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He is cast into the lions' den,
but miraculously saved. Before or open in his chamber b toward Jeru-1 15 Then these men assembled Before about 537. salem, he kneeled upon his knees unto the king, and said unto the king, about 537.
cthree times a day, and prayed, and Know, o king, that the law of the bi Kings 8.
gave thanks before his God, as he did | Medes and Persians is, That no de-
cree nor statute which the king
they brought Daniel, and cast him
18 q Then the king went to his
14 Then the king, when he heard unto the den of lions.
of the living God, is thy God, whom
“ went to his own house," whither he might suppose in the regular and exact performance of his stated devothey would follow him. He would not secrete himself tions. Let us consider of how great consequence the in any private or remote corner of the house, but re- due performance of them is, if, with death in its most paired forthwith to his own “chamber," the place horrible form before his eyes, he thought he could not whereunto he always resorted. He thought it not justify a single omission of them. And whenever we enough to pray inwardly with his mind, which he might are tempted to neglect our prayers, let us remember have done in any posture, without being perceived, but that Daniel, though the den of lions was to be the conmade his body bear its accustomed part in the service : sequence, “kneeled upon his knees three times a day, “he kneeled upon his knees.” He contented not him- and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did self with praying once or twice only, dropping the third aforetime.” Bp. Horne. time in the middle of the day, on account of the immi - his windows being open &c.] The like practice nent danger he was in, but made up his full and usual we find observed by Sara, the daughter of Raguel, in complement : “he kneeled upon his knees three times Tobit iii. ll, that "she prayed toward the window ;" a day.” Nor did he pray only, and not give thanks, and, we may presume, for the same devout reason. cutting off some part of the service, to make the time of This was the custom of the Jews in their captivities and danger shorter, but performed the whole, without cur- dispersions. Wogan. tailing or diminishing aught : “he prayed and gave 16. — he will deliver thee.) Rather, “May He deliver thanks before his God, as he did aforetime.” And, in thee.” The words express the king's hopes and good short, he would not so much as shut his windows, but wishes, but no certain persuasion. See ver. 20. Wintle, did all this, “his windows in his chamber being open W. Lowth. toward Jerusalem.” In order to shew the meaning of 17. And a stone was brought, and laid upon the mouth this last circumstance, we must have recourse to a no- of the den ; &c.] We see herein the hand of Providence, ble passage in king Solomon's prayer at the dedication whose goodness in saving His servant, and power in of the temple, which Daniel had in his eye, and by defeating the malice of his enemies, were made the more which he directed his conduct. (See 1 Kings viii. 46- conspicuous by the very method used to prevent the 50, especially the latter part of the 48th verse.) The Prophet's escape. The stone is sealed, not only with the circumstance therefore of “ praying toward Jerusalem" king's signet, but with the signet also of his lords, that being thus enjoined, Daniel would by no means omit it. so it might not be in the power of either to change the And now let us consider with ourselves, how clear the purpose concerning Daniel. This deliverance therefore conscience, how holy the soul, how steadfast the faith, appeared to be the sole work of God, and not of man. how lively the hope, how fervent the charity, how in- And as by this accrued the greater glory to God, so it vincible the courage, of Daniel must have been, who, in effectually established the honour and safety of His such circumstances, could calmly and composedly go on Prophet. Wogan.
Luke 1. 33.
Daniel's adversaries are devoured, DANIEL.
and God magnified by a decree. Before thou servest continually, able to de- 1 26 I make a decree, That in every Before about 537. liver thee from the lions ?
dominion of my kingdom men trem- about 537. 21 Then said Daniel unto the ble and fear before the God of king, O king, live for ever.
Daniel: for he is the living God, 22 My God hath sent his angel, and stedfast for ever, and his kingand hath shut the lions' mouths, that dom that which shall not be a de- d Chap. 2. 14. they have not hurt me: forasmuch stroyed, and his dominion shall be 14, 27. as before him innocency was found even unto the end. in me; and also before thee, O king, ! 27 He delivereth and rescueth, and have I done no hurt.
