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+ Heb. Meribahkadesh,
The portions of the prince.
CHAP. XLVIII. The dimensions and gates of the city. c Befores or other of the holy oblation, and of the the south side southward, the border c Befores T 574. possession of the city, over against shall be even from Tamar unto the 574.
the five and twenty thousand of the waters of + strife in Kadesh, and to
four thousand and five hundred mea-
32 And at the east side four thou-
from the east side unto the west side gates; and one gate of Joseph, one + Heb. one Benjamin shall have t a portion. gate of Benjamin, one gate of Dan.
24 And by the border of Benja- 33 And at the south side four thou-
25 And by the border of Simeon, gate of Issachar, one gate of Zebu-
34 At the west side four thousand
Asher, one gate of Naphtali.
the city from that day shall be, + The + Heb. 28 And by the border of Gad, at Lord is there.
cubits from north to south, commensurate with that of cular a description of the several portions allotted to each each side of the holy portion. Abp. Newcome. It had tribe, relates to the Jewish settlement in their own Judah to the north, and Benjamin to the south; see country after their conversion; several passages in the the plan. St. Jerome reckons sixty miles from Joppa Prophets looking that way. But without laying too to Jordan; so that supposing the holy portion about great a stress upon that opinion, we may fairly suppose seven miles square, there will remain about twenty-six some mystical sense contained under this description; on each side, east and west, for the prince's share.' W. the twelve tribes denote the true Christian Church in Lowth.
the New Testament; see Luke xxii. 30. So this divi22. the Levites, including the priests; see chap. sion of the land among the twelve tribes may imply, xliv. 15. The sense of the verse is, that the possession that all true Christians shall be equally sharers in the belonging to the priests and Levites, (see ver. 11,) and | privileges of the Gospel. W. Lowth. the city, were bounded on the east and west by the 30. — on the north side,] See ver. 16, where the same prince's portion; that the former lay in the middle, the measures are set forth. There were three gates in the latter beyond them. W. Lowth.
face of each wall, and the whole circuit of the city was 25. - Issachar] These appointments are not laid eighteen thousand cubits. Calmet. out with any regard to the division of the land made in 32. — one gate of Joseph,] There being a gate named Joshua's time; for here a platform of a new church and after Levi, the gate of Joseph includes Ephraim and state is set forth. W. Lowth.
| Manasseh, the sons of Joseph. Abp. Newcome. 28. — from Tamar] See note on chap. xlvii. 19.
35. — The Lord is there. It is frequently said in the 29. – for inheritance,] Since there is no doubt but sacred writings, that a person or a thing shall be called that other things which are said in these chapters re- | by a certain name, where it is predicted that the person lating to the temple, and the land of Israel, are of a or thing shall be endowed with those qualities which prophetical nature, it seems safer to determine that the the name imports. When Isaiah predicts the coming abovementioned measures were observed both in build- of the Messiah, he says, that “His name shall be called ing the temple and in assigning the lots to the tribes; Wonderful, Counsellor, The Mighty God, The Everthough we know not how these things were done, be- lasting Father, The Prince of Peace;" because He was cause there is a great chasm in the sacred history, from to possess the qualities which would serve as a foundathe time of Ezra to that of the Maccabees. Houbigant. tion to these titles. In this sense Jerusalem is called
It is the opinion of some learned men, that so parti- ' in the Psalms, the “ city of God, the city of the Great
EZEKIEL King;” and in Isaiah, “The city of Righteousness, the cated to God's service, and becoming an habitation of faithful city;" and in this passage, “The Lord is there.” God through His Spirit, shall have some degree of the Calmet.
| holiness of the temple where God had placed His name, In this new Jerusalem, the Church of Christ, God i Kings viii. 29, compared with Rev. xxi. 22. This is
place of His perpetual residence; so that every part of are called, the “temple of the living God," 2 Cor. vi. that city shall be honoured with evident tokens of the 16; 1 Pet. ü.5 : and “an habitation of God through Divine presence; and every member of it being dedi- the Spirit,” Eph. ii. 22. W. Lowth.
The following are the Chapters from Ezekiel appointed for Proper Lessons on Sundays and Holidays: CHAP. II. ......... 16th Sunday after Trinity, Morning. Chap. XVIII. ...17th Sunday after Trinity, Evening.
XIII........ ditto, .... ............ Evening. XX.......... 18th Sunday after Trinity, Morning.
