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I Or, breach,
weeks foretold. Before built again, and the || wall, even tin: 27 And he shall confirm the Before about 538. troublous times.
covenant with many for one week : about 538. 26 And after threescore and two and in the midst of the week he or, ditch. weeks shall Messiah be cut off, ll but shall cause the sacrifice and the Strait of times, not for himself: and the people of the oblation to cease, and || for the l Or, with the
prince that shall come shall destroy overspreading of i abominations he armies. nothing the city and the sanctuary; and the shall make it desolate, even until i
end thereof shall be with a flood, and the consummation, and that deter- Luke 21.20. Or, it shall unto the end of the war || desolations mined shall be poured upon the dedesolations are determined.
+ Heb. in
1. Or, and shall have
i Matt. 24.15. Mark 13. 14.
be cut off by
make sixty-nine weeks of years, or 483 years. The the beginning to the very end of this war, there shall seven weeks, or forty-nine years, here mentioned, must be grievous desolations to this people. Bp. Hall. in all probability be assigned to the building of “the 27. And he shall confirm the covenant with many for street" and the " wall.” W. Lowth.
one week : and in the midst of the week he shall cause &c. — even in troublous times.] The Jews were sorely Most of the interpreters suppose the seventy weeks to assaulted by their adversaries, who did all they could to be completed at the death of Christ. They accordingly hinder them from rebuilding the city, and fortifying it suppose John the Baptist's preaching to have occupied with a new wall. See Nehem. iv. 7, &c.; vi. 15. “The three years and a half, before Christ entered on His street” probably is put for “the streets” of the city : the prophetical office, and translate the following words, singular for the plural, which is very common. W. Lowth. * in the half part of the week,” understanding it of the
26. And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah latter half. The Hebrew word properly signifies "the be cut off,] That is, after the sixty-two added to the half part,” and is to be so understood by our translation, seven foregoing weeks, or after the termination of the chap. xii. 7. W. Lowth. 483 years. Wintle. The common interpretation is, that - he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to in the seventieth or last week the Messiah should be cease, 7 Christ, “by His one oblation of Himself once put to death. W. Lowth.
offered,” shall put an end to all the sacrifices and oblaThe commencement of the whole period of seventy tions made in the Jewish temple. Compare Heb. x. 5, weeks, or 490 years, being reckoned from the seventh 6, &c. W. Lowth. year of Artaxerxes, falls upon the 457th year before the -- and for the overspreading of abominations he shall Christian era. To 457 years before the birth of Christ, make it desolate, even until the consummation,] He shall add twenty-six years after the birth of Christ, which cause the sinful city Jerusalem to be overrun with the twenty-six is the number that 483 years, or sixty-nine abominable legions of the Roman conquerors to the weeks exceed 457 years, and we are brought to the utter desolation thereof. Bp. Hall. beginning of John the Baptist's preaching of the advent The Romans, after they had set the temple on fire, of the Messiah : adding seven years, or one week, to placed the idolatrous ensigns of their army over against the former, we come to the thirty-third year of our the eastern gate of the temple, and offered sacrifice to Lord, which was the year of Jesus Christ's death. In them, as Josephus expressly tells us. The word "aboother words, compute 490 years, the whole seventy minations" is commonly used for idols : see 1 Kings xi. weeks, from the seventh of Artaxerxes; by subtracting 5, 7; 2 Kings xxiii. 13. And the “ abomination of 457 years (the space of time between that year and the desolation," set upon the altar by Antiochus, 1 Mac. i. beginning of the Christian era) from 490, there remain 54, is explained by the idol altar, ver. 59. So the thirty-three, the year of our Lord's death. Bp. Chandler, “abominations" here spoken of properly signify the Dean Prideaux. It was in consequence of this prophecy ensigns or standards of the Roman legions : each standof Daniel concerning the seventy weeks, or 490 years, ard having stamped upon it the image of the tutelar that the coming of the Messiah towards the end of that god, to which the legion offered sacrifice. W. Lowth. period was generally expected among the nations of the and that determined shall be poured upon the deEast. Bp. Hallifat.
