« AnteriorContinuar »
| Or, in the
of your horses.
The judgments upon Israel
for idolatry and incorrigibleness. Before liketh you, O ye children of Israel, 30 I have sent among you the pes- Before saith the Lord God.
tilence || after the manner of Egypt: 787. 6 9 And I also have given you your young men have I slain with,
ith a cleanness of teeth in all your cities, the sword, +and have taken away way. and want of bread in all your places : your horses; and I have made the the captivity yet have ye not returned unto me, stink of your camps to come up unto, saith the Lord.
your nostrils: yet have ye not re-
I 12 Therefore thus will I do unto
9 I have smitten you with blasting mountains, and createth the || wind, | Or, spirit. Or, thee, and mildew: || when your gardens and and declareth unto man what is his your gardens, your vineyards and your fig trees and thought, that maketh the morning palmerworm, your olive trees increased, the palmer- | darkness, and treadeth upon the high
worm devoured them : yet have ye not places of the earth, The Lord, The
&c, did the
were partaken of by the sacrificers; whence they gave clareth the thoughts of man's heart, as well as what notice of their intention to their friends, and invited Himself intends to do with him; it is He that can cloud them to the feast: see Deut. xii. 6, &c. W. Lowth. the brightest day at pleasure, and can bring down the
6. And I also have given you &c.] After declaring highest and strongest fortifications upon earth : He is the presumptuous idolatry of the Israelites, the Prophet the Lord of hosts; all things are at His command. Bp. describes their obstinate continuance in it, which was Hall, Dr. Stokes. such, that they could not be withdrawn from it by any In this chapter God upbraids His people several times afflictions or punishments, and be turned to worship with this, as the great aggravation of their sins, that and serve the true God. In this and the following they continued impenitent under all those terrible judgverses are enumerated the several afflictions, with which ments, which He had sent upon them. “I have sent they were visited : such as famine, ver. 6; drought, among you,” says He, “want of bread," and then ver. 7, 8; destruction of the fruits of the earth, ver 9; “pestilence,” and then “the sword,” and last of all a pestilence, war, and defeat, ver. 10; and the overthrow terrible “fire,” which had almost consumed them. “I of some of their cities, ver. 11. At the end of each of have overthrown some of you, as God overthrew Sodom these punishments, it is to be observed, that the Pro- and Gomorrah, and ye were as a firebrand plucked out phet adds in the name of the Lord, “yet have ye not of the burning; yet have ye not returned unto Me," returned unto Me." This addition shews, that the ver. 11. And because all these judgments had not been mind of the Israelites was not only careless and un- effectual to reclaim them, He tells them, that He was moved amid these great miseries and calamities, but resolved to go on in punishing; and therefore He bids that it was also desperate and gone past recovery in them to expect it, and prepare themselves for it : their idolatry, which they could not by any means be “Therefore thus will I do unto thee, O Israel: and be. wrought on to cast off, and so return by true repent-cause I will do this unto thee, prepare to meet thy God, ance to the knowledge and worship of God. Danæus. O Israel," ver. 12. When God hath begun to punish It is the desire of God to reclaim men by afflictions, a people, and they are not amended by it, the honour which for this purpose He sent among the Israelites. of His justice is concerned to proceed, and not to give Bp. Hall.
over. By every sin that we commit, we offend God; 12. Therefore thus will I do unto thee,] Since thou but if He smite us, and we stand out against Him, then hast slighted all these judgments, I am resolved to exe- do we contend with Him, and strive for mastery. And cute upon thee the severest of all My vengeances; and when the sinner is upon these stubborn and insolent since thou hearest I have taken up this determination terms, then “prepare to meet thy God;" a bitter sarto proceed against thee, therefore prepare thyself, O casm, as if man could be a match for God, and a poor Israel, to meet thy God with unfeigned humiliation and weak creature in any wise able to encounter Him, to repentance. Bp. Hall. Or the phrase, “Prepare thyself whom power belongs. There is a severe expression to meet thy God," may be understood as signifying, concerning God's dealing with such perverse and obstiPrepare to meet My wrath; that is, expect the most nate sinners, Ps. xviii. 26, “with the froward Thou wilt terrible punishment. See Abp. Tillotson's note at the shew thyself froward ;” or, as the words may more proend of the chapter.
perly and conveniently be rendered, “with the froward 13. For, lo, he that formeth the mountains, &c.] For Thou wilt wrestle.” God will not be outbraved by the well thou knowest, there is no hoping to resist the power sins of men; and therefore, if we continue impenitent, of the Almighty: it is He that formeth the mountains, we have all the reason in the world to expect, that God and infuseth the spirit into man, and knoweth and de- I should go on to punish. Abp. Tillotson. Vol. II.
vineyards of desire.
A lamentation for Israel.
An exhortation to repentance. CHAP. V.
| 9 That strengtheneth the † spoiled 1 A lamentation for Israel. 4 An exhort against the strong, so that the spoiled. 787. ation to repentance. 21 God rejecteth their shall come against the fortress.
1 hypocritical service.
oth + Heb. spoil.
10 They hate him that rebuketh
I up against you, even a lamenta- speaketh uprightly.
11 Forasmuch therefore as your 2 The virgin of Israel is fallen; treading is upon the poor, and ye take she shall no more rise : she is for- from him burdens of wheat: dye have d Zeph. 1. 13. saken upon her land ; there is none to built houses of hewn stone, but ye raise her up.
shall not dwell in them; ye have 3 For thus saith the Lord God; planted + pleasant vineyards, but ye + Heb. The city that went out by a thousand shall not drink wine of them. shall leave an hundred, and that which 12 For I know your manifold went forth by an hundred shall leave transgressions and your mighty sins: ten, to the house of Israel.
they afflict the just, they take || a sor, a 4 For thus saith the Lord unto bribe, and they turn aside the poor the house of Israel, Seek ye me, and in the gate from their right. ye shall live:
13 Therefore the prudent shall a Chap. 4. 4. 5 But seek not a Beth-el, nor enter keep silence in that time; for it is
into Gilgal, and pass not to Beer- an evil time.
of hosts, shall be with you, as ye have
7 Ye who turn judgment to worm- of hosts will be gracious unto the
16 Therefore the Lord, the God b Job 9. 9. & 8 Seek him that maketh the "seven of hosts, the LORD, saith thus; Wail
stars and Orion, and turneth the sha- ing shall be in all streets; and they
maketh the day dark with night: that alas ! and they shall call the husa Chap. 9.6. calleth for the waters of the sea, and bandman to mourning, and such as
poureth them out upon the face of the are skilful of lamentation to wail-
& 97. 10.
Chap. V. ver. 1. — against you,] Rather, “over you.” stars therein; who turneth the blackest night into a The allusion is to the lamentations made at funerals: clear morning, and causeth the brightest day to end in see ver. 16; Jer. ix. 17; Ezek. xix. 1; xxvii. 2. So a dark night; who causeth the waters of the sea to overthe Prophet bemoans the state of the kingdom of Israel, swell their banks, and to drown the face of the earth. as dead and irrecoverably lost. W. Lowth.
Bp. Hall. See Job ix. 9, and the note there from Chap3. - The city that went out by a thousand shall leave pelow. an hundred, &c.) So few shall be left alive, after the 10. — that rebuketh in the gate,] That judgeth uphard and long sieges of the Assyrians, that in those rightly, and freely, and impartially rebuketh the wicked cities of Israel, out of which a thousand able men were man on the bench of justice. Bp. Hall. See the notes wont to go forth to war, there now shall be left but a on Gen. xxiii. 10; Job v. 4. hundred, &c. bp. Hall.
13. - the prudent shall keep silence in that time ; &c.] 4, 5. — Seek ye me, — But seek not Beth-el, &c.) The Seeing that his admonitions will do no good to men Israelites are here commanded to seek the Lord, and to wholly devoted to their own ways of unlawful gain, and abstain from idols, such as were then in Beth-el, Gilgal, will be injurious to such as rebuke them. Dr. Stokes. and Beer-sheba : and the admonition is enforced by 14. — as ye have spoken.] Ye are wont to boast of two powerful considerations, that if they “ seek the your interest in the Lord, and of the promises made Lord, they shall live;" that is, shall enjoy life, and sal- | by Him to your fathers. Obedience is the condition vation, and deliverance from their troubles; but that if required on your part to qualify you for His favour. they seek their idols, they shall be cut off together with W. Lowth. those objects of their idolatrous worship. Danæus. I 16. -- the husbandman &c.] Husbandmen shall have
7. Ye who turn judgment to wormwood,] Ye, who their part in the common sorrow, forasmuch as their corrupt judgment, and make it grievous and hateful to corn shall be wasted and devoured ; and those, whose My people. Bp. Hall.
trade and practice it is to make a common lamentation, 8. – that maketh the seven stars &c.] Who maketh shall now mourn in earnest, without a hire. Bp. Hall. the great frame of the heavens, and all the glorious See the note on Jer. ix. 17.
Jer. 30. 7.
Zeph. 1. 15.
God rejecteth their
CHAP, V, VI.
hypocritical service. Before 17 And in all vineyards shall be 23 Take thou away from me the Before
787. wailing: for I will pass through thee, noise of thy songs; for I will not hear 787. w saith the Lord.
the melody of thy viols. f Isai. 5. 19. 18 * Woe unto you that desire the 24 But let judgment + run down + Heb, roll. Joel 2. 2. day of the LORD! to what end is it as waters, and righteousness as a
for you ? the day of the Lord is dark- mighty stream.
| 25 h Have ye offered unto me sa- h Acts 7. 42.
20 Shall not the day of the LORD images, the star of your god, which
27 Therefore will I cause you to 5. Isai. 1. 11. 21 ! I hate, I despise your feast go into captivity beyond Damascus, | Or, smell days, and I will not || smell in your saith the Lord, whose name is The solemn assemblies.
God of hosts.
17. And in all vineyards shall be wailing :] Where oblations to your god Moloch, and the other images of there used to be shouting and rejoicing, when the sum- those planetary gods whom ye worshipped. Bp. Hall. mer fruits were gathered in. See Isai. xvi. 10; Jer. xxy. In the former verse, the emphasis lies in the word 30; xlviii. 33. W. Lowth.
“ Me.” Did ye offer such sacrifices as were acceptable 18. Woe unto you that desire the day of the Lord ! &c.] to Me: such entire and undivided service as I enjoined ? Woe to those among you, that mock at the tidings of In the latter verse God is introduced as replying; No, this sad day of the Lord, and scornfully ask, why it doth ye sometimes carried about Moloch in his shrine or not come, and when it will come! they shall find that it tabernacle. Abp. Newcome. “ The tabernacle of Mowill come, little to their comfort; they shall find it is loch” was a shrine, with the image of the Deity placed not a day for mirth or pleasure, but for heaviness within it: such were the silver shrines of Diana, Acts and sorrow. Bp. Hall. Compare the passages in the xix, 24 ; and the Thensæ or Lecticæ among the Romans. margin.
These their votaries carried in procession; as a solemn 19. As if a man did flee from a lion, &c.] It shall be piece of worship, or pledge of the presence of their gods with you as with a man, who, flying from a lion, meets among them. See Isai. xlvi. 7. Moloch is an idol in his way with a bear; and, to escape both, flies into a often mentioned in Scripture. Chiun is generally suphouse, and, laying his hand upon the wall, to get over, posed by learned men to be the same with Saturn. The is bitten by a serpent; so shall you, shunning one dan- same idol was called Remphan, or Rephan, by the ger, fall into another. Bp. Hall.
Egyptians W. Lowth. 20. Shall not the day &c.] A strong affirmation is 26. — the star of your god,] The heathens had images conveyed in this question. Darkness is naturally put that represented the heavenly bodies; see 2 Kings xxiii. for calamity, and light for gladness. Abp. Newcome. ¡11; 2 Chron. xxxiv. 4 : so the image of Chiun repre
21-24. These four verses convey the same sense as sented the star of Saturn, as that of Moloch did the sun. Isai. i. 11-16; Jer. vi. 20; vii. 21-23; Hos. vi. 6; W. Lowth. Or, probably here is an allusion to the figure viii. 13 : all which places import, how little valuable are of a star, fixed on the head of an image of a false god. the external rites of religion, unless they are accom- Abp. Newcome. panied with universal obedience. W. Lowth.
The sorts of idolatry here recited are not to be re23. — thy songs ;-thy viols.] The usual accompani- strained to the time, during which the Israelites lived ments of sacrifices among both Jews and heathens. in the wilderness, but are to be extended over the whole Abp. Neucome. The psalms and hymns were sung in space which passed from their coming out of Egypt to the temple with instrumental musick. W. Lowth. the time of Amos. Danaus.
24. But let judgment run down as waters, &c.] Instead 27. Therefore will I cause you to go &c.] That is, Beof relying upon mere outward offerings in honour of cause of the little sincerity and devotion, with which Me, take care that justice be impartially administered, your forefathers formerly performed their sacrifices to so that every one may partake of it as of the waters of Me, and with which you perform them at present. The a river; and take care also, that all live holy and Prophets often upbraid the Jews with the sins of their righteous lives, so that their good example may, like a forefathers, and threaten them with remarkable judgmighty stream, bear down all wickedness before it. Dr. ments on that account, when their posterity continue in Wells.
the same or worse impieties. See Hos. ix. 9, 10; x. 9. 25, 26. Have ye offered &c.] Have ye not forty entire Compare Matt. xxiii. 35. W. Lowth. years together, in the wilderness, bewrayed your averse
beyond Damascus,] To which city it seems proness from Me, and your inclination to idolatry? Was it bable that Hazael carried many captives, 2 Kings x. to Me, that in this while ye offered your sacrifices, O ye 32, 33. But now the Israelites were to be led away caphouse of Israel? No: howsoever ye pretended to bear tives into Assyria and Media, 2 Kings xv. 29; xvii. 6. My tabernacle, yet indeed ye did your services and Abp. Newcome.
... mountain of the
TOL. in bol
Taken about 794.
The wantonness of Israel
shall be plagued with desolation. c. Before * W O E to them that || are at ease ( 6 That drink || wine in bowls, and Beforest
VV in Zion, and trust in the anoint themselves with the chief oint- 787.
mountain of Samaria, which are named ments; but they are not grieved for || Or, are b ll chief of the nations, to whom the the + affliction of Joseph. • Exod. 19. 5. house of Israel came!
1 7 Therefore now shall they go breach. 2 Pass ye unto Calneh, and see ; captive with the first that go captive, and from thence go ye to Hamath the and the banquet of them that stretchgreat: then go down to Gath of the ed themselves shall be removed. Philistines: be they better than these 8 e The Lord God hath sworn by e Jer. 51. 14. kingdoms? or their border greater himself, saith the Lord the God of than your border ?
| hosts, I abhor the excellency of Jac Ezek. 12. 3 Ye that put far away the devil cob, and hate his palaces: therefore a Chap. 5. 18. day, and cause the || seat of violence will I deliver up the city with tall ,Heb. the habitation to come near;
that is therein.
couches, and eat the lambs out of the that they shall die.
| him up, and he that burneth him, to | Or, quaver. 5 That | chant to the sound of the bring out the bones out of the house,
viol, and invent to themselves instru- and shall say unto him that is by the
Chap. VI. ver. 1. — which are named chief of the
they are not grieved for the affliction of Joseph.] nations, &c.] Sion or Jerusalem, and Samaria, are the They do not humble themselves under God's afflicting chief seats of the two kingdoms of Judah and Israel, hand, nor lay to heart the miseries the Divine judgwhither is the greatest resort of the whole nation. The ments have brought upon the kingdom of “ Israel," word rendered “nations” usually signifies the hea- called by the name “ Joseph,” and “ the house of Jothens, but sometimes denotes the Jews. W. Louth. seph,” chap. v. 6, 15. W. Louth. Others refer this passage to the nobles, wise, and great! Wine, and musick, and gorgeous apparel, and delicate men, of every place: men that were heads among their fare, are things which God in His goodness hath created, own people. Poole.
and given to the children of men for their comfort; and 2. — Calneh,- Hamath-Gath] Calneh was a city in they may use them lawfully, and take comfort in them the region of Babylon, Gen. x. 10; and, as it seems, as their portion : but he that shall use any of them inlately subdued by the Assyrians. Hamath was a Syrian temperately, or unseasonably, or vainly, or wastefully, city on the Orontes. It was conquered by Jeroboam, abuseth both them and himself. And therefore we shall 2 Kings xiv. 25; and by the Assyrians, 2 Kings xix. often find both the things themselves condemned, and 13. ^ Gath of the Philistines” was taken by Uzziah, those that used them blamed, in the Scriptures. Bein whose reign Amos prophesied, 2 Chron. xxvi. 6. Abp. sides the text, see Isai. iii. 18—23; Luke xvi. 19; vi. Newcome.
25. And yet none of all the things, here condemned, - be they better than these kingdoms ? &c.] Why were or are in themselves unlawful : it was the excess then do ye worship their gods ? and why are ye not only, or other disorder in the use of them, that made grateful to Jehovah? Abp. Newcome.
them obnoxious to reproof. In many things of this sort 3. Ye that put far away the evil day, &c.] Who per we may easily err, in point either of judgment, or of pracsuade yourselves that God's judgments will not overtake tice, or of both, if we do not wisely distinguish the use you, and turn the seat of justice into the seat of oppres- from the abuse. Often, because the abuses are common sion. W. Lowth.
and great, we peevishly condemn in others the very use 4--6. These three verses are an elegant description of some lawful things. Often again, because there is of the ill uses, which men too often make of a plentiful evidently a lawful use of the things, we impudently jusfortune. It shuts out all serious considerations, makes tify ourselves in the very abuse of them. In the former them void of compassion towards the afflicted, and dis- case we infringe our brethren's liberty ; in the latter we poses them to regard nothing but the gratification of pollute our own. The best and safest way for us in all their senses. W. Lowth.
indifferent things is this: to be indulgent to others, but 4.- beds of ivory,] That is, sofas adorned or inlaid strict to ourselves : in allowing them their liberty with with ivory. In Homer we read of “a couch wreathed the most, but taking our own liberty ever with the least. with ivory and silver ;” and “a bed variegated with | Bp. Sanderson. gold, silver, and ivory.” Parkhurst.
8. - I abhor the excellency of Jacob,] Whatever the - lambs] In many parts of the East lambs are kingdoms of Israel and Judah value themselves for, spoken of as a sort of food excessively delicious. Sir J. is hateful to Me, as having been abused by them, and Chardin.
made instrumental in dishonouring Me. W. Louth. 5. – like David ;] Abusing his holy example, in 9. — if there remain ten men in one house, that they applying to purposes of wantonness and riot what he shall die.] Those that escape the hands of the enemy, consecrated and dedicated to God. It is the abuse of shall die by pestilence or famine during the siege. W. musick which is here condemned. Danæus.
Lowth, Abp. Newcome. 6. That drink wine in bowls,] The Prophet alludes, 10. And a man's uncle shall take him up, &c.] A man either to the quantity drunk, or more probably to the shall not have a brother or a son left, to do him the last magnificence of the drinking vessel. Harmer.
| offices of his burial; but if his uncle or his kinsman
Or, green worms.
will not, or, have not.
CHAP. VI, VII. The judgments of the grashoppers, fc. Before, with thee? and he shall say, No.IT HUS hath the Lord God shewed Before
787. Then shall he say, 'Hold thy tongue: 1 unto me; and, behold, he formed 787. f Chap. 5. 13.
for || we may not make mention of || grashoppers in the beginning of the 1. Or, they the name of the LORD.
shooting up of the latter growth; and, worms. 11 For, behold, the LORD com- / lo, it was the latter growth after the
mandeth, and he will smite the great | king's mowings. ! Or, house with || breaches, and the little 2 And it came to pass, that when house with clefts.
they had made an end of eating the
3 The Lord repented for this: It
14 But, behold, I will raise up Lord God called to contend by fire,
and they shall afflict you from the 5 Then said I, O Lord God, cease, | Or, valