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and her helpers.
The Egyptians are to be scattered. Before midst of the countries that are deso- | || Sin, the strength of Egypt; and I Before
late, and her cities shall be 'in the will cut off the multitude of No.
8 And they shall know that I am | Sin shall have great pain, and No Pelusium.
I 17 The young men of || Aven and 107: 9 In that day shall messengers go of || Pi-beseth shall fall by the sword: Or, forth from me in ships to make the and these cities shall go into capcareless Ethiopians afraid, and great tivity. pain shall come upon them, as in the 18 At Tehaphnehes also the day day of Egypt: for, lo, it cometh. shall be || darkened, when I shall lor,
10 Thus saith the Lord God; I break there the yokes of Egypt: and will also make the multitude of Egypt the pomp of her strength shall cease to cease by the hand of Nebuchad- in her: as for her, a cloud shall cover rezzar king of Babylon.
her, and her daughters shall go into 11 He and his people with him, captivity. the terrible of the nations, shall be 19 Thus will I execute judgments brought to destroy the land : and in Egypt: and they shall know that I they shall draw their swords against am the LORD. Egypt, and fill the land with the 20 I And it came to pass in the 558. slain.
eleventh year, in the first month, in 12 And I will make the rivers the seventh day of the month, that + Heb. + dry and sell the land into the hand the word of the LORD came unto me, drought.
of the wicked : and I will make the saying,
by the hand of strangers : I the LORD arm of Pharaoh king of Egypt; and,
lo, it shall not be bound up to be 13 Thus saith the Lord God; I healed, to put a roller to bind it, to a Zech. 13. 2. will also a destroy the idols, and I make it strong to hold the sword.
will cause their images to cease out 22 Therefore thus saith the Lord
broken; and I will cause the sword to
will execute judgments in No. tians among the nations, and will
15 And I will pour my fury upon disperse them through the countries. counsellors, and warriours in Egypt; or the foreigners | -- no more a prince] A natural prince of the that favoured and helped her. Poole.
Egyptian race to rule over it. It shall be subject to 8.- a fire in Egypt,] God's judgments are often foreigners. Abp. Secker. See the note on chap. xxix. compared to fire. W. Lowth.
15. 9. - in ships] Up the Nile to Ethiopia, it being a 14. - Pathros] See chap. xxix. 14, and note. more secure way of conveying intelligence in a time of in Zoan, T Or Tanis, one of the ancient cities of general commotion. Abp. Newcome. St. Jerome in- Egypt, Numb. xiii. 22; Ps. lxxviii. 12, 43. W. Lowth, forms us, that vessels navigated the Nile as far as the Dr. Wells. cataracts at Syene, on the borders of Ethiopia. Calmet. -- No.] Diospolis, or Thebes. Bochart. It was
– in the day of Egypt :] The Egyptians and Ethio- the capital of Upper Egypt. Calmet. pians being confederates, the news of the conquest of 18. — Tehaphnehes] Elsewhere written Tahpanhes; Egypt shall sensibly affect them. W. Lowth.
it is supposed to be the same place which was aster11.- the terrible of the nations,] See chap. xxviii, 7. wards called Daphnæ Pelusiacæ. Bp. Hall, W. Lowth.
12.— I will make the rivers dry,] The fertility and See the notes on Isai. xxx. 4; Jer. ii. 16. prosperity of Egypt depended entirely upon the over- - the yokes] The yokes imposed by the Egypflowing of the Nile. Abp. Newcome.
tians. W. Lowth. 13, — out of Noph;1 Noph, or Memphis, was one 22. — and will break his arms, the strong, and that of the principal cities of Egypt, a seat of their kings, which was broken ; &c.] The king of Babylon had bewhere their sepulchres stood. On this account it is fore dispossessed the king of Egypt of all his new confrequently mentioned in Scripture. See Isai. xix. 13; quests, from the river of Egypt to the river Euphrates, Jer. ii. 16; xliv. I. In Hosea it is called “ Moph," 2 Kings xxiv. 7. So that this part of his strength was (chap. ix. 6,) which comes near in sound to Memphis. already taken away, never to be recovered; and now W. Lowth. Cairo is called to this day “Menoph.” God threatens to destroy the remainder of his power, Abp. Newcome.
