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CHRIST

CHRIST

Gabriel interpreteth
CHAP. VIII.

the vision. Before 24 And his power shall be mighty, / 25 And through his policy also he Before about 553. but not by his own power: and he shall cause craft to prosper in his about 553.

shall destroy wonderfully, and shall hand; and he shall magnify himself

prosper, and practise, and shall destroy in his heart, and by || peace shall des- || Or, holy ones.*** the mighty and the + holy people. troy many: he shall also stand up property.

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xxviii. 50, is here repeated, so as to leave no doubt of successful as the Romans? Even their temporary disits application. Dr. Hales. The classical reader will appointments and defeats gave fresh vigour to them. doubtless recollect numberless instances of that peculiar They continually renewed their strength, after the most trait in the person of a Roman citizen, which the Pro- violent and rude attacks; and, though for a short time phets Moses and Daniel have conveyed by the term of deep sunk in calamity and distress, they fainted not, but is a fierce countenance.” Dr. Zouch.

with redoubled efforts exerted their wonted prowess. The latter phrase is translated in the Syriack,“ skilful They seem to have been thoroughly sensible of their in ruling;” and in the Arabick, “ skilful of disputa- own good fortune, as appears from the inscriptions on tions.” It may mean, that this would be a politick their coins, indicating in various phrases their sense of and artful, as well as a formidable, power. Bp. Newton. the prosperity of their empire. It may be added, that

The policy, with which the Romans conducted their this good fortune peculiarly attended them in their designs, is thought to be meant in this passage, in al- Eastern conquests. Dr. Zouch. lusion to their adroitness and penetration in discovering - and practise,] That is, shall perform great actions. the designs of their enemies, their knowledge of the The great and splendid actions of the Romans have parties and interests that prevailed in the courts and commanded the admiration of all ages. To this subject councils of different princes; in short, their consum- the panegyrist finds himself unequal. So long as the mate skill in the intricacies of political intrigue. The volumes of history are read, the achievements of this contrivances of artful and subtle statesmen may very wonderful people will be viewed with astonishment and justly be called “dark sentences.” In the art of un- applause. Dr. Zouch. ravelling their covert and secret machinations, consisted - and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people.] that singular address, which distinguished the character And thus fully accomplish the direful imprecation of of the Roman people. Their arms were victorious: but the Jews, when they urged Pontius Pilate to hasten the their victories were ensured only by the artifice and death of Jesus Christ; “His blood be on us and on our prudence with which they conducted themselves on children." Dr. Zouch. Concerning the destruction of every occasion. Dr. Zouch.

Jerusalem by the Romans, see the notes on Deut. 24. And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own xxviii; Matt. xxiv. power :) The strength of the other kingdoms consisted 25. And through his policy also he shall cause craft to in themselves, and had its foundation in some part of prosper in his hand ;] The original word, rendered the goat; but the Roman empire, as a horn or kingdom “ craft," is always taken in a bad sense, and implies of the goat, was not mighty by its own power, was not every kind of fraud, injustice, and deception. This strong by virtue of the goat; but drew its nourishment strong lineament is exemplified by the insincerity, artiand strength from Rome and Italy. There grew the fice, and injustice of the Roman patricians in their contrunk and body of the tree, though the branches ex- duct towards the plebeians : but it peculiarly belongs tended over Greece, Asia, Syria, and Egypt. Bp. New- to the character of the Romans, if we consider those ton. Or, it may mean, that the singular progress of scenes of fraud and injustice, which were exhibited by the Roman greatness was to be attributed, not so much them towards the conquered nations, when reduced to to their own strength, as to the assistance of their allies, the form of a province. Dr. Zouch. and not seldom to the feuds and divisions of their - and he shall magnify himself in his heart,] See enemies, of which they were always on the watch to 1 Mac. viii. 13. This expression is strictly applicable take advantage. Dr. Hales. It was the consummate to the insolent conduct of Rome after a successful and policy of the Romans to use the resources and strength destructive war. The epithets, so liberally bestowed of every conquered nation in still further conquest; and on the city of Rome, upon ancient coins and medals, thus to make the world, as it were, the great instrument imply much vanity and presumption. Proud and arroof its own subjection. Dr. Zouch.