DANIEL was of the tribe of Judah, and of very illustrious, if not of royal, descent. Josephus says, he was
of the family of Zedekiah, the last king of Judah before the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuzar-adan. He was carried away captive to Babylon in the fourth year of Jehoiakim, in the year of the world 3398, probably in the eighteenth or twentieth year of his age: and on account of his birth, wisdom, and accomplishments, was selected to stand in the presence of Nebuchadnezzar. Daniel's strength and habits of mind were of a very superiour cast, whether considered as the gifts of nature, or
the acquisitions of well-applied industry. “An excellent spirit was in him," which directed him to cultivate and improve all the proper means of knowledge : so that he became master of all the literature of the Chaldeans, and was far superiour to all the Magi, or wise men of the East. He was not only renowned for secular wisdom, but favoured with Divine illuminations; had extraordinary insight into visions, and discernment in the interpretation of dreams. Qualified with these abilities, he was admitted to the special favour of several very powerful monarchs; of Nebuchadnezzar, Belshazzar, Darius, and Cyrus : and hence he is supposed to have resided, not only in the court at Babylon, but occasionally also in those of Media and Persia. Wintle.
In the vicissitudes of his life, as in the virtues which he displayed, he has been thought to have resembled Joseph.
Like him, he lived amidst the corruption of a great court; and preserved an unshaken attachment to his religion, in a situation embarrassed with difficulties, and surrounded by temptations. He publickly professed God's service, in defiance of every danger; and predicted His fearful judgments to the very face of intemperate and powerful tyrants. It may be collected from the pensive cast of his writings, that he was of that melancholy disposition, which might be expected to characterize the servants of the true God amidst scenes of idolatry. He experienced throughout his life very signal and miraculous proofs of Divine favour; and was looked up to by the Persians, as well as by his own countrymen, as an oracle of inspired wisdom. He appears to have attained a great age, as he prophesied during the whole period of the captivity. He probably however did not long survive his last vision concerning the succession of the kings of Persia, which he beheld in the third year of Cyrus, and in the year of the world 3470, when the Prophet must have reached his ninetieth year.
The book of Daniel contains a very interesting mixture of history and prophecies. The first six chapters are
chiefly historical, and are written with much spirit and animation : we seem to be present at the scenes described, and the whole is enriched with the most exalted sentiments of piety, and with the finest attestations to the praise and glory of God. The six last chapters are composed of prophecies, delivered at different times, all of which are however connected as parts of one great scheme. They extend through many ages, and furnish the most striking description of the fall of successive kingdoms, which were to be introductory to the establishment of the Messiah's reign. They characterize in descriptive terms the four great monarchies of the world, to be succeeded by “that kingdom which shall not be destroyed.” They foreshew the power and destruction of Antichrist in predictions repeated and extended by St. John; and conclude with a distinct assurance of a general resurrection to a life of everlasting shame, or everlasting glory. Dr. Gray.
In general the words of Daniel are proper, well chosen, and comprehensive; his diction simple and chaste, yet
often strong and nervous; and his whole style compact, concise, and close, but pure and regular. Sometimes however he is diffusive and copious, enlarges an idea, and swells an image to an uncommon pitch of grandeur. His book is not to be reckoned among the poetical compositions of the sacred volume: he makes great use indeed of parabolical imagery, but as a Prophet, shadowing out things and events by means of visions and allegories, without any colouring of a poetick style. Wintle, Bp. Lowth.
With respect to the genuineness and authenticity of this Book of Daniel, there is abundance both of external
and of internal evidence. Of external evidence, there is all that can well be had or desired in a case of this nature : not only the testimony of the whole Jewish Church and nation, who have constantly received this book as canonical; but of Josephus particularly, who recommends him as the greatest of the Prophets ; of the Jewish Targums and Talmuds, which frequently cite and appeal to his authority; of St. Paul and St. John, who have copied many of his prophecies; of our Saviour Himself, who citeth' his words, and styleth him “ Daniel the Prophet;" of ancient historians, who relate many of the same transactions; of the mother of the seven sons and of the father of the Maccabees, who both recommend the example of Daniel to their sons ; of old Eleazar in Egypt, who praying for the Jews then suffering under the persecution of Ptolemy Philopator, 3 Mac. vi. 5, 6, mentions the deliverance of Daniel out of the den of lions, together with the deliverance of the three men out of the fiery furnace; of the Jewish High Priest, who shewed Daniel's pro
Ashpenaz taketh Daniel,
DANIEL. Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah. phecies to Alexander the Great, whilst he was at Jerusalem; and still higher, of Ezekiel, a contemporary writer, who greatly extols his piety and wisdom. Nor is the internal less powerful and convincing than the external evidence; for the language, the style, the manner of writing, and all other internal marks and characters, are perfectly agreeable to that age; and he appears plainly and undeniably to have been a Prophet by the exact accomplishment of his prophecies, as well those which have already been fulfilled, as those which are now fulfilling in the world. Bp. Newton.