solate.] All the judgments, which are determined, shall - shall — be cut off,7 The Hebrew verb is by the be fully consummated and poured out upon this miseJewish rabbies interpreted of a death inflicted by the rable city. Bp. Hall. sentence of a judge, which sense they confirm by the The words briefly allude to those terrible calamities, use of it in a parallel place, Lev. xvii. 14, to which we which made an entire destruction of that city and peo
text, among others, Luke xxiv. 26, 46. W. Lowth. manner, that any nation ever suffered, and with the
The name Messiah was probably taken from this most evident tokens of the Divine vengeance. W. place of the Prophet Daniel. Dr. Isaac Barrow. Lowth. See the notes on Deut. xxvii.
but not for himself:] “The just suffering for The events, which preceded and followed the coming the unjust," i Pet. iii. 18. W. Lowth.
and sufferings of the Messiah, having been so punc— and the people of the prince that shall come &c.] | tually fulfilled, afford a double confirmation of His being The Romans, under the conduct of Vespasian and his the very same Person prophesied of, and afterwards son Titus, who were the generals in the war, which crucified; nor can they, with any probability of truth, caused the destruction of Jerusalem, and were both of be applied to any other. So that we may well say, This them dignified with the title of prince or Cesar. After is the clearest and most express prediction in the whole the Romans had burnt both city and sanctuary, they Bible concerning the time of His coming and death. entirely destroyed them, so that, as Josephus relates, it Wogan. Sir Isaac Newton justly represents this illuscould scarce be perceived the place had ever been inhabited. W. Lowth
ligion. Dr. Hales. And Archbishop Secker has reThe Romans shall soon after come and destroy Jeru- corded the declaration of a writer upon “the weeks," salem and the temple, and shall sweep away all before that “if he had hitherto lived an infidel, the conviction them, like some violent inundation of a flood; and from wrought in him by a just consideration of the certain
Before CHRIST about 534.
CHRIST about 534.
Daniel having humbled himself CHAP. X.
seeth a vision. CHAP. X.
of his words like the voice of a mul- Before i Daniel having humbled himself seeth a
vision: for the men that were with
teshazzar; and the thing was true, 8 Therefore I was left alone, and + Heb. greal. but the time appointed was + long : saw this great vision, and there re
and he understood the thing, and mained no strength in me: for my
2 In those days I Daniel was corruption, and I retained no strength.“ + Heb. weeks mourning three † full weeks.
9 Yet heard I the voice of his Heb. bread 3 I ate no t pleasant bread, neither words : and when I heard the voice
came flesh nor wine in my mouth, of his words, then was I in a deep
4 And in the four and twentieth 104 And, behold, an hand touched
the side of the great river, which is and upon the palms of my hands. a Gen. 2. 14. a Hiddekel;
11 And he said unto me, 0 Da5 Then I lifted up mine eyes, and niel, a man greatly beloved, under- + Heb. a man + Heb.one looked, and behold + a certain man stand the words that I speak unto
clothed in linen, whose loins were thee, and + stand upright: for unto + Heb. stand b Rev. 1. 13, bgirded with fine gold of Uphaz: thee am I now sent. And when he standing.
6 His body also was like the beryl, had spoken this word unto me, I
sense and perfect completion of this Divine oracle was 3. I ate no pleasant bread, &c.] Meaning, that he so full, that he should think it his duty to do and suffer kept a fast by abstaining from better sorts of food. all that was possible for human nature, supported by Wintle. Divine grace, rather than forfeit his faith.” Wintle. | 5.— behold a certain man clothed in linen, &c.] Be.
| hold, the Son of God stood before me, in the form of a Chap. X. This last vision, in the third year of Cyrus, man clothed in pure white linen, to signify His perfect not long before the Prophet's death, was ushered in holiness ; and His loins were girt about with a girdle with circumstances of peculiar solemnity; with the of the finest gold. Bp. Hall. presence of Christ Himself and His angel, both appear. He appeared in the habit of an high priest ; see Exod. ing in human form. First, the spiritual High Priest, xxviii. 4, 39; xxix, 5. The description which St. John clothed in linen, as on the great day of atonement, ap- gives of Christ as High Priest of the Church, Rev. i. peared in glory to Daniel, and spoke to him: and when 13, corresponds with this place of Daniel ; which proves, he heard the voice of His words, he fell into a trance that the person here described can be no other than the with his face to the ground. The Prophet alone saw “Son of God :" which may be farther confirmed by this great vision, for his trembling attendants fled to comparing the Person described here, and chap. xii. 5, hide themselves, ver. 1-10. Dr. Hales.
