Tyrus,] His 29 — upon the land ;] The shore of the adjoining name was Ithobal ; as appears from the Phenician island, from which they viewed the conflagration of annals extracted from Josephus. Calmet, Abp. Newtheir city. Abp. Newcome.