. To reject the prophecies of Daniel is to reject the Christian religion: for this religion is founded upon his pro
phecy concerning the Messiah: (Sir Isaac Newton :) but to read this book with attention, and intelligence, and with an unbiassed mind to follow the advice of our Saviour, when He quoted this very prophecy, “Let him that readeth understand," might be sufficient to convert an unbeliever from Deism to Christianity. Bp. A'atson.
Before CHRIST about 607.
wood and Before
of Israel, and of the king's seed, and CHAP. I.
of the princes; 1 Jehoiakim's captivity. 3 Ashpenaz taketh
14 Children in whom was no blemDaniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah. ish, but well favoured, and skilful in 8 They refusing the king's portion do all wisdom, and cunning in knowprosper with pulse and water. 17 Their
ledge, and understanding science, excellency in wisdom.
and such as had ability in them to TN the third year of the reign of stand in the king's palace, and whom a 2 Kings 24. I Jehoiakim king of Judah a came they might teach the learning and 2 Chron. 36. Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon the tongue of the Chaldeans.
unto Jerusalem, and besieged it. I 5 And the king appointed them a about 606. 2 And the LORD gave Jehoiakim daily provision of the king's meat,
king of Judah into his hand, with part and of the wine which he drank : Heb.
children of Judah, Daniel, Hananiah,
the wine of
Chap. I. ver. 1. In the third year of the reign of Je- king's seed.” Isaiah's prophecy, chap. xxxix. 7, was hoiakim — came Nebuchadnezzar &c.] Jeremiah makes thus punctually fulfilled. W. Lowth. the first year of Nebuchadnezzar coincide with the fourth 4. Children in whom was no blemish,] He was diyear of Jehoiakim, and thence begins the date of the rected to make choice of such as had the best acseventy years' captivity : see Jer. xxv. 1. But here complishments both of body and mind, and were fit Daniel speaks of Nebuchadnezzar as king of Babylon in to give attendance in a king's court. The word inthe third year of Jehoiakim. In explanation it may be terpreted “ children" is used in Scripture of such as observed, that Daniel begins his computation from the are past the age of childhood, as we now distintime that Nebuchadnezzar was sent by his father against guish the parts of man's life. See 1 Kings xii. 8. W. Pharaoh-necho king of Egypt, which was towards the | Lowth. latter end of the third year of Jehoiakim. In the be- / - whom they might teach the learning and the tongue ginning of the following year he conquered the Egypt. of the Chaldeans. Besides the study of politicks and ians, which was the fourth year of Jehoiakim: see Jer. the art of war, the learning chiefly valued among them xlvi. 2. And in the latter end of the same year he came was astrology, or the knowledge of the heavenly moand besieged Jerusalem; at which time Jehoiakim be tions, the interpretation of dreams, and architecture. came tributary to the king of Babylon, and consequently W. Lowth. the seventy years of captivity and vassalage to Baby- / As Moses was “learned in all the wisdom of the lon began. Dean Prideaux.
Egyptians," so we are not to wonder that Daniel was 2. — into the land of Shinar] This was the original taught the learning of the Chaldeans; and that he so name of the country about Babylon, Gen. xi. 2; and far excelled in it, as to be placed at the head of the it was still in use with the Prophets. See Isai. xi, 11 ; Magi. See chap. iv. 9. Wintle. Zech. v. 11. W. Louth,
| 5. - of the king's meat,] So that, according to the - the treasure house of his god.] Of the idol Bel. Eastern manners, they should be fed with such food See Jer. 1. 2. W. Lowth. The treasury was a place and wine as were served at the king's table. Wintle. in ancient temples, appropriated for the reception of 7. – gave names :) It was customary among the Eastspoils and trophies, that were consecrated to the deity ern nations, for the kings to distinguish their favourites to which the temple belonged. Wintle.