| 6, with Rev. x. 2, 5, 6: who is there represented as Ver. 1. - he understood the thing, and had understand "setting His right foot upon the sea, and His left upon ing of the vision.) He had a clear view of the succession the land," as sovereign Lord of both elements. Comof the Persian and Grecian monarchies, and of the se- pare Matt. xxviii. 18. W. Lowth. ries of the kings of Syria and Egypt under the latter of
Uphaz :) See note on Jer. x. 9. them: although the remaining parts of the vision were 6. His body also was like the beryl, &c.] His body obscure, especially with respect to their final event. See was of a bright celestial colour; and His face glorious chap. xii. 8. W. Lowth.
and shining, like the appearance of lightning ; His eyes, 2. - 1 Daniel was mourning] The reason seems to from which nothing can be hid, were beamy and pierchave been, the interruptions that were caused in the ing, like flames of fire ; His arms and feet were resplenbuilding of the temple according to the decree of Cyrus dent, like to polished brass; to signify the pureness two years before; and the disposition of some of his and unquestionable perfection of His proceedings; and brethren, who chose rather to continue in the land of the yoice of His words was mighty and forcible. Bp. their captivity, than to go up to Jerusalem to hasten Hall. and forward that work. Wintle.
8.- there remained no strength in me :) See the note - three full weeks.] In the Hebrew, as in the on Gen. xv, 12. “My comeliness," is better rendered margin, “three weeks of days :” probably to distinguish in the margin “my vigour.” W. Lowth. them from the weeks of years prophesied of in the last 12.- from the first day that thou didst set thine heart chapter. W. Lowth.
| to understand,] Previously to the communication of this
Daniel being troubled with fear, DANIEL.
is comforted by the angel. Before derstand, and to chasten thyself before my sorrows are turned upon me, and Before
CHRIST about 534. about 534. thy God, thy words were heard, and I have retained no strength.
about 534. I am come for thy words. | 17 For how can || the servant of
| Or, this 13 But the prince of the kingdom this my lord talk with this my lord ? servant of my
of Persia withstood me one and for as for me, straightway there re| Or, the first. twenty days : but, lo, Michael, || one mained no strength in me, neither is
of the chief princes, came to help me; there breath left in me.
touched me one like the appearance
be strong, yea, be strong. And when
| 20 Then said he, Knowest thou
before me, O my lord, by the vision shall come. and of the last vision, we find the Prophet waiting for I remained there with the kings of Persia.] I still the reception of the Divine intelligence with deep humi- continued to oppose any motions, which the chief men liation, and a suitable preparation of mind. Wintle. among the Persians might make in prejudice of the
- I am come for thy words.) To give an answer Jews. The word “king" is equivalent in Hebrew to to thy requests, by the direction of that Divine Person, prince or governour. See chap. vii. 17; Jer. xxv. 20, upon whom I attend, ver. 5. See chap. viii. 16, and &c.; i Kings xxii. 47. W. Lowth. the notes there. W. Lowth.
17. For how can the servant of this my lord talk with 13. But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood this my lord P7 How can thy servant, a poor mortal man, me one and twenty days :) The Persians, upon the so maintain a discourse with a person of thy rank and dig. licitation of the enemies of the Jews, had put a stop to nity? The words may be translated thus, “ How can the building of the temple all the time of Daniel's hu- the servant of this my lord talk with that my Lord ?" miliation. W. Lowth. See below the note on ver. 20. that is, with the other Person, that first appeared to me
- Michael, one of the chief princes,] The context with so majestick a presence, at whose sight I was perwill lead to a discovery of the Personage who is here fectly confounded, ver. 5—9. W. Lowth. named Michael. This Personage is superior to Gabriel, 20. — the prince of Persia : — the prince of Grecia] for He comes to help him in the greatest difficulties; There is some doubt who are the persons here intended and Gabriel, the servant of the Most High God, sent by “the princes of Persia and of Grecia.” But since forth, as such spirits are used to be, to minister for the they fight with Michael, to those who are conversant elect people of God, declares that this Michael is the with the prophetick style, and have observed the uniforonly supporter he has. He is also called “one of the mity of its images, it will seem highly probable, that the chief princes,” or “one of the capital princes,” or “one angels which fight with Michael in the book of Daniel, of the princes that are at the head of all :" for this is are of the same sort with those who fight with the full, and not more than the full, import of the He- Michael under the banners of the devil, in the 12th brew words. Now the Princes, that are “ first” or “at chapter of Revelation. “ There was war in heaven : the head of all,” are clearly no other, than the Three Michael and His angels fought against the dragon ; Persons in the Godhead. Michael therefore is one of and the dragon fought and his angels.” The vision of them : and which of them there can be no doubt. Ga- the war in heaven, in the Apocalypse, represents the briel, speaking of Him to Daniel, calls Him “Michael vehement struggles between Christianity and the old your Prince,” ver. 21, and “the great Prince which idolatry in the first ages of the Gospel. The angels of standeth for the children of thy people," chap. xii. 1 ; the two opposite armies represent two opposite parties that is, not for the nation of the Jews in particular, but in the Roman state, at the time the vision more particufor the children, the spiritual children, of that holy seed, larly regards. Michael's angels are the party which esthe elect people of God : a description, which applies poused the side of the Christian religion, the friends of particularly to the Son of God, and to no one else. And which had for many years been numerous, and became in perfect consistence with this description of Michael very powerful under Constantine the Great, the first in the book of Daniel, is the action assigned to Him in Christian emperour. The dragon's angels are the party the Apocalypse, in which we find Him fighting with the which endeavoured to support the old idolatry. And old serpent, the deceiver of the world, and victorious in in conformity with this imagery of the Apocalypse, “ the the combat. That combat who was to maintain, in that princes of Persia," in the book of Daniel, are to be uncombat who was to be victorious, but “the Seed of the derstood, I think, of a party in the Persian state, which woman?” From all this it is evident, that Michael is a opposed the return of the captive Jews, first after the name for our Lord Himself, in His particular character death of Cyrus, and again after the death of Darius of the Champion of His faithful people, against the vio- | Hystaspes. "And the prince of Grecia" is to be underlence of the apostate faction, and the wiles of the devil. stood of a party in the Greek empire, which persecuted Bp. Horsley.
I the Jewish religion after the death of Alexander the
The overthrow of Persia
CHAP. X, XI.
by the king of Grecia. Before 21 But I will shew thee that which fourth shall be far richer than they all: Before about 534. is noted in the scripture of truth : and and by his strength through his riches about 534.
- there is none that + holdeth with me he shall stir up all against the realm strengtheneth in these things, but Michael your of Grecia. prince.
3 And a mighty king shall stand
up, that shall rule with great doCHAP. XI.
minion, and do according to his
Grecia. 5 Leagues and conflicts between 4 And when he shall stand up, his
se be divided toward the four winds of
2 And now will I shew thee the plucked up, even for others beside
Great, particularly in the Greek kingdom of Syria. Bp. rivers were dried up by his army yet his wealth remained
unexhausted. “And by his strength through his riches 21. — in the scripture of truth :) Or, “in the writing he shall stir up all,” both subjects and allies “ against of truth ;" that is, what is certain and irrevocable. the realm of Grecia." The expedition of Xerxes into God's decrees are spoken of as if they were committed Greece is one of the most memorable events in ancient to writing, and registered in a book. "See Deut. xxxii. history. Herodotus affirms, that in raising his army he 34 ; Ps. lvi. 8 ; Isai. Ixv. 6; Mal. ii. 16. W. Lowth. searched every place of the continent, and computes
that the whole number of his armament amounted to Chap. XI. This and the following chapter contain more than five millions of men. After him no mention the substance of Daniel's last vision, or a series of pro- is here made of any other king of Persia. “It is to be phetical story from the third year of Cyrus to the end noted,” saith St. Jerome, "that the Prophet, having of time. The dominion is soon made to pass from the enumerated four kings of the Persians after Cyrus, slipPersians to the Grecians; the state of the Greek empire peth over nine, and passeth to Alexander ; for the is continued through various changes and revolutions, prophetick spirit did not care to follow the order of hisand particularly with respect to Syria and Egypt, till attory, but only to touch upon the most famous events.” length it yields to the Romans. Several particulars Xerxes was the principal author of the long wars and afterwards' follow that must relate to the fate of the inveterate hatred between the Grecians and Persians ; Church of Christ; and the last chapter has a peculiar and, as he was the last king of Persia who invaded respect unto the “time of the end," to the end of all Greece, he is the last mentioned. The Grecians then prophecy, or to the grand consummation of all things. in their turn invaded Asia ; and Xerxes' expedition Wintle.