the kingdom of Egypt itself. W. Lowth,
. 23.44 of his will coad that weak
A relation unto Pharaoh,
of the glory of Assyria, c. Before 24 And I will strengthen the arms her rivers running round about his Before
of the king of Babylon, and put my plants, and sent out her || little rivers 572.
his boughs were multiplied, and his
26 And I will scatter the Egyp- under his shadow dwelt all great na-
root was by great waters.
8 The cedars in the bgarden of b Gen. 2. 8. 1 A relation unto Pharaoh, 3 of the glory of God could not hide him : the fir trees
Assyria, 10 and the fall thereof för pride. were not like his boughs, and the
ND it came to pass in the eleventh branches; nor any tree in the gar-
2 Son of man, speak unto Pharaoh titude of his branches : so that all the
10 | Therefore thus saith the Lord 3 9 Behold, the Assyrian was a God; Because thou hast lifted up + Heb. fairos cedar in Lebanon + with fair branch- thyself in height, and he hath shot up
es, and with a shadowing shroud, and his top among the thick boughs, and
11 I have therefore delivered him nourished. 4 The waters || made him great, into the hand of the mighty one of doinghe
ought the deep || set him up on high with the heathen ; + he shall surely deal nim do urla
The Chot hide boughs, nike his
+ Heb. in doing he shall do unto him.
24. And I will strengthen the arms of the king of Ba- Nineveh was situated, made that city and kingdom rich bylon,] The same promise God afterwards made to and populous, and she imparted her wealth and stores Cyrus, Isai. xlv. 1. W. Lowth.
among the neighbouring provinces. See Nahum ii. 6.
W. Lowth. Chap. XXXI. ver. 2. — Whom art thou like] Thou - little rivers] Small artificial channels, through pridest thyself as if there never was any prince or king which water was distributed in Eastern gardens. Acthat could compare with thee. W. Lowth.
cording to St. Jerome, the rivers represent the tributary 3. Behold, the Assyrian] The Assyrian empire, which kings of Assyria, and the little rivers its princes and was destroyed by Nabopolassar king of Babylon. governours, to whom the royal authority was commu.
The fitness and beauty of this fine image may be nicated. Calmet. learnt from the account of the cedars of Libanus, given 6. All the fowls of heaven made their nests in his by different authors. See note at 1 Kings v. 6.
boughs,] Representing the several nations which apThe prophetick and poetical writers among the Jews plied to the Assyrians for protection and safety, chap. make use of the cedar of Lebanon in a figurative sense xvii. 23; Dan. iv. 12. W. Lowth. to express something proud, of high stature and mag | 8. The cedars in the garden of God could not hide him : nificence, as in this place. This beautiful tree, remark | &c.] See Ps. lxxx. 10. Such fair cedars as might be able for its loftiness, and in the most flourishing condi supposed to grow in Paradise. W. Lowth. Implying, tion, but afterwards cut down and deserted, gives us a that the greatest princes in the most flourishing kinglively painting of the glory and the catastrophe of the doms of the world could not stand in comparison with Abyssinian monarch. The manner, in which the Pro- the Assyrian monarch; but all of them were forced to phet has embellished his description, is full of propriety yield to him as more powerful and glorious than them. and elegance, and the colouring is such as fills the mind selves. Bp. Hall. with the greatest delight. Bp. Lowth.
9. — all the trees of Eden, — envied him.] “All the 4. The waters made him great,] As trees flourish by kings of the East envied him his greatness," as the a river side, (compare chap. xvii. 5,) so the traffick of Chaldee Paraphrase expresseth the sense, W. Lowth. the several branches of the river Tigris, upon which I 11. - the mighty one of the heathen ;] Or, “ of the
and the fall thereof.