gant titles were conferred upon the Roman emperours. - and he shall destroy wonderfully, &c.] See the Indeed their poets, their orators, and their historians, note on ver. 12. The Romans “ destroyed wonderfully" seldom omit an opportunity of exulting in the boasted both by their arms and their arts : and, even in times of universal empire of the city. The citizens held them“ peace,” by their cruel and bloody combats of gladi- selves equal to kings and princes. They confounded ators and captives. Dr. Hales.

| their dominion with the extent of the globe of the earth. Rome was the seat of perpetual wars. Mithridates, Cicero speaks of Rome in all the language of panegyrick: when he saw the Romans eager to watch every oppor- and by one of her own historians, Rome is pronounced tunity of embroiling themselves in war, said of them, to be the city destined for the habitation of men and “ These conquerors of mankind seem to be really de gods. Dr. Zouch. scendants of a wolf; such is their rapacity, such their and by peace shall destroy many :] Or rather, insatiable avidity.” In wars with foreign nations they“ in peace shall destroy many." Even in times of were not sparing of the blood of their enemies. Their tranquillity and peace, he shall delight in scenes of cruelty excites our indignation. The effusion of blood cruelty and slaughter, As the character of a people in their civil commotions, the dreadful carnage which may be deduced from their diversions, when we confollowed their odious proscriptions, the savage massacres sider the entertainments to which the Romans were of their best and most virtuous citizens, can only tend principally addicted, we must, I fear, pronounce them to inspire sentiments of horrour and aversion. And, as a people estranged from the sentiments of humanity, to their humanity in the administration of justice, many “ in peace destroying many." What can fix them in a of their laws may be said, like those of Draco, to have more unpleasing point of view, than the shews of their been written in blood. Dr. Zouch.

gladiators ? Even in the most flourishing and polished and shall prosper,] What nation was ever so l periods of their state, they left their theatres, to become

Before CHRIST

Before CHRIST

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Gabriel interpreteth
DANIEL.

the vision. alores against the Prince of princes; but he / up, and did the king's business; and di about 553. shall be a broken without hand. I was astonished at the vision, but about 553. 29 26 And the vision of the evening none understood it. and the morning which was told is

CHAP. IX.
true: wherefore shut thou up the
vision : for it shall be for many

i Daniel, considering the time of the capti

vity, 3 maketh confession of sins, 16 and days.

prayeth for the restoration of Jerusalem. 27 And I Daniel fainted, and was

20 Gabriel informeth him of the seventy sick certain days; afterwards I rose weeks.

spectators of cruel and bloody combats. Nor has a character of the Romans will appear to be most accusingle writer among them intimated his disapprobation rately defined in this justly-celebrated prophecy; as of such a conduct, except Seneca, the philosopher. being, 1. A people of fierce countenance, of great perTheir other diversions, such as the sight of their fellow sonal courage: 2. Noted also for their policy and wiscreatures torn in pieces by wild beasts, did not discover dom: 3. Rising to dominion and power, not so much marks of a more mild and merciful temper. Lipsius by their own strength, as by the assistance of their conhas observed, that no war brought such slaughter and federates, and not seldom by the feuds and divisions of devastation on the human race, as these diversions; their enemies : 4. Engaged in almost perpetual wars, and that one month has cost Europe twenty or thirty and making dreadful havock and slaughter on the thousand lives. Dr. Zouch.