being the most memorable on one side, as Alexander's It is the usual method of the Holy Spirit, to make was on the other, the reigns of these two are not imthe latter prophecies explanatory of the former; and properly connected together. Bp. Newton. revelation is “ as the shining light, that shineth more À farther reason may perhaps be assigned, why these and more unto the perfect day,” Prov. iv. 18. The four kings of Persia only are mentioned, because they were great empires of the world, which were shown to Ne- all that should reign before Artaxerxes Longimanus, by buchadnezzar in the form of a great image, were again whom the decree was issued, according to the prophecy more particularly represented to Daniel in the shape of of the seventy weeks, for rebuilding Jerusalem. Wintle. four great wild beasts. In like manner the memorable 3. And a mighty king &c.] That Alexander was “a events, which were revealed to Daniel in the vision of the mighty king” and conqueror ; that he not only "ruled ram and the he goat, are here again more clearly and expli- with great dominion” over Greece and the whole Persian citly revealed in this vision by an angel ; so that this empire, but likewise added India to his conquests; and latter prophecy may not improperly be said to be a com- that he “did according to his will,” no one, not even ment and explanation of the former. Bp. Newton. his friends daring to contradict and oppose him, or, if
Ver. 1. Also I in the first year of Darius &c.] This they did, like Clitus and Callisthenes, paying for it with verse should have been joined to the last chapter : the their lives ; are facts too well known to require any angel adds, that as he now joins in defending the cause particular proof or illustration. Bp. Newton. See the of the Jewish nation, so, at the time of the overthrow notes on chap. vii. 6; viii, 5, 6. of the Babylonish monarchy, he assisted in advancing 4. And when he shall stand up, &c.) When he shall Darius to the succession, which was the occasion of be in the height of his prosperity. W. Lowth. The restoring the Jewish captivity. W. Lowth.
particulars, foretold in this verse, were in a good mea2- Behold, there shall stand up &c.] The angel first sure suggested before, chap. viii. 8; see the note there. prophesies of the Persian empire, which was then sub- Thus was Alexander's kingdom “ broken and divided, sisting, “There shall stand up yet,” that is, after not to his posterity,” but “was plucked up, even for Cyrus, the founder of the empire, who was then reign others beside those.” Bp. Newton. ing, “three kings in Persia :” these were Cambyses, 5. And the king of the south shall be strong, &c.] Smerdis the Magian, and Darius the son of Hystaspes. Though the kingdom of Alexander was divided into four “ And the fourth shall be far richer than they all.” The principal parts, yet only two of them are here inentioned, fourth after Cyrus was Xerxes ; of whom Justin truly Egypt and Syria : partly because these two were by far remarks, that his riches were so abundant, that when I the greatest and most considerable ; but more particu
ressels of their
Leagues and conflicts between
the kings of the south and north. forer shall be strong, and one of his princes; , shall come with an army, and shall Before about 634. and he shall be strong above him, and enter into the fortress of the king of about 554.
have dominion; his dominion shall be the north, and shall deal against them,
and shall prevail : 6 And in the end of years they 8 And shall also carry captives + Hleb. shall + shall join themselves together; for into Egypt their gods, with their themselves. the king's daughter of the south shall princes, and with † their precious ves- + Heb.
come to the king of the north to make sels of silver and of gold; and he desire + Heb. rights. tan agreement: but she shall not shall continue more years than the
retain the power of the arm ; neither king of the north.