The worketh signs and wonders in 23 Then was the king exceeding heaven and in earth, who hath deglad for him, and commanded that livered Daniel from the ť power of + Heb. hand. they should take Daniel up out of the the lions. den. So Daniel was taken up out of 28 So this Daniel prospered in the the den, and no manner of hurt was reign of Darius, and in the reign of found upon him, because he believed © Cyrus the Persian.
e Chap. 1. 21. in his God. 24 | And the king commanded,
CHAP. VII. and they brought those men which 1 Daniel's vision of four beasts. 9 Of God's had accused Daniel, and they cast kingdom. 15 The interpretation thereof. them into the den of lions, them, their | TN the first year of Belshazzar king about 555. children, and their wives; and the 1 of Babylon Daniel + had a dream + Chald. iak. lions had the mastery of them, and and visions of his head upon his bed : brake all their bones in pieces or ever then he wrote the dream, and told the they came at the bottom of the den. sum of the || matters.
25 1 Then king Darius wrote unto 2 Daniel spake and said, I saw in all people, nations, and languages, my vision by night, and, behold, the that dwell in all the earth; Peace be | four winds of the heaven strove upon multiplied unto you.
the great sea.
22.- forasmuch as before him innocency was found in would we be high in the favour of Heaven? nay, me ;] The Prophet, having justly offended neither God would we be saved from temporal calamities, and nor the king, very truly offers the righteousness of his brought to honour, esteem, and reverence, in the sight cause as the reason of the Divine interference for his of men ? Constancy in prayer can open a way to all security; not from any ostentatious display of his own these blessings. Bp. Horne. merit, but to direct the attention of the king to the power and providence of that great Being who is Chap. VII. The historical part of the book of Daniel “mighty to save," and whose favour is more to be re- was finished with the last chapter; the remaining part garded than life itself. Wintle.
of this book acquaints us with the visions, which at -- before thee, O king, have I done no hurt.] Though different times were coinmunicated to the Prophet himI disobeyed thy decree, it was not done out of contumacy self. The interyal of time from the first to the last of or stubbornness, but purely to preserve a good con- these visions, is about one or two and twenty years, science, which is the only true principle of loyalty and that is, from the first year of Belshazzar, mentioned at obedience: see Rom. xiii. 5. W. Lowth.
the beginning of this chapter, to the third year of Cyrus 24. — and the lions had the mastery of them, &c.] The at the beginning of chapter x. The first vision, or dream, ravenous seizure of these wretched criminals and their is contained in the seventh chapter, and is the only one families by the lions, “or ever they came at the bottom that is written in the Chaldee language; and perhaps of the den," proved at once the protection of God over the similarity of it to the dream of Nebuchadnezzar, His servant, in shutting their mouths that they hurt which the Prophet had related and expounded at chap. il, him not, and His vengeance against the accusers of might have been one reason why this same language Daniel, in permitting the lions to satisfy their hunger was here adopted ; and the benefit designed by it for the by devouring them so greedily. Wogan.
impious king, in whose reign it was delivered, another. 28. — in the reign of Cyrus the Persian] Who upon What was there prefigured by a large statue, composed Darius's death took possession of the whole monarchy of various metals, is here pointed at by a very different of the Medes and Persians, called from him the Persian sort of emblem; each suited to the disposition or chamonarchy. See Ezra i. 2. W. Lowth.
racter of the persons to whom the communications The example of Daniel not only strips us of every were made. Four beasts are, in this dream, designed excuse for not performing our devotions, but gives us to signify the four great monarchies, or kingdoms, aclikewise instructions how to perform them with regard cording to the interpretation of an angel; and some cirto place, posture, time, and matter. And let the bles- cumstances, relating to the fourth beast, are probably sed effect and reward of his devotion fire our souls to intended to shadow forth a series of events, which were an imitation of so great and glorious an example. to reach the latest ages of the world. Wintle. Would we be delivered from the power of the devil, Ver. I. In the first year of Belshazzar] This was and the bitter pains of eternal death? would we be about seventeen years before the history contained in holy, and just, and good ? would we be filled with the last chapter ; see the dates in the margin. W. wisdom and understanding in the counsels of God? | Lowth.
of four beasts. Before 3 And four great beasts came up ribs in the mouth of it between the Before CHRIST
CHRIST about 555 from the sea, diverse one from ano- teeth of it : and they said thus unto about 555. ther.