CHAP. XXXI, XXXII. The like destruction of Egypt. Before, with him: I have driven him out for the sound of his fall, when I cast Before **588.- his wickedness.
him down to hell with them that de- 588.
13 Upon his ruin shall all the fowls the midst of the heathen.
trees of Eden? yet shalt thou be
their top among the thick boughs, cumcised with them that be slain by | Or, sland neither their trees || stand up in their the sword. This is Pharaoh and all
heir height, all that drink water: for they his multitude, saith the Lord God.
are all delivered unto death, to the
11 The sword of Babylon shall destroy it.
were stayed: and I caused Lebanon word of the LORD came unto me,
1 2 Son of man, take up a lamenta16 I made the nations to shake at tion for Pharaoh king of Egypt, and
upon themselres for their height.
nations," as the same word is rendered in the next
I covered the deep for him,] I caused the deep to verse. Nabopolassar king of Babylon who with Cyax- mourn; or, I caused it to cover itself in token of ares destroyed the kingdom of Assyria : see ver. 3, and grief. Grotius. The deep that nourished this fair tree note. W. Lowth.
(ver. 4.) is described as mourning at his downfal. W. 12. — have cut him off, and have left him :1 Without Lowth. life or strength, like a tree that is cut down, dried up, 16. — when I cast him down to hell (or the grave) with and withered. W. Lowth.
them that descend into the pit :) See chap. xxxii. 18, 13. Upon his ruin &c.] As the birds sit upon the 21; Isai. xiv. 15. boughs of a tree cut down, and the beasts browse upon — all the trees of Eden, — shall be comforted] The its branches, so his dominions shall be a prey to the deceased princes, his allies and tributaries, described conquerors; or his armies that are slain shall become here as so many stately trees and cedars, shall feel some meat to the birds and beasts. W. Lowth.
mitigation of their calamity, in considering, that this 14. To the end &c.] To the end that none of the king, so mighty, and so powerful, is brought like themproud princes of the earth should hereafter dare to exalt selves to the nether parts of the earth; or, that he is themselves in the overweening confidence of their own i become their equal in the pit, in the grave, in the place strength and glory. Bp. Hall.
of darkness, from which all distinctions of quality and all that drink water :) A figurative expression condition are entirely banished. Calmet, W. Lowth. for trees, which derive so much nourishment from 17.- his arm, 7 His auxiliaries: the nations that water. Abp. Newcome.
composed his strength, and lived under his protection. for they are all delivered unto death,] Whatever W. Lowth. distinction there is between them and the inferiour sort, 18. To whom art thou thus like &c.] Oh Pharaoh ! death shall make them all equal, Ps. lxxxii. 7. This is thou that art thus like to the Assyrian amongst all the more particularly intimated to Egypt, and to those other kings of the earth in glory and magnificence, thou shalt countries against which God had denounced His judg- I also be like him in thy ruin; thou with the other princes ments : the same fate is here allotted to them which the l of the world shalt be brought down into the grave, and Assyrian monarch had undergone. W. Lowth.
shalt be destroyed in the midst of thy fellow heathen. 15. — In the day when he went down to the grave This Bp. Hall. The latter part of ver. 2 is here resumed, and the following verse form a noble and elegant de- , and the application is directly made to Egypt. Abp. scription of that consternation which seized the king of Newcome. Assyria's allies at the suddenness of his downfal; the same metaphor being still pursued. W. Lowth.
Chap. XXXII. ver. 2. — take up a lamentation] To VOL. II.
13. & 17. 20.
Joel 2. 31. & 3. 15.