| by new names, when they conferred on them new dig3. — the master of his eunuchs,] Or, "the chief of nities : and the Mogul still adheres to the custom. Dr. his chamberlains.” It appears to have been a title given Gray. There might also be in this case a desire to to the satraps, or such distinguished men as had the wean these young Jews from the manners of their councare of the royal chambers or wardrobe. Wintle. try, and to bring them to a conformity with the Chaldee
- and of the king's seed,] Rather, “even of the / usages in all respects. Wintle.
a h, of Abed-nego; purposed in his king Thus Melzar toond the wine
They refusing the king's portion, CHAP. I, II. do prosper with pulse and water. Before .. unto Daniel the name of Belteshazzar; / 15 And at the end of ten days beforer 606. and to Hananiah, of Shadrach ; and their countenances appeared fairer about 606. to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Aza- and fatter in flesh than all the child
ren which did eat the portion of the
God gave them knowledge and skill
visions and dreams. 10 And the prince of the eunuchs 18 Now at the end of the days 603. said unto Daniel, I fear my lord the that the king had said he should bring king, who hath appointed your meat them in, then the prince of the euand your drink: for why should he nuchs brought them in before Nebusee your faces † worse liking than chadnezzar. the children which are of your || sort ? 19 And the king communed with then shall ye make me endanger my them; and among them all was found head to the king.
none like Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, 11 Then said Daniel to || Melzar, and Azariah: therefore stood they bewhom the prince of the eunuchs had fore the king. set over Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, 20 And in all matters of + wisdom + Heb. and Azariah,
and understanding, that the king enabout 606. 12 Prove thy servants, I beseech quired of them, he found them ten
thee, ten days; and let them give us times better than all the magicians + Heb. off pulse 1 to eat, and water to drink. and astrologers that were in all his + Heb. that 13 Then let our countenances be realm.
looked upon before thee, and the 21 And Daniel continued even unto 603.
quireth it of the Chaldeans, by promises
and threatenings. 10 They acknowledging
+ Heb. sadder.
Or, term, or, continuance.
Or, the steward.
wisdom of understanding.
- Belteshazzar ;] “According to the name of his complexion of people in those countries. What is said god," as Nebuchadnezzar himself derives the word, chap. therefore of the effects of the abstemiousness of Daniel iv. 8. So the name was derived from Bel, the chief and his companions, might be nothing miraculous or idol of Babylon, as Nebuchadnezzar had his own name out of the common course of things. Sir J. Chardin, from Nebo, another of their idols, mentioned Isai. xlvi. | Harmer. 1; and Evil-merodach, his successor, was named from 17.- in all visions and dreams. ] Not fortuitous or their idol, Merodach, Jer. 1. 2. W. Lowth.
casual dreams, but such as were sent from Heaven. 8. But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not Wintle. See the note on Gen, xx. 3. defile himself &c.] The defilement here alluded to might 19. — among them all] That is, among all the young arise, either from the food being prohibited in the law men alluded to at ver. 4. Wintle. of Moses, or else from its being what was offered to | — therefore stood they before the king.] They were the idols of the Chaldees, or at least intreated to be in continual attendance in the king's court. So Joseph blessed in their name : see 1 Cor. viii. 10, and Ezek, iv. "stood before Pharaoh," Gen. xli. 46. Compare 1 Kings 13. Wintle.
xvii. 1; Jer. xv. 19; Numb. xvi. 9. W. Lowth. 9. Now God had brought Daniel into favour &c.] See | 20. — the magicians and astrologers] These words Gen. xxxix. 21; and compare Ps. cvi. 46. W. Lowth. seem to comprehend the persons in general, who were
10. - of your sort] Or,“ of your age.” W. Lowth. distinguished in the several kinds of learning cultivated Probably it may include the condition also. Wintle. among the Chaldees. Of the like character were the
12. – pulse] Various sorts of grain were dried and Magi in Egypt and Persia, and the other countries of prepared for food by the people of the East, as wheat, the East, and those “wise men,” that came to our barley, rice, and pulse. Of some of these was the Saviour at His birth, Matt. ii. 1. Wintle. parched corn mentioned in Scripture, and the chief food! 21. And Daniel continued even unto the first year of of the labourers and poorer sort of people. Wintle. king Cyrus.) And so witnessed the accomplishment of
15. — their countenances appeared fairer and fatter in Jeremiah's prophecy concerning the seventy years, Ezra flesh &c.] Abstinence from wine and from rich food is i. 1. This being so remarkable a year, the text takes no injury, but rather an improvement, to the health and I notice that Daniel lived so long : not but that he lived