lit, Arise, devour much flesh.
had eagle's wings : I beheld till the ther, like a leopard, which had upon Or,
wings thereof were plucked, || and it the back of it four wings of a fowl;
5 And behold another beast, a visions, and behold a fourth beast, 1 Or, it raised second, like to a bear, and || it raised | dreadful and terrible, and strong ex
* up itself on one side, and it had three ceedingly; and it had great iron 3.- four great beasts came up from the sea,] These which is a most voracious and cruel animal : the resembeasts are indeed monstrous productions : but such blance is alluded to in the following words, “ Arise, emblems were usual among the Eastern nations; a devour much flesh.” A bear, saith Aristotle, is an allwinged lion, and such fictitious animals, may still be devouring animal: and so, saith Grotius, the Medoseen in the ruins of Persepolis, according to Sir John Persians were great robbers and spoilers according to Chardin and other travellers. Bp. Newton.
Jeremiah, chap. li. 48, 56. Bp. Newton. 4. The first was like a lion, &c.] This is the kingdom - it raised up itself on one side,] Or, it may be as of the Babylonians : and the king of Babylon is in like in the margin, “it raised up one dominion :" that is, it manner compared to a lion by Jeremiah, chap. iv. 7; made up one empire out of the joint powers of Media and is said to fy as an eagle, chap. xlviii. 40; and he and Persia. W. Lowth. is also compared to an eagle by Ezekiel, chap. xvii. 3, ! - and it had three ribs in the mouth of it between 12. The lion is esteemed the king of beasts, and the teeth of it :) These are sometimes understood of the the eagle the king of birds; and therefore the king three kingdoms of the Babylonians, Medes, and Perdom of Babylon, which is described as the first and sians, reduced into one : but Sir Isaac Newton and Bp. noblest kingdom, and was the kingdom then in being, Chandler with greater propriety explain them to sigis said to partake of the nature of both. “The eagle's nify the kingdoms of Babylon, Lydia, and Egypt, which wings” denote its swiftness and rapidity; and the con- were conquered by the second beast, but were not proquests of Babylon were very rapid, that empire being perly parts or members of its body. They might be advanced to the height within a few years by a single called “ ribs," as the conquest of them much strengthperson, by the conduct and arms of Nebuchadnezzar. ened the Persian empire; and they might be said to be It is farther said, “the wings thereof were plucked, “ between the teeth of the bear," as they were much and it was lifted up from the earth," that is, it was harassed and oppressed by the Persians. Bp. Newton. taken away from the earth, as it is commonly under- - and they said thus unto it, Arise, devour much stood, and as it is translated in almost all the ancient flesh. This was said, as before intimated, to denote the versions; or it may be rendered thus, “the wings cruelty of the Medes and Persians. They are also rethereof were plucked wherewith it was lifted up from presented as very cruel by Isaiah, chap. xiii. 18. Camthe earth,” as Grotius explains it, and as we read in byses, Ochus, and others of their princes, were indeed the margin of our Bibles. Its wings were beginning more like bears than men. Instances of their cruelty to be plucked at the delivery of this prophecy : for at abound in almost all historians, who have written of their this time the Medes and Persians were encroaching affairs. Bp. Newton. upon it; Belshazzar, the king now reigning, was the 6. — lo another, like a leopard,] This is the kingdom last of his race; and in the seventeenth year of his of the Macedonians, or Grecians, who under the comreign Babylon was taken, and the kingdom was trans- mand of Alexander the Great overcame the Persians, ferred to the Medes and Persians. Bp. Newton.
and reigned next after them. The leopard is remarkThough the dream of Nebuchadnezzar concerning able for its swiftness ; see Hab. i. 8; and for the impethe image, and this of Daniel's beasts, agree in their tuosity with which it springs upon its prey: and Alexgeneral sense and interpretation, yet there are circum- ander and the Macedonians were amazingly swift and stances added to the latter, as well as some points rapid in their conquests. This rapidity is further intimore plainly illustrated, than they were in the for mated by the “ four wings on the back” of the beast. mer. Nebuchadnezzar saw his kingdom flourishing ; The Babylonian empire was represented with two wings, Daniel saw it when its wings were plucked, and its but this with four; for, as St. Jerome saith, nothing end approaching. Other particulars will be readily was swifter than the victories of Alexander. The “four observed by the attentive reader in the subsequent heads” of the beast denote the four kingdoms, into parts of the vision. Wintle.
