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God's judgments. their future exaltation is the object on which his imagination fixes with delight. It is a remarkable dispensation of Providence, that clear notices, though in general terms, of the universal redemption, should be found in a writer so strongly possessed with national partialities. This Judaism, if I may so call it, seems to make the particular character of Hosea as a Prophet. Not that the ten tribes are exclusively his subject. His country is indeed his particular and constant subject; but his country generally, in both its branches, not in either taken by itself.
Hosea delights in a style, which always becomes obscure, when the language of the writer ceases to be a living
language. He writes in short, detached, disjointed sentences ; not wrought up into artificial periods. His transitions from reproof to persuasion, from threatening to promise, from terrour to hope, and the contrary, are rapid and unexpected. His similes are brief, accumulated, and often introduced without the particle of similitude. Yet these are not the vices, but the perfections of the holy Prophet's style: for to these circumstances it owes that eagerness and fiery animation, which are the characteristick excellence of his writings, and
are so peculiarly suited to his subject. Bp. Horsley. The book of Hosea is cited by St. Matthew as unquestionably the inspired production of a Prophet, Matt. ii. 15;
as likewise by St. Paul, Rom. ix. 25, 26; 1 Cor. xv. 55; and, indeed, by Christ Himself, Matt. ix. 12, 13; xii. 7. Dr. Gray.
Before CHRIST about 785.
the LORD by Hosea. And the
Lord said to Hosea, Go, take unto about 785. i Hosea, to shew God's judgment for spiritual whoredom, taketh Gomer, 4 and hath
1 thee a wife of whoredoms and chil-
from the Lord.
1 unto Hosea, the son of Beeri, in daughter of Diblaim; which conceived,
while, and I will + avenge the blood + Heb. visit. 2 The beginning of the word of of Jezreel upon the house of Jehu,
Chap. I. Under the figure of a wife living in adul. bave committed the like spiritual whoredom, departing tery, and bearing illegitimate children, is represented from the Lord, and worshipping idols. Dr. Wells, W. the great idolatry of the children of Israel, which pro- | Lowth. voked God to cast them off; yet with the promise of Some commentators understand by “a wife of repairing that loss, by bringing in the Gentiles into the whoredoms” a wife, that had heretofore been noted for Church, and afterwards uniting Israel and Judah under | unchastity, howeoever now reclaimed. Bp. Hall, Junius. one head, the Messiah. The Prophet likewise foretells 3. So he went and took Gomer-which conceived, &c.] the extinction of Jehu's family. W. Lowth.
After the marriage the Prophet's wife bore three chilVer. 1. - in the days of Uzziah, — and in the days of dren. These children represent certain distinct parts Jeroboam] Jeroboam, the son of Joash, the second or descriptions of the Jewish nation, of the whole of king of Israel of that name, and contemporary with which the mother was the emblem. Of the three chilUzziah, is here mentioned, because this prophecy very dren, the eldest and the youngest were sons; the internearly concerns the kingdom of Israel. There was no mediate child was a daughter. The eldest appears to need of enumerating any of the succeeding kings of have been the Prophet's son ; but the two last were Israel, because, from the Prophet's mention of his pro- illegitimate. Bp. Horsley. phesying from the times of Uzziah to those of Heze- 4. - Call his name Jezreel ;) The names, imposed kiah, it follows that he prophesied all the reigns of upon the children by God's direction, sufficiently deJeroboam's successors; the reign of Hezekiah bearing clare what particular parts of the Jewish nation were date from the third year of Hoshea, the last of the kings severally represented by them. The name of the first of Israel. W. Lowth.
was Jezreel, importing “ seed of God;" and the per2. — by Hosea.] To speak “ to Hosea,” ver. 1, and sons, represented by the Prophet's proper son, to whom “ by Hosea," in this verse, are phrases of different im- the name is given, were all those true servants of God, port. To speak to expresses, that to him the discourse scattered among all the twelve tribes of Israel, who, in was immediately addressed. To speak by, that through the times of the nation's greatest depravity, worshipped him it was addressed to others : and that the speech, so the everlasting God, in the hope of the Redeemer to addressed to others, was not the Prophet's own, but come. These were a holy seed; the genuine sons of God's; God using the Prophet as His organ of speech God; begotten of Him to a lively hope, and the early to the people. Bp. Horsley.
seed of that Church, which shall at last embrace all the --Go, take unto thee a wife of whoredoms and chil- families of the earth. These are Jezreel, typified by the dren of whoredoms :] That is, Marry a wife, who will | Prophet's own son and rightful heir, as the children of afterwards, namely, after the birth of her first child, God, and heirs of the promises. Bp. Horsley. prove unfaithful to thy bed, and bear children begotten - I will avenge the blood of Jezreel upon the house by others; for hereby will be most fitly, and even sen- of Jehu,] That is, the blood of the holy seed, the faithful sibly represented to the people of Israel their like base servants of God, shed by the idolatrous princes of Jehu's dealing with Me: inasmuch as the people of the land family in persecution, and the blood of children shed in
The spiritual whoredoms
of Israel. Before Before and will cause to cease the kingdom 7 But I will have mercy upon the c Before
CHRIST about 785. of the house of Israel.
house of Judah, and will save them about 785. 5 And it shall come to pass at that by the Lord their God, and will not
day, that I will break the bow of Is- save them by bow, nor by sword, nor 1 That is, rael in the valley of Jezreel.
by battle, by horses, nor by horsemen. Not having 6 I And she conceived again, and 8 q Now when she had weaned obtained mercy.
bare a daughter. And God said unto Lo-ruhamah, she conceived, and bare + Heb. I roill not add any
11 him, Call her name || Lo-ruhamah: a son. more to. for tI will no more have mercy upon 9 Then said God, Call his name 1. Or, that I should alto- the house of Israel; || but I will || Lo-ammi: for ye are not my people, | That is, gether pardon
Not my them. ution utterly take them away.
and I will not be your God.
people. their horrible rites upon the altars of their idols. Bp. of their very worst kings, the publick religion was the Horsley.
worship of the true God, according to the rites of His -- and will cause to cease the kingdom of the house own appointment, by a priesthood of His own instituof Israel.] It is said, that what is here threatened shall tion. And this was probably the reason, that the be done after “a little while" upon the house of Jehu ; kingdom of Judah, though severely punished, was howand it is added, as a consequence on it, or what should ever treated with longer forbearance; and, when the be effected together with it, or by it, that “the kingdom dreadful judgment came, in some respects with more of Israel should cease.” So he saith, “yet a little while." lenity. Bp. Horsley. The time was not yet come, that it could be done, be
and will save them by the Lord their God, &c.] cause God's promise to Jehu was, that “his children of This promise may be principally referred to their delithe fourth generation should sit on the throne of Israel;" verance from captivity, not by human means, but by and the present king Jeroboam was but the third from God's moving the heart of Cyrus to restore them, Ezra him. In the time of Zachariah, who succeeded Jero- | i. 1, &c. Dr. Pocock. boam, and reigned but six months, what is here said In the different treatment of the house of Judah and was effected. And so both the promise before made, the house of Israel, we see the prophecy hitherto reand the curse now denounced, were in their due time markably verified. After the excision of the kingdom fulfilled. Dr. Edward Pocock.
1 of the ten tribes, Judah, though occasionally visited 5. And it shall come to pass at that day,] Quickly with severe judgments, continued however to be cheafter the extinction of Jehu's family. W. Lowth. rished with God's love, till they rejected our Lord.
— I will break the bow of Israel in the valley of Then Judah became Lo-ammi; (see note on ver. 9;) Jezreel.] See 2 Kings xv. 29; and xvii. 5,6. The taking but still continues to be visibly an object of God's love, of several cities successively, and at last of the capital preserved as a distinct race for gracious purposes of itself, was a “breaking of the bow of Israel,” a demo- mercy. Bp. Horsley. lition of the whole military strength of the kingdom - by the Lord their God] Interpreters observe, “in the valley of Jezreel,” where all those cities were that this expression may allude to the salvation to be situated. Bp. Horsley.
accomplished by the Messiah, who is God as well as The bow, being in those times of great use in war, man; the Lord being spoken of as a distinct Person was figuratively and proverbially taken for all sorts of from the principal Author of the salvation here promilitary arms and instruments; and also for all strength mised. Compare Isai. xxxv. 4 ; xl. 9. W. Lowth." of war. Dr. Pocock.
There is one certain deliverance, promised to the Jews 6.- Call her name Lo-ruhumah :) All of the Jewish in one Prophet after another, by the name of “salvation people, that were not Jezreel, the “ seed of God,” those by the Lord,” by “the Lord God Himself,” as superiour who were not Israel, though they were of Israel, are to and different from their former deliverances by flesh typified by the two illegitimate children. The first of and blood; and this the Jews appropriate to the rethese, the daughter, was called Lo-ruhamah. The sex demption of the Messiah. God saves, and God judges, of the child is the emblem of weakness. Her name sig- by Him. And He is therefore termed “the Lord in nifies “unbeloved,” or “unpitied;" or, as it is para Mal. ii. 1, as being Emmanuel, the God, the Saviour phrased in the margin of our Bible, in conformity with with us. Bp. Chandler. all the ancient versions, “ not having obtained mercy.” 8, 9. — she conceived, and bare a son. Then said God, This daughter typifies the people of the ten tribes, in Call his name Lo-ammi :] The child conceived after the enfeebled state of their declining monarchy, torn by Lo-ruhamah was weaned, must typify the people of the intestine commotions and perpetual revolutions, harassed kingdom of Judah, in the subsequent periods of their by powerful invaders, impoverished by their tyrannical history. Or rather, this child typifies the whole nation exactions, and condemned by the just judgment of God of the children of Israel, reduced, in its external forin, to utter excision as a distinct kingdom, without hope of by the captivity of the ten tribes, to that single kingrestoration : for so the type is explained by the Holy dom. The sex represents a considerable degree of naSpirit Himself. Bp. Horsley.
tional strength and vigour, remaining in this branch of 7. But I will have mercy upon the house of Judah,] It the Jewish people, very different from the exhausted was an aggravation of the guilt of Israel, that idolatry state of the other kingdom previous to its fall. Nor was the very foundation of her polity. Her very exist- have the two tribes ever suffered so total an excision. ence, as a distinct kingdom, was founded on the worship The ten were absolutely lost in the world soon after of the calves, which was instituted by Jeroboam for pre- their captivity. But the people of Judah have never venting the return of the ten tribes to their allegiance ceased totally to be. In captivity at Babylon they to the house of David. The two tribes, on the contrary, lived a separate race, respected by their conquerors. remained loyally attached to David's family, and the From that captivity they returned. They became an idolatry, into which from time to time they fell, was opulent and powerful state; formidable at times to the rather the lapse of individuals, than the premeditated rival powers of Syria and Egypt; and held in no small policy of the nation. Except in the reigns of one or two I consideration by the Roman people, and the first em
The restoration of Judah and Israel. CHAP. I, II.
The idolatry of the people. 10 1 Yet the number of the chil- |
CHAP. II. about 785. dren of Israel shall be as the sand of
CHRIST n the sea, which cannot be measured | 1 The idolatry of the people. 6 God's judga Rom. 9. 25, nor numbered; a and it shall come to
ments against them. 14 His promises of || Or, instead pass, that || in the place where it was
reconciliation with them. said unto them, Ye are not my peo
CAY ye unto your brethren, ple, there it shall be said unto them, IN || Ammi; and to your sisters, || That is, My
Ye are the sons of the living God. I b Jer. 3. 18. 11 b Then shall the children of 2 Plead with your mother, plead : Ezek. 34. & Judah and the children of Israel be | for a she is not my wife, neither am I meren:
a Isai, 50. 1. gathered together, and appoint them- her husband : let her therefore put selves one head, and they shall come away her bwhoredoms out of her sight, b Ezek. 16. up out of the land: for great shall be and her adulteries from between her the day of Jezreel.
perours of Rome. And even in their present state of “ Head” is often given to Christ in the New Testaruin and degradation, without territory and without ment: see Eph. i. 22; iv. 15; v. 23; Col. i. 18; so polity of their own, such is the masculine strength of that in Him, who is our peace, all further difference and suffering with which they are endued, they are still enmity being taken away, both Jews and Gentiles are extant in the world, as a separate race, but not as God's made one, Eph. ii. 15, 16, as one body under one bead.
mercy; God grant that it may be at no very distant — and they shall come up out of the land :) Jeruperiod! But at the present they are Lo-ammi, “Not salem being situated on an eminence, and in the heart My people.” And so they have actually been more of a mountainous region, which rose greatly above the than seventeen centuries and a half; and to this con- general level of the country to a great distance on all dition they were condemned when this prophecy was sides, the sacred writers always speak of persons going delivered. Bp. Horsley.
to Jerusalem, as “ going up.” Bp. Horsley. 9. — for ye are not my people,] That is, “Ye, O men. This mountain being a type of the Church of Christ, of Judah, are not My people.” Bp. Horsley.
it is very proper and significant language to say of those, 10. Yet the number of the children of Israel shall be as who should come into the Church, that they should the sand of the sea, &c.] We learn from St. Paul, that “come up out of the land.” Dr. Pocock. Israel is a name, not only belonging to those, who are -- for great shall be the day of Jezreel.] Great and so according to the flesh, but comprehending all that happy shall be the day, when the holy seed of both rightly believe in God, all the seed of Israel and Abra-branches of the natural Israel shall be publickly acham, as well that which is of the faith of Abraham, who knowledged of their God; united under one head, their is the father of all believers, as that which is of the flesh King Messiah; and restored to the possession of the and of the law, Rom. iv. 11, 16 ; Gal. iii. 7. So that by promised land, and to a situation of high pre-eminence the multitude of believers, as well of the Gentiles as of among the kingdoms of the earth. Bp. Horsley. Or, the Jews, is this to be made good, that “ the number of taking the words in a spiritual sense, we may underthe children of Israel should be as the sand of the sea.” | stand “the day of Jezreel” as comprehending the whole Dr. Pocock.
time of grace and salvation; all the time since the and it shall come to pass, that in the place &c.] appearance of Christ, that “one Head," in whom they, That is, at Jerusalem, or at least in Judea, where this of whom it is said “ye are not My people," are called prophecy was delivered, and where the execution of the “the sons of the living God,” and are all gathered tosentence took place. This prophecy appears to promise gether, and ascend out of the world. Dr. Pocock. the restoration of the natural Israel of the house of Judah to their own land. Bp. Horsley.
Chap. II. ver. 1. Say ye unto your brethren, Ammi ; Or, the promise may extend to others, as well as to and to your sisters, Ruhamah.] Although the Israelites, them; even to as many of other nations, who had ever in the days of Hosea, were in general corrupt and adbeen looked on as “not God's people,” as the whole dicted to idolatry, yet there were among them in the Gentile world were ; and that any where, in any place : worst times some, who had not bowed the knee to Baal. even to "as many as the Lord our God should call," These were always Ammi, and Ruhamah; God's own Acts ii. 39. Dr. Pocock.
people, and a darling daughter. It is probable that 11. Then shall the children of Judah and the children God here commissions these faithful few to admonish of Israel be gathered together, &c.] When “the fulness the inhabitants of the land in general, of the dreadful of the Gentiles is come in," this will be a means of con- judgments that would be brought upon them by the verting the Jews, and bringing them into the Church: gross idolatry of the Jewish Church and nation. Speak see Rom. ix. 25, 26. Either the prediction signifies, to your brethren, O Ammi, (O My people,) and to your that upon this will follow the restoration of the Jewish sisters, O Ruhamah, (O darling daughter.) Bp. Horsley. nation, when they shall return into their own country 2. Plead with your mother, &c.] Because by her from the several dispersions, where they were scattered, false dealing with God, and alienating herself from God, and become one nation or kingdom under the Messiah, she hath alienated His mind from her, and so far protheir Head and King. Compare Ezek. xxxvii, 21, 22; voked Him, that He hath declared He will in severity Mic. ii. 13. W. Lowth. Or, the being “gathered to of judgment proceed against her and her children ; let gether” denotes, not so much their coming together her, that she may avert God's displeasure and reconcile into one place, as consent and agreement of mind, the Him again to her, turn to Him by repentance, and put effect of which shall be, that they shall with one accord away from her her idolatries, her spiritual fornications, submit to one government. Dr. Pocock.
and evil doings; and let her children, that she may do and appoint themselves one head,] The title of 'so, and that they may escape God's judgments, plead
wherewith they made
against the people. Before 3 Lest I strip her naked, and set | them; and she shall seek them, but Before about 785. her as in the day that she was born, shall not find them: then shall she about 783.
and make her as a wilderness, and set say, I will go and return to my first c Ezek. 16. 4.
her like a dry land, and slay her with husband; for then was it better with
me than now.
multiplied her silver and gold, || which ! Or,
bread and my water, my wool and will || recover my wool and my flax 1 Or, take + Heb. drinks, my flax, mine oil and my + drink. given to cover her nakedness.
6 1 Therefore, behold, I will hedge 10 And now will I discover her + Heb. wall a up thy way with thorns, and make + lewdness in the sight of her lovers, + Heb. folls,
a wall, that she shall not find her and none shall deliver her out of mine ot,
with her, call on her so to do, and endeavour her re- espoused her to Himself, and entered into covenant formation. This is plainly the scope of the words. The with her, and called her to His service, and is therefore expressions are figurative. Dr. Pocock.
called her “first Husband,” it was much better with her 3. — and set her as in the day that she was born,] Bare, than it is now. By the good providence of God such helpless, and unprotected. Dr. Pocock.
evils are often brought upon men, that by their cala. - and make her as a wilderness, &c.] When a mities in this world they may be compelled to return to woman is the image of a country, or of a church, that the service of God. Dr. Pocock. may be said of the woman, which, in unfigured speech, 8. — she did not know] That is, she did not gratemight be said of the country, or the church she repre- fully acknowledge or profess, what she could not, except sents. The country might literally be made a waste willingly and perversely, be ignorant of: she laid it not wilderness, by unfruitful seasons, by the devastations to heart, but behaved herself as if she knew it not. Dr, of war, or of noxious vermin; a church is made a wil- | Pocock. derness and a parched land when the living waters of which they prepared for Baal.] Which they the Spirit are withheld. Bp. Horsley.
offered or consecrated to Baal. Abp. Newcome. 5. — she said, I will go after my lovers,] I will go It was a grievous charge, which God here preferred
love rather to worship idol gods, as thinking them the and silver, and gold, which He had given them, they gods that give me my brcad, &c. Dr. Wells.
employed in the service of Baal, an abominable idol. - my drink.] “My liquors :" such as milk, honey, If, when God giveth us wit, wealth, power, authority, wine, &c. Bp. Horsley.
| health, strength, liberty, or any other good things, inThe base and degraded state of the Israelites is here stead of using these things to His glory, and the relief very remarkable, in that they make no mention of those of His servants, we abuse them to the service of those high spiritual privileges, which distinguished them from idols, which we have set up in our hearts, to our pride, all other nations, of their laws and statutes, of God's our covetousness, or our sensuality, we are as liable to grace and favour, and the light of His countenance, but the charge as the Israelites were; as unjust, as prohave regard only to those things which concern their fane, as unthankful in every respect as they. Bp. Saninferiour part, and are common to them with beasts. | derson. Those, whom Israel supposes to give her these things, 9. Therefore will I return, and take away my corn &c.] are “ her lovers,” and to them she will surrender her That is, I will again take away My corn &c. The happy affections. It is a farther proof of her stupidity and and prosperous condition of the people shall be changed aggravated ingratitude, that whereas it was God, who into a general want and penury of all things necessary had furnished her with all these favours, as well as for their well being. Dr. Pocock. It appears from all those of a more excellent nature, being glutted and the Prophets, and particularly from Amos and Joel, intoxicated with abundance, she forgets God, and that the beginning of judgment upon the refractory, plainly denies Him to be the Author of them. Dr. rebellious people, was in unfruitful seasons, and noxiPocock.
6. - I will hedge up thy way &c.] See the like expres murrain of the cattle, famine, and pestilential diseases. sions in Lam. iii. 7, 9; Job xix. 8. Whence this appears Bp. Horsley. to be a proverbial kind of speech, taken from what is `10. And now will I discover her lewdness] Or, as in usually done among men, when they would stop up a the margin, “her folly,” or “villany." By hiding My way, and hinder others from going in it, to put before face from them, and depriving them of My blessings, I it an hedge of thorns, or to cross it with a wall. Dr. will make it appear how foolish, how shameful, how Pocock.
lewd, how vile and base they were in forsaking God and - with thorns,] See the note on Mic. vii. 4. following idols. And this God threatens to do “ in the 7.- then shall she say, I will go and return to my first sight,” or presence, "of her lovers," that is, of her husband ;] She shall be forced to acknowledge, that idols. Dr. Pocock. when she clave unto God, who in lovingkindness had l 11. I will also cause all her mirth to cease, her feast
CHRIST about 785.
Before CHRIST about 785.
+ Heb. make desolate.
His promises of
reconciliation with them. s Before and her sabbaths, and all her solemn | derness, and speak 11 + comfortably Before
unto her. 12 And I will + destroy her vines 15 And I will give her her vineand her fig trees, whereof she hath | yards from thence, and the valley of Heb. to her said, These are my rewards that my Achor for a door of hope: and she lovers have given me: and I will sball sing there, as in the days of her make them a forest, and the beasts of youth, and as in the day when she the field shall eat them.
came up out of the land of Egypt. 13 And I will visit upon her the 16 And it shall be at that day, saith days of Baalim, wherein she burned the LORD, that thou shalt call me incense to them, and she decked her- || Ishi; and shalt call me no more That is, self with her earrings and her jewels, || Baali. and she went after her lovers, and" 17 For I will take away the names forgat me, saith the LORD.
of Baalim out of her mouth, and they 14 | Therefore, behold, I will shall no more be remembered by their allure her, and bring her into the wil- name.
My husband, ! That is, My lord.
days, &c.] The publick festivals are frequently called may signify either from that place, or from that time. days of joy and gladness : the observation of several | Dr. Pocock. of these festivals was retained in the worship of the - and the valley of Achor for a door of hope :] golden calves : see 1 Kings xii. 32; Amos viii. 5. God "The valley of Achor," that is, of tribulation, or conhere threatens them, that under their captivity they sternation; alluding to the vale near Jericho, where the should have no opportunity to celebrate these festivals, first Israelites, first setting foot within the Holy Land, since they had so much abused those solemn seasons were thrown into trouble and consternation : but imof Divine worship. See chap. ix. 4, 5; Amos viïi. 10.mediately afterwards found it “a door of hope;" for W. Lowth.
from that time, Joshua having received fresh encourage13. And I will visit upon her the days of Baalim,] Iment from God, drove on his conquests with uninterwill punish her for all the idolatries she has committed rupted success. In like manner the tribulations of from the days of Jeroboam, who first set up the wor- the Jews, in their present dispersion, shall open to ship of false gods. W. Lowth.
them the door of hope; and “she shall sing there,” that 14. Therefore, behold, &c.] Here is a plain altera-is, in the wilderness, and in the vale of tribulation, under tion of style from threatenings to promises ; so that those circumstances of present difficulty mixed with the first word should be rendered Nevertheless. See cheering hope. Bp. Horsley. the note on Isai. xxx. 18. W. Lowth.
- and she shall sing there, as in the days of her - I will allure her,] Or, persuade her. Though youth, &c.] These words are a continued allusion to the word commonly signifies to inveigle, to deceive, it the history of the Israelites of old, and to the great demay be used by an easy metaphor in a good sense. Abp. | liverance wrought for them in the time of Moses ; “in Newcome.
the days of her youth,” when as Jeremiah limits the - and bring her into the wilderness,] These words, term, “she went after God in the wilderness," Jer. joined with the preceding, should be understood in ii. 2. The promise “ she shall sing," appears opposed to this manner: “I will allure her,” by means of the per- what was threatened in her state of rebellion, “I will suasive doctrine of the Gospel; "and" for that end, also cause all her mirth to cease," ver. 11. Dr. Pocock. or in order to produce that effect, “I will bring her 16. — thou shalt call me Here is a change from the into the wilderness :" meaning that this was the way or third to the second person, not unusual in Scripture. method by which He would prepare them to receive Dr. Pocock. See the note from Bp. Lowth on Deut. His persuasions. As the method, which God had xxxii. 5. used with the Israelites of old, for withdrawing them
Ishi; - Baali.] Ishi, my husband, is an apfrom the corruptions of Egypt, and making them His pellation of love; Baali, my lord, of subjection and fear. peculiar people, was by disciplining them in the wil- 1 * God hath not given us the spirit of fear: but of power, derness; so He now says that He will employ the like and of love, and of a sound mind,” 2 Tim. i. 7. See method for weaning them from their idolatries, and Jer. xxiii. 27. Bp Horsley. inclining their hearts to Him; namely, by bringing The word “Baali” often signifies an husband, and is them into a condition, as painful as that of their fore- particularly spoken of God, as He was by His covenantfathers in the wilderness; a condition of captivity among relation an husband to His people; see Isai. liv. 5; Jer. the heathen, in which they should be disciplined in ii. 14. But the word “Baal” having been so much the knowledge of God and their dependance upon Him. profaned by being given to idols, He forbade, it to be Dr. Pocock.
applied any more to Himself. As it follows, accord- and speak comfortably unto her.7 Speak what ing to the sense of the next verse, He would utterly shall touch her heart, in her outcast state in the wild abolish the idols, the “ Baalim,” which they had before derness of the Gentile world, by the proffers of mercy served, and leave no occasion for farther remembrance in the Gospel. Bp. Horsley.
of them, such as the very use of the name, by which 15. And I will give her her vineyards from thence, I they were called, might be in danger of causing. W. will not only speak kindly and comfortably to her, but | Lowth, Dr. Pocock. by deeds also and benefits, actually bestowed upon 17. For I will take away &c.] He, from whom is her, will testify My favour towards her. These words both to will and to do, here promises His help and the of promise seem opposed to the former threat, “I will assistance of His grace for the conversion of Israel, so take away My wine in the season thereof,” ver. 9; and that she, who was before wholly addicted and wedded “I will destroy her vines," ver. 12. “From thence” to her Baals, might conceive a detestation of them,