earth; 5. Generally successful in their designs: 6. Per- he shall also stand up against the Prince of forming great and illustrious actions : and, 7. Apprinces ;] It was by the malice of the Jews, but by the pointed by Providence as an instrument for the punishauthority of the Romans, that the Messiah was put to ment of the Jews, the holy people of God. 8. Cordeath, and He suffered the punishment of the Roman ruption soon prevailed among the Romans; fraud and malefactors and slaves. Bp. Newton. “He shall stand extortion prospered in their provinces. 9. This people up against,” that is, shall become the judge of, “the assumed high and lofty titles, treating their conquered Prince of princes.” The word, rendered “shall stand enemies with great insolence and pride, and considering up against," is probably used here, as in other passages themselves as sovereigns of the universe. 10. In times of Scripture, in a forensick sense; and thus expresses, of peace feasting their eyes with cruel and bloody specin vivid colours, the judicial proceedings of the Roman tacles. 11. And to complete the whole, we see a Rojudge against Jesus Christ. For that by “the Prince man magistrate judging the Messiah, and passing the of princes” is here ineant Jesus Christ, will admit, I sentence of death upon “ the Prince of princes.” It think, of little doubt. This splendid title is properly must be allowed that the annals of Rome are adorned applied to Him, who is called the “ Prince of the kings with noble examples of genuine and disinterested virtue. of the earth," Rev. i. 5; “ Lord of lords, and King of Yet whatever encomium is due to the great and splendid kings," Rev. xvii. 14; “The Prince of Peace," Isai. ix. qualities of several illustrious individuals, displayed 6; whose “ dominion is an everlasting dominion, which both in publick and in private life, perhaps the national shall not pass away,” Dan. vii. 14; “to whom all character of the Romans cannot be more clearly delipower was given in heaven and in earth,” Matt. xxviii. neated than in the portrait, which is here presented to 18; who, like a triumphant conqueror, “led captivity us. Dr. Zouch. captive," Eph. iv. 8; who is the “Star" that was to 26. — wherefore shut thou up the vision ; The same come out of Jacob, and the “Sceptre" that was to arise thing is expressed by “shutting up the words," and out of Israel, Numb. xxiv. 17 ; before whom “all kings" sealing the book," chap. xii. 4. The expression in shall fall down,” and whom “all nations shall serve," both places denotes the concealing of the sense of it Ps. lxxii. 11; the “ Prince” or “Captain of our salva- from common understandings; or the deferring of the tion," Heb. ii. 10. Or, " to stand up against the Prince accomplishment of the events therein foretold. So we of princes" may be interpreted, to oppose His authority, find “shutting” and “opening,” “sealing" and "unby persecuting His faithful servants, and depreciating folding,” are opposed in the prophetical language, and their merit; and thus to wage war against Him and import the same as concealing and revealing; delaying His religion. The page of history is stained with deeds the accomplishment of a prophecy, and bringing it into of exquisite cruelty and inhuman barbarity, exercised effect. See Isai. xxix. 11; Rev. v. 1–5; xxii, 10. The by the Romans against the first professors of Christ- words instruct us, that prophecies are never fully unianity: and while the supreme magistrate of Rome in- derstood till they are accomplished; and the nearer the dulged himself in the various modes of torture, the time approaches of their accomplishment, the more light zeal of the historian was equally exerted in debasing the shall diligent searchers have for explaining them. See characters of innocent men, and branding their religion chap. xii. 4. W. Lowth. with odious appellations. Dr. Zouch.

27. And I Daniel fainted, and was sick certain days ;] but he shail be broken without hand.] As “the So much was he affected with the misfortunes and stone,” in Nebuchadnezzar's dream, was “ cut out of afflictions, which were to befall the Church and penple the mountain without hands," that is, not by human, of God. This concern of Daniel, and affection for his but by supernatural means, so “the little horn shall be religion and country, shew him in a very amiable light, broken without hand;" not die the common death, nor and give an additional lustre and glory to his character. fall by the hand of men, but perish by a stroke from Bp. Newton. Heaven. And this agrees perfectly with other predictions of the fatal catastrophe of Rome. See chap. ii. Chap. IX. This chapter contains a very affecting 34; vii. 11, 26. All which implies, that the dominion and fervent prayer of Daniel, on a near view of the exof the Romans shall be finally destroyed with some ex-piration of the seventy years allotted for Judah's captraordinary manifestation of the Divine power. Bp. | tivity; the success of his prayer is pointed out at the Newton.

conclusion of it, and the deliverance of his brethren is To a reader, conversant in the history of Rome, the communicated to the Prophet in a very extraordinary

Before

Before CHRIST

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Daniel, considering the time of the CHAP. IX. captivity, maketh confession of sins.

Before TN the first year of Darius the son that are near, and that are far off, Before about 538. I of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the through all the countries whither thou about 538.

ich Medes, || which was made king over hast driven them, because of their
the realm of the Chaldeans; trespass that they have trespassed

2 In the first year of his reign I against thee.
Daniel understood by books the num-/ 8 O Lord, a to us belongeth confu- Baruch 1.

ber of the years, whereof the word of sion of face, to our kings, to our a Jer. 25. 12. the LORD came to a Jeremiah the princes, and to our fathers, because

prophet, that he would accomplish we have sinned against thee.
seventy years in the desolations of 9 To the Lord our God belong
Jerusalem.

mercies and forgivenesses, though we
3 q And I set my face unto the have rebelled against him;
LORD God, to seek by prayer and 10 Neither have we obeyed the
supplications, with fasting, and sack- voice of the LORD our God, to walk
cloth, and ashes :

in his laws, which he set before us
4 And I prayed unto the Lord my by his servants the prophets.

God, and made my confession, and 11 Yea, all Israel have transgressb Neh. 1.5. said, O Lord, the great and dreaded thy law, even by departing, that

ful God, keeping the covenant and they might not obey thy voice; there-
mercy to them that love him, and to fore the curse is poured upon us, and
them that keep his commandments; the oath that is written in the e law of e Lev. 26. 14,

5 We have sinned, and have com- Moses the servant of God, because Deut. 28. 15,
mitted iniquity, and have done wicked- we have sinned against him.
ly, and have rebelled, even by de- ! 12 And he hath confirmed his 18. & 31. 17
parting from thy precepts and from words, which he spake against us, and &c.
thy judgments :

against our judges that judged us, by
6 Neither have we hearkened unto bringing upon us a great evil: for
thy servants the prophets, which spake under the whole heaven hath not
in thy name to our kings, our princes, been done as hath been done upon
and our fathers, and to all the people Jerusalem.'
of the land.

13 As it is written in the law off Lev. 26. 14. | Or, thou 7 O Lord, righteousness || be- Moses, all this evil is come upon us : Lam. 2. 17.

longeth unto thee, but unto us con- yet + made we not our prayer before 1 Heb.
fusion of faces, as at this day; to the the Lord our God, that we might not the face of
men of Judah, and to the inhabitants turn from our iniquities, and under- the, &c.
of Jerusalem, and unto all Israel, stand thy truth.

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c Baruch 1. 17.

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Deut. 28. 15.

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intreated we

revelation by the angel Gabriel ; but the misconduct and confession,7 Both acknowledging His justice and holiingratitude of the Jews would occasion the ntter destruc- ness, and my own and my people's iniquity. The better tion of their restored city, after a period, and by reason men are, the greater is the sense of their guilt, and the of an event, which the prophecy plainly indicates. deeper is their humiliation; see Job xlii. 6; 1 Tim, i. Wintle.

15. W. Lowth. Ver. 1. - Darius the son of Ahasuerus,] Called Cy Daniel here sets himself to confess his sins, and axares, the son of Astyages, by the heathen historians, those of his countrymen, and to entreat for mercy on with whom Josephus agrees. Astyages had the name Jerusalem, with a fervour and affection never to be exof Ahasuerus among the Jews : see Tobit xiv. 15. W. ceeded. Our devotions, according to this model, should Lowth. For Ahasuerus see note at Ezra iv. 6.

consist of confession of sins; deprecation of the punish2.- I Daniel understood by books] The several pro- ments and judgments acknowledged to be justly due to phecies of Jeremiah are called so many books. See them; supplication for pardon, deliverance, and grace; Jer. xxv. 13; xxix. 1. W. Lowth.

and intercession for the Church, and all included in - seventy years) Which were now very far ad- her, our relations, friends, countrymen, and fellow Chrisvanced. This first year of Darius was the sixty-eighth tians, and more especially for all the sons and daughters of the captivity. Wintle.

of affliction : the whole to be concluded with thanksgiv3. And I set my face unto the Lord God,] I directed | ing; concerning which we may observe, that no my face towards the place where the temple stood: see situation in this world can exclude the necessity, chap. vi. 10. W. Lowth.

and take away the ground of it, since we find Daniel to seek by prayer and supplications,] The pro- “ giving thanks," when the city and temple of God mises of God are generally conditional : and the pro- | were in ashes, and himself a captive in Babylon. Even mise of restoring the Jews after seventy years' captivity, then he not only “prayed," but also “ gave thanks had this condition particularly expressed, that they before his God, as he did aforetime,” chap. vi. 10. Bp. should "call upon Him and pray unto Him," and then Horne. He would “hearken unto them," Jer. xxix. 12. W. 12. - our judges that judged us,] Judges here sigLowth.

nify any princes or rulers. Compare Job xii. 17; Ps. 4. And I prayed unto the Lord my God, and made my ' ii. 10; cxlviii. 11; Prov. viii. 16. W. Lowth.