A lamentation for the
fearful fall of Egypt. c. Beforer say unto him, Thou art like a young many people, when I shall bring thy Befores CHRIST 587. lion of the nations, and thou art as a destruction among the nations, into 587.
|| whale in the seas: and thou camest the countries which thou hast not | Or, dragon.
forth with thy rivers, and troubledst known.
| amazed at thee, and their kings shall 3 Thus saith the Lord God; I be horribly afraid for thee, when I a Chap. 12. will therefore a spread out my net shall brandish my sword before them;
over thee with a company of many and they shall tremble at every mo-
the day of thy fall.
terrible of the nations, all of them :
6 I will also water with thy blood | 13 I will destroy also all the beasts | Or, the | the land wherein thou swimmest, thereof from beside the great waters; swimming even to the mountains; and the rivers neither shall the foot of man trouble shall be full of thee.
them any more, nor the hoofs of | Or,
7 And when I shall || put thee out, beasts trouble them. b Isai. 13. 10. b I will cover the heaven, and make | 14 Then will I make their waters
31.& the stars thereof dark; I will cover deep, and cause their rivers to run Matt. 24. 29. the sun with a cloud, and the moon like oil, saith the Lord God. shall not give her light.
15 When I shall make the land of of the light in 8 All the f bright lights of heaven Egypt desolate, and the country shall hem will I make f dark over thee, and set be + destitute of that whereof it was + Heb.
darkness upon thy land, saith the full, when I shall smite all them that the fulness + Heb. provoke to Lord God.
dwell therein, then shall they know thereof. grief.
,of, 9 I will also + vex the hearts of that I am the Lord. the preceding funeral panegyrick over Assyria, the fate The downfal and destruction of kingdoms is denoted of which was past, Ezekiel prophetically subjoins aby the strong figurative language of these verses. Kings similar panegyrick over Egypt, though its fate was still and rulers are expressed by the sun, moon, and stars : future; making plainly here a happy variation in the compare Isai, xii. 10; xxxiv. 4: Joel ï. 31. God's figure. In the former case past events are brought down judgments upon particular countries being earnests of and represented as now present before our eyes ; whereas, a general judgment, they are described in such terms, on the contrary, by this prophetick figure, future events as if the whole frame of nature were dissolved. Abp. are anticipated, and represented as already past. Abp. Newcome, W. Lowth. See the notes on Isai. xiii. 10. Newcome.
1 9. — when I shall bring thy destruction among the nathou art as a whale] By the original word we tions,] The nations shall be affrighted and amazed when may fitly understand a crocodile, as hath been observed I shall bring unto them both the rumour and the expec. upon chap. xxix. 3, and the description that follows of tation of thy destruction. Bp. Hall, this creature agrees very well to a crocodile, but cannot 13. — from beside the great waters ;1 The cattle that be applied to a whale. W. Lowth.
used to feed upon the fertile meadows beside the hill - and thou camest forth with thy rivers, &c.] Thou shall be destroyed or driven away. Abp. Newcome. didst raise mighty armies, and lead them out against thy
trouble them) The country shall be so deserted, neighbours; see chap. xxix. 3, and the note there. By that the waters of the river shall not be fouled by man “the waters” in the next clause are intended the neigh-, or beast. Abp. Newcome. bouring people, kings and kingdoms, whose peace and any more,] During the forty years of desolation, enjoyments were disturbed by the invasion of the Egyp- chap. xxix. 11. tian monarch. Poole.
14. Then will I make their waters deep, and cause their 5. And I will lay thy flesh upon the mountains, &c.] rivers to run like oil, &c.] The Prophet in the second Implying that the vast bulk of thine armies, when they verse compared the disturbances the Egyptians gave are slain, shall fill both mountains and valleys. See their neighbours to the troubling and fouling of waters; chap. xxxi. 12. W. Lowth.
in allusion to which metaphor he saith here, that when - with thy height.] With thy projection, or thy Egypt is made desolate, and the number of men and carcase. Capellus.
beasts diminished by their wars and confusions, then 7,8. – I will cover the heaven, and make the stars their neighbours will enjoy such quietness as a river does, thereof dark ; &c.] Compare this sublime passage with that smoothly glides along, and never hath its streams chap. xxxi. 15.
| fouled or disturbed. W. Lowth.
+ Heb. lights
A lamentation for the
fearful fall of Egypt. Before 16 This is the lamentation where- | all of them are slain, fallen by the Before about 557. with they shall lament her: the sword:
daughters of the nations shall lament 23 Whose graves are set in the sides
fallen by the sword, which caused
them slain, fallen by the sword, which
| 25 They have set her a bed in the
him : all of them uncircumcised, slain 20 They shall fall in the midst of by the sword : though their terror them that are slain by the sword: || she was caused in the land of the living, is delivered to the sword: draw her yet have they borne their shame with and all her multitudes.
them that go down to the pit: he is 21 The strong among the mighty put in the midst of them that be slain. shall speak to him out of the midst of 26 There is Meshech, Tubal, and hell with them that help him: they all her multitude: her graves are are gone down, they lie uncircum- round about him: all of them uncircised, slain by the sword.
cumcised, slain by the sword, though 22 Asshur is there and all her they caused their terror in the land of company: his graves are about him : the living.
1 Or, the sword is laid.
16. — the daughters of the nations] That is, the peo- 21. The strong among the mighty shall speak to him ple of the neighbouring countries : so the “ daughter of out of the midst of hell with them that help him :7 “Hell” Zion” and “of Babylon" signifies the inhabitants of signifies here the state of the dead, where the deceased those cities. The expression alludes to the mourning tyrants with their subjects are represented as coming women, whose profession it was to lament at funerals. to meet the king of Egypt with his auxiliaries (see chap. W. Lowth.
xxx. 8.) upon their arrival at the same place. Com17. — in the fifteenth day of the month, 1 Probably of pare chap. xxxi. 16, 17 ; Isai. xiv. 9, &c. W. Lowth, the twelfth month : see ver. i. Calmet, W. Lowth. | Bp. Hall.
18. Son of man, wail for the multitude &c.] This they are gone down, &c.] These warriours, prophetick ode is a masterpiece in that species of writing, famous in their time for their exploits, have undergone which is appropriated to the exciting of terrour. Bp. the same fate with other men of blood, and are gone Lowth.
down to the grave by violent deaths. W. Lowth. - and cast them down, &c.] The Prophets are 22. Asshur is there and all her company :] The Assaid to do what they foretell: see chap. xliii. 3 ; Jer. i. syrians, both king and people, whose destruction is 10. Abp. Secker.
| represented in the foregoing chapter. W. Lowth. - into the pit.] An imitation may be observed 23. Whose graves are set in the sides of the pit, &c.] here of that sublime chapter, the 14th of Isaiah. But See chap. xxvi. 20; Isai. xiv. 15. The graves of his our Prophet has so conducted it in his own manner, companies and complices are set in the sides of the that fertility of genius, copiousness of diction, and variety burialplace round about the grave of Asshur, which lies of expression, are not less to be admired in the one in the midst of his attendants : all of them slain, &c. than in the other. Dathius. Bp. Lowth remarks, that | Bp. Hall.
example of the sublime and terrible, for which the for terranean chambers, hewn with marvellous art, each mer Prophet is so peculiarly distinguished. Abp. New- containing one or many repositories for the dead, like come.
cisterns carved in the rock upon the sides of those 19. — go down, and be thou laid with the uncircum- / chambers. Dr. E. D. Clarke. cised.] Strong and goodly as thou art, go down into 24. There is Elam] Conquered by Nebuchadnezzar, the dust, and be laid together with thy godless and Jer. xlix. 34. W. Lowth.
See chap. xxviii. 10, and the notes there.
gus is called “the bed.” Bp. Lowth. 20. - draw her] Drag her carcase to the sepulchre. 1 26. — Meshech, Tubal,] See chap. xxvii. 13, and note, The words are addressed to the Babylonians. Abp. New- | The Scythians may be comprehended, who anciently come, W. Lowth,
governed Asia. This is no other than the well known