up, and shall assemble a multitude of
1 Or, whom she brought forth.
larly because Judea, lying between them, was sometimes as the mother, by order of Laodice. “And he that in the possession of the kings of Egypt, and sometimes strengthened her in these times,” her husband Anti. of the kings of Syria. It is in respect of their situation ochus, as St. Jerome conceives; or those who took her to Judea, that they are called the kings “of the part and defended her; or rather, her father, who died south” and “ of the north.” “ And the king of the a little before, and was so very fond of her that he took south shall be strong, and one of his princes,” (as the care continually to send her fresh supplies of the water passage may be rendered after the Greek version,) that is, of the Nile, thinking it better for her to drink of of Alexander's princes, “shall be strong above him." than that of any other river, as Polybius relates. Bp. The “ king of the south” was indeed very “strong ;" Newton. for Ptolemy annexed Cyprus, Phenicia, Caria, and many 7-9. But out of a branch of her roots &c.] Such islands, cities, and regions to Egypt ; and likewise en- wickedness was not to pass unpunished and unrevenged. larged the bounds of his empire by the acquisition of Out of the same “root” with Berenice sprang Ptolemy Cyrene. But still “ the king of the north,” or Seleucus Euergetes, her brother ; who no sooner succeeded his Nicator, was “strong above him," or stronger than he: father Ptolemy Philadelphus in the kingdom, than “he for, having annexed the kingdoms of Macedon and came with an army, and entered into the fortress," or Thrace to the crown of Syria, he became master of three fenced cities, “ of the king of the north," that is, of parts out of four of Alexander's dominions, and is repre Seleucus Callinicus, who with his mother Laodice sented by historians as “the conqueror of the con- reigned in Syria : and he “ dealt,” or acted, “ against querors,” and “the greatest king after Alexander." them, and prevailed" so far that he took Syria, and Bp. Newton.
Cilicia, and the upper parts beyond Euphrates, and al6. And in the end of years they shall join themselves | most all Asia. And when he had heard that a sedition together ; &c.] After many years of hostility between was raised in Egypt, he plundered the kingdom of Sethe kings of Egypt and Syria, Ptolemy Philadelphus. leucus, and took 40,000 talents of " silver,” and “prethe second king of Egypt, and Antiochus Theus, the cious vessels,” and images of their “ gods” two thouthird king of Syria, agreed to make peace upon con sand and five hundred.“ So the king of the south dition, that Antiochus should put away his former wife came into the kingdom of the north, and then returned Laodice and her two sons, and should marry Berenice into his own land.” He likewise “ continued more the daughter of Ptolemy. “For the king's daughter of years than the king of the north ;" for Seleucus Callithe south shall come to the king of the north to make" nicus died in exile of a fall from his horse, and Ptolemy rights or agreements : and accordingly, Ptolemy Phila- Euergetes survived him about four or five years. Bp. delphus brought his daughter to Antiochus Theus, and Newton. with her an immense treasure, so that he received the 10. But his sons shall be stirred up, &c.] The sons of appellation of the dowry-giver. “But she shall not re- the king of the north should endeavour to vindicate and tain the power of the arm," that is, her interest and avenge the cause of their father and their country. The power with Antiochus; for after some time, he brought sons of Seleucus Callinicus were Seleucus Ceraunus back his former wife Laodice with her children to court and Antiochus the Great. The former, who succeeded again. “ Neither shall he stand, nor his arm,” or his his father on the throne, was indeed “stirred up, and seed : for Laodice, fearing the fickle temper of her hus- assembled a multitude of great forces,” in order to reband, lest he should recall Berenice, caused her husband cover his father's dominions, but was poisoned by two to be poisoned; and neither did his seed by Berenice of his generals after an inglorious reign of two or three succeed him in the kingdom, but Laodice contrived years. Upon his decease his brother Antiochus was and managed matters so that her eldest son Seleucus proclaimed king. The Prophet's expression is very reCallinicus was fixed on the throne of his ancestors. markable, that “his sons should be stirred up, and 6. But she shall be given up;" for Laodice, not content assemble a multitude of great forces;" but then the with poisoning her husband, caused also Berenice to be number is changed, and only “one should certainly murdered. “And they that brought her:" for her come, and overflow, and pass through." Accordingly Egyptian women, in endeavouring to defend her, were Antiochus came with a great army, retook Seleucia, many of them slain with her. “And he that begat her,” and recovered Syria. Then after a truce, wherein both or rather, as it is in the margin, “he whom she had sides treated of peace, but prepared for war, Antiobrought forth;” for the son was murdered as well chus“ returned," and overcame in battle Nicolaus the