which the empire of Alexander was divided at his death - made stand upon the feet as a man, and a man's by his four captains; Cassander reigning over Macedon heart was given to it. The probable sense of this passage and Greece, Lysimachus over Thrace and Bithynia, is, that, after the Babylonian empire was subverted, the Ptolemy over Egypt, and Seleucus over Syria. Bp. people became more humane and gentle; their minds Newton. And if we reflect on the small beginnings of were humbled with their fortune; and they, who vaunted this power, the difficulties which it surinounted, and as if they had been gods, now felt themselves to be but the vast strides it made towards universal empire, exmen. They were brought to such a sense as the Psalmist tending its conquests as far as the Ganges in so short a wishes such persons to have, “ Put them in fear, O Lord : space as twelve years, 1 Mac. i. 7, we shall not be at a that the nations may know themselves to be but men.” loss to assign a just interpretation to the last clause Bp. Newton.
of this verse, and to conclude that such “ dominion was 5. And behold another beast, &c.] This is the kingdom given to it” by God. Wintle. of the Medes and Persians : and for their cruelty and 7.- behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and greediness after blood they are compared to a “bear," | strong exceedingly;] Daniel was curious to know par
of four beasts. Before, teeth : it devoured and brake in / were three of the first horns plucked
CHRIST pieces, and stamped the residue with up by the roots : and, behold, in this about 555. the feet of it : and it was diverse horn were eyes like the eyes of man, from all the beasts that were before and a mouth speaking great things. it; and it had ten horns.
9 9 I beheld till the thrones were 8 I considered the horns, and, be- cast down, and the Ancient of days hold, there came up among them did sit, whose garment was white as
another little horn, before whom there snow, and the hair of his head like ticularly what this beast might mean; see ver. 19; and springing all together from its head was recorded as was answered by the angel in the 23rd verse. This one, and that these horns were expressly interpreted to fourth kingdom can be no other than the Roman empire, mean ten kings or kingdoms. Bp. Hallifax. which was “dreadful, and terrible, and strong exceed- 8. — behold, there came up among them another little ingly,” beyond any of the former kingdoms. It was horn,] In all the several respects, which the Prophet “ diverse from all kingdoms," not only in its republican notices, the Pope fully answers the character of the form of government, but likewise in strength, and power, “ little horn;" so that if exquisite fitness of application and greatness, length of duration, and extent of domi- may assure us of the true sense of the prophecy, we nion. “It devoured, and brake in pieces, and stamped can have no doubt concerning the person. He is here the residue with the feet of it:" it reduced Macedon called “a little horn:" and the power of the popes was into a Roman province about 168 years, the kingdom of originally very small, and their temporal dominions Pergamus about 133 years, Syria about 65 years, and were little, and inconsiderable in comparison with others Egypt about 30 years, before Christ. And besides the of the ten horns. Bp. Newton. For the several points of remains of the Macedonian empire, it subdued many resemblance, see the notes on ver. 20, 21, 24, 25. other provinces and kingdoms, so that it might by - before whom there were three of the first horas a very usual figure be said to “devour the whole plucked up by the roots :) Three of the ten kingdoms, earth, and to tread it down, and break it in pieces;" | namely, those of the Heruli, the Osirogoths, and the and became in a manner what the Roman writers de- Lombards, were successively plucked up or eradicated lighted to call it, the empire of the whole world. Bp. before the little horn, in the way of which they stood: Newton.
and by the annexation of their dominions to the papacy, Daniel has not described the shape of this beast, but the pope became also a temporal power. Hence he St. John has supplied the deficiency; representing it in assumed the three keys in his arms, and the triple the Apocalypse as compounded of all the rest, or com- crown or mitre, as a temporal prince; and “his look bining their destructive qualities, having “the body of was more stout than his fellows,” whom he frequently the leopard, the feet of the bear, and the mouth of the awed by his anathemas and excommunications. Dr. lion,” and exceeding them in having seven heads, but | Hales. with the same number of ten horns, which marks its in this horn were eyes &c.] See below on identity with Daniel's fourth beast, Rev. xiii. 1, 2. Dr. ver. 20. Hales.
9. I beheld till the thrones were cast down, &c.] That - stamped the residue with the feet of it :) This is, till all the earthly kingdoms were brought to an end : alludes to the fury of wild beasts, which stamp upon but the word may be rendered “ were pitched,” or set that part of their prey that they cannot devour. W. down, for the reception of the Deity, and the saints who Lowth.
sat by Him; see Matt. xix. 28, and Rev. iv. 4; and this - and it had ten horns.) Another remarkable pro- sense the versions follow. Wintle. perty of this fourth beast is, that "it had ten horns :"> The fourth monarchy being to continue till the conand according to the angel's interpretation, ver. 24," the summation of all things, the general judgment is deten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings," or king- scribed in this and the following verses, wherein sentence doms, “that shall arise.” “Four kings," a little before, was to pass upon this fourth beast, and an end to be ver. 17, signified four kingdoms : and so here “ten put to his dominion. W. Lowth. kings" are ten kingdoms, according to the usual phra- -- the Ancient of days) The eternal Judge of the seology of Scripture. We must look for these king- / world; see Rev. xvi. 5; He that was from the begindoms amid the broken pieces of the Roman empire, ning, i John ii. 14 : who is elsewhere described "coverrepresented under the fourth beast. The Roman empire ing Himself with light as with a garment,” Ps. civ. 2; was, by means of the incursions of the northern nations, and as a clear and unspotted brightness, 1 John i. 5. dismembered into ten kingdoms; and Machiavel hath | W. Lowth. given us their names ; 1. the Ostrogoths in Mæsia; | By this term is undoubtedly meant the Deity, the 2. the Visigoths in Pannonia ; 3. the Sueves and Alans supreme eternal Spirit, whom the Prophet thus describes, in Gascoigne and Spain; 4. the Vandals in Africa ; to adapt himself to human apprehensions, and to make 5. the Franks in France ; 6. the Burgundians in Bur- the following part of his descriptions more intelligible; gundy; 7. the Heruli and Turingi in Italy; 8. the Saxons but no similitude is pointed out, nor ought we from and Angles in Britain; 9. the Huns in Hungary; 10. hence to attempt to represent by any figure the invisible the Lombards, at first upon the Danube, afterwards in God. Image.worship was not allowed the Jews under a Italy. Bp. Newton,
less perfect dispensation, and therefore must be very illThe names of these ten kingdoms have been enume- suited to the spirituality of the Christian service. The rated by several writers of the most respectable autho- purity and sanctity of the Divine nature are next sharity; and the few variations in their accounts may be dowed forth by similar allusions. The throne and wheels readily explained from the confusion and uncertainty of of fire at the conclusion of this verse may serve to denote the times of which they wrote. It is enough for us, His dread majesty, that pierces and penetrates all things, and an illustrious verification of the prophecies of Holy summons all to His judgment, and executes in an instant Scripture, that such a partition was noticed long before His sovereign will and final determinations. See Rev. by Daniel; and that among other particularities men- iv. 2, &c. and Ezek. i. 26. Grotius observes, the ancient tioned as incident to the fourth beast, this of ten horns thrones and curule chairs had wheels. Wintle.
Mic, 4. 7.
His vision of God's kingdom.
• The vision interpreted. Before the pure wool: and his throne was which shall not pass away, and his Before CHRIST
CHRIST about 555. like the fiery flame, and his wheels as kingdom that which shall not be de- about 555. burning fire.
stroyed. 10 X fiery stream issued and came 15 TI Daniel was grieved in my a Rev. 5. 11. forth from before him: a thousand spirit in the midst of my + body, Chald.
í sheath. . thousands ministered unto him, and and the visions of my head troubled ten thousand times ten thousand stood me.
before him: the judgment was set, 16 I came near unto one of them þ Rev. 20.12. and the b books were opened.
that stood by, and asked him the
out of the earth.
ones, that is, beasts, they had their dominion taken High shall take the kingdom, and things, or, + Chald. & away: yet t their lives were pro- possess the kingdom for ever, even pla prolonging in Tire was given longed for a season and time:
for ever and ever. 13 I saw in the night visions, and, | 19 Then I would know the truth behold, one like the Son of man came of the fourth beast, which was diverse with the clouds of heaven, and came + from all the others, exceeding + Chald. from
all those. to the Ancient of days, and they dreadful, whose teeth were of iron, brought him near before him. | and his nails of brass ; which de
14 And there was given him do- voured, brake in pieces, and stamped minion, and glory, and a kingdom, the residue with his feet;
that all people, nations, and lan- 20 And of the ten horns that were c Chap. 2. 44. guages, should serve him: his do- in his head, and of the other which Luke 1.33. minion is can everlasting dominion, came up, and before whom three fell;
10. A fiery stream issued and came forth from before Him that followeth doth declare. The two foregoing him : 1 Lightnings and streams of fire were His har verses having explained why the fourth beast was debingers, to give notice of His speedy approach. Com-stroyed, this part of the verse shews by whom it was pare Ps. 1. 3; xcvii. 3. W. Lowth.
done, represents Christ in His judicial capacity, and - thousand thousands ministered unto him, &c.] His describes Him by the title He often gives Himself, “the retinue was an innumerable company of angels. See Son of man," in allusion to this place : particularly He Deut. xxxiii. 2 ; Ps. Ixviii. 17; Heb. xii. 22; Rev. y. 11. alludes to this text, Matt. xxvi. 64, where He speaks of W. Lowth. This is a figurative description of the last His coming in “ the clouds of heaven,” by which exjudgment, probably taken from the Jewish courts of pression He acknowledged himself to be Messias here justice. Wintle.
described; and gave a direct answer to the question 11. I beheld then because of the voice of the great words proposed to Him, “ Art thou the Christ, the Son of the &c. The final overthrow, or total abolition of this Blessed?"compare Mark xiv. 61, 62; Rev. i. 7 : wherebeast, on account of the blasphemies or presumptions upon they condemned Him as guilty of blasphemy. W. of the eleventh horn, is here described; and the refer- Lowth." ence is probably to that awful reckoning, when the - and they brought him near before him.] To signify beast and the false prophet were to be cast alive into a that Christ received His kingdom from his Father : see lake of fire, burning with brimstone; and to this the fire, Matt. xi. 27; xxviii. 18; John iii. 35; I Cor. xv. 27; the judgment, and the entire destruction of the beast Eph. i. 21; Phil. ii. 9, 10; Rev. v. 7. Compare Jer. naturally lead our attention. See Rev. xix. 20. Wintle. xxx. 21. W. Lowth. To take at His hands investiture
12. As concerning the rest of the beasts, &c.] As to of His new dignity, this exercise of His universal and the three first monarchies, though the succeeding mo- everlasting kingdom. Bp. Chandler. narchy took away the dominion of that which went! 14. And there was given him dominion, &c.] All these before, yet it was not done all at once, but by degrees; kingdoms shall in their turns be destroyed, but the kingand the nations, where those monarchies were seated, dom of the Messiah shall stand for ever : compare Luke still had a being, though they changed their masters. i. 33. Bp. Newton. Whereas the destruction of the last monarchy implied 16. I came near unto one of them that stood by,] To one the putting of an end to that empire and to all other of the angels, who always attended upon the throne of earthly governments : the kingdom of Christ being then God and Christ, ver. 9, 10. Several angels are repreimmediately to take place. See ver. 13, 14; chap. ii. 34. sented as being present at Daniel's visions : see chap. W. Lowth.
viii. 13, 16; x. 5, 6, 16; xii. 5, 6. W. Louth. 13. — behold, one like the Son of man came with the 19. Then I would know the truth of the fourth beast, clouds of heaven, One in the shape and likeness of a &c.] See the note on ver. 7. man, but clothed with such ensigns of majesty, as 20. And of the ten horns, &c.] See the last note on shewed Him to be an extraordinary Person; (see the ver. 7. note upon Ezek. ii. 1; and compare Rev. i. 13; xiv. 14;) - and of the other which came up, and before whom indeed no less than the Messiah, as the description of three fell;] See the notes on ver. 8.