CHRIST

CHRIST about 538.

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Daniel prayeth for

DANIEL.

the restoration of Jerusalem. Before 14 Therefore hath the LORD 1+ which is called by thy name: for Before

watched upon the evil, and brought we do not † present our supplications about 538.
it upon us : for the Lord our God is before thee for our righteousnesses, ,
righteous in all his works which he but for thy great mercies.
doeth: for we obeyed not his voice. 19 O Lord, hear; O Lord, forgive; called.
15 And now, O Lord our God, O Lord, hearken and do; defer not,

+ Heb. that hast brought thy people forth for thine own sake, O my God: for

out of the land of Egypt with a thy city and thy people are called by + Heb. made mighty hand, and hast + gotten thee thy name. g Exod. 14. & renown, as at this day; we have 20 | And whiles I was speaking,

sinned, we have done wickedly. and praying, and confessing my sin

16 1 O Lord, according to all thy and the sin of my people Israel, and righteousness, I beseech thee, let thine presenting my supplication before anger and thy fury be turned away the LORD my God for the holy from thy city Jerusalem, thy holy mountain of my God; mountain : because for our sins, and 21 Yea, while I was speaking in for the iniquities of our fathers, Je- prayer, even the man Gabriel, whom h Chap. 8. 16. rusalem and thy people are become I had seen in the vision at the bea reproach to all that are about us. ginning, being caused to fly t swiftly, 1 Heb. with

17 Now therefore, ( our God, hear touched me about the time of the or, fight. the prayer of thy servant, and his evening oblation.

that be the organe last the other have and pray was toplicatio the holy s renew, we have, according, let thine pele LoRDomy Godj as speaking.com

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right to Lord, done wickelte have thy mark and thymom

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shine upon thy sanctuary that is de- with me, and said, O Daniel, I am
solate, for the Lord's sake.

now come forth t to give thee skill + Heb. to 18 O my God, incline thine ear, and understanding.

skilful of · and hear; open thine eyes, and be- 23 At the beginning of thy sup

ing. hold our desolations, and the city plications the + commandment came + Heb. word.

undersiand

15. And now, O Lord our God, that hast brought thy “the vail upon his heart,” can well mistake their meanpeople forth out of the land of Egypt &c.] A form of ing. See particularly Zech. ii. 10, 11; see also Ps. ex. supplication used in several places of Scripture, where- 1. Waldo. by devout persons entreat God to continue His favours 19. — defer not, for thine own sake, O my God :] The by recounting His former mercies towards them : see seventy years of our captivity are nearly expired : defer Exod. xxxii. 11, 13; Neh. ix. 10; Jer. xxxii. 20. W. not then, I beseech Thee, the accomplishment of the Lowth.

promise, which Thou hast made to restore us to our 16.- according to all thy righteousness, &c.] When we own country, and the free exercise of our religion. So have in our Litany expressed from what things we de remarkable a turn of providence will greatly redound to sire to be delivered, we earnestly entreat our good and the honour of Thy name. See Ps. lxxix. 9, 10; cii. gracious Lord to shew this mercy to us, “ by the mys- 15, 16. W. Lowth. tery of His holy incarnation,” and so on : that is, by the To the same effect with this supplication of Daniel means and for the sake of all that He hath done and are those petitions in our Litany, where we pray God to suffered for us. The same manner of expression is “deliver us for His name's sake," and presently after, used, not only in common speech on other occasions, “ for His honour.” In both which petitions we implore and in the liturgies of the ancient church on this, but the aid and protection of Almighty God, not for any in the Scripture itself; where St. Paul beseeches Chris- merit of our own, but from a deep sense of His boundtians" by the inercies of God,” Rom. xii. 1 ; “by the less mercy and goodness ; not merely that we may be meekness and gentleness of Christ,” 2 Cor. x. 1; “by delivered, but that His honour and glory may be disHis coming and their gathering together unto Him," played ; that men may know, that “He, whose name 2 Thess. ii. 1: and Daniel intercedes with God thus, alone is Jehovah, is the Most High over all the earth." According to all Thy righteousness, let Thine anger Ps. lxxxiii. 18. Waldo. and Thy fury be turned away: defer not for Thine own 20.—for the holy mountain of my God ;] The temsake, O my God. Abp. Secker.

ple, on the rocky mountain Zion : see ver. 16. Wintle. 17. for the Lord's sake.] For the sake of the 21. - the man Gabriel,] The angel Gabriel, appear. Messiah, known by the title of the “ Lord” among the ing in the shape of a man. W. Lowth. Jews, see Ps. cx. l; and called “ Messiah the Prince," - about the time of the evening oblation.] There ver. 25 of this chapter. All God's promises are ful- were three hours of prayer; see chap. vi. 10: but the filled in and for the sake of Christ, 2 Cor. i. 20. W. two most solemn seasons of it were at the “ time of Lowth.

the morning and evening oblation,” that solemn ser. This expression, “for the Lord's sake," seems to vice, which was offered daily in the temple in the name point out a personal distinction in the Deity, and to of the whole nation : see chap. vii. 11. This service refer to the promised Redeemer, who says of Himself, was performed at the third and ninth hours of the day, “ I am in the Father, and the Father in Me," John xiv. answering to our nine in the morning and three in the 11; that Lord, for whose sake alone the petition of afternoon. Devout persons, that could not attend the the Prophet could be heard and accepted. Many similar temple service, set apart those hours for their private passages occur in the Old Testament, shewing a plurality devotions : see 1 kings xviii. 36. W. Lowth. of Divine Persons so clearly, that no one, who has not ! 23. At the beginning of thy supplications the command

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The seventy
CHAP. IX.

weeks foretold. Before forth, and I am come to shew thee ; , bring in everlasting righteousness,

Before CHRIST

CHRIST about 538. for thou art † greatly beloved : there and to seal up the vision and † pro- about 538.

fore understand the matter, and con- phecy, and to anoint the most Holy.. + Heb. a man

+ Heb. of desires. sider the vision.

25 Know therefore and understand, prophet. 24 Seventy weeks are determined that from the going forth of the com

upon thy people and upon thy holy mandment to restore and to build Je| Or, tore- city, || to finish the transgression, and rusalem unto the Messiah the Prince strain. || Or, lo seal || to make an end of sins, and to make shall be seven weeks, and threescore + Heb. shall

return and be reconciliation for iniquity, and to and two weeks : the street + shall be built. ^^ ment came forth,] God's command to me, to instruct angel, directing his discourse to Daniel, returns him his thee further in what should hereafter befall the city and own expressions, as if the people of the city were rather temple of Jerusalem, in behalf of which thou didst his than God's. In the same phrase God speaks to pour forth thy supplications. Here was a remarkable Moses, after the sin of the Israelites in making the completion of that promise in Isai. Ixv. 24, “While golden calf, Exod. xxxii. 7. At the 26th verse of this they are yet speaking, I will hear.” W. Lowth. prophecy the angel tells Daniel how they ceased to be

- therefore understand the matter, &c.] Apply God's people. W. Lowth. thy mind carefully to what is said, for this prophecy At the expiration of this time, which God had punccontains in it truths of the greatest importance. Our tually “determined,” or allotted for the people of the Saviour plainly refers to these words, which are re- Jews, they were to be no longer His peculiar people ; peated ver. 25, when, explaining the latter part of this nor the once holy city Jerusalem, nor the Mosaical prophecy of the final destruction of Jerusalem, He worship, any longer to be owned as His peculiar city adds, “Whoso readeth, let him understand," Matt. or worship: and then “the most Holy should be xxiv. 15. W. Lowth.

anointed,” the Messiah, or Christ, be manifested, “ to This prophecy, like all the rest of Daniel's, consists finish the transgression,” restrain impiety by the Gosof two parts, an introductory prophecy, and an expla- pel ; " and to make an end of sins,” by taking away the nation thereof. Sir Isaac Newton.

guilt thereof through His death, instead of the Jewish 24. Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people &c.] offerings, which were to cease; and thereby “to make By “ seventy weeks” we are to understand seventy weeks reconciliation” with God the Father; "and to bring in of years, or seventy times seven years; that is, 490 everlasting righteousness," not like that of the Law, years; and each day being accounted for a year, ac- but of the Gospel, to endure for ever; and so “ to seal cording to the prophetical way of reckoning: see Numb. up the vision and prophecy,” fully to complete and xiv. 34; Ezek. iv. 6. Daniel, by examining the pro- finish all that by former visions and prophecies had phecy of Jeremiah, had discovered, that the seventy been revealed. Collyer. years of the captivity, were nearly expired: and here 25. from the going forth of the commandment to the angel reveals to him another line of time, import- restore and to build Jerusalem] Daniel had besought ing that Jerusalem, after its restoration, should continue God to “behold their desolations," and the ruins of for a space consisting of seventy times seven years, “the city which was called by His name,” ver. 18. In which being expired, it should be finally destroyed. answer to this his supplication, the angel acquaints W. Lowth.

him, that the city, both the streets and the wall thereof, Here, by putting a week for seven years, are reckoned should be rebuilt. W. Lowth. 490 years from the time that the dispersed Jews should Daniel had this prophecy in the same year that Darius be reincorporated into a people and a holy city, until the Mede and Cyrus took Babylon, which was the 538th the death and resurrection of Christ; whereby trans- year before Christ. Some time after this a decree must gression should be finished and sin ended, iniquity be be found for building Jerusalem, that now lay in the expiated, and everlasting righteousness brought in, and ruins wherein Nebuchadnezzar left it. Cyrus's decree this vision be accomplished, and the Prophet' (as in the two years after was not such an one, for that appears to Hebrew) 'consummated,' that Prophet whom the Jews be only a liberty to return and rebuild the temple, Ezra expected : and whereby the Most Holy should be i. 1, 2. The next decree we read of was in the second anointed,' He who is therefore in the next verse cal year of Darius, which was no more than a reinforceled “the Anointed;" that is, the Messiah, or the ment of Cyrus's former decree, Ezra vi. 5. A few Christ. For by joining the accomplishment of the houses were then hastily constructed, to accommodate vision with the expiation of sins, the 490 years are the builders and the worshippers. But the people were ended with the death of Christ. Now the dispersed like a rope of sand, without the bands of laws and civil Jews became a people and city, when they first returned sanctions to knit them into a political body, before the into a polity or body politick; and this was in the seventh year of Artaxerxes, Ezra vii. 11: there was no seventh year of Artaxerxes Longimanus, when Ezra face of a city, the walls were broken down, and the returned with a body of Jews from captivity, and re- gates lay, as they had been burnt with fire by the Chalvived the Jewish worship; and by the king's commis- dees. Bp. Chandler. See the note on ver. 26. sion created magistrates in all the land to judge and unto the Messiah the Prince] That is, until the govern the people according to the laws of God and of awful period, when the business of His life should be the king, Ezra vii. 26. From this year to the death of finished; until His hour was come, when He was to Christ was just 490 years. Sir Isaac Newton. See the glorify His Father, or when He was to be cut off by a note on ver. 26. Some chronologers date the seventy voluntary suffering for the sins of all mankind, and weeks from the twentieth of Artaxerxes : but the date thereby triumph as a Prince over death, and over all here assigned appears preferable.

His and our enemies. All the circumstances of His - upon thy people and upon thy holy city,] Daniel, life are omitted, or rather comprehended in this final in his prayer to God, speaking of the Jews and Jeru- event, when all things that were written of Him were salem, had used these expressions, “Thy people,” and accomplished. Wintle. “ Thy holy city," ver. 18, 19, as if their title to God's shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks : favour was indefeasible. To correct this mistake, the the street shall be built again,] The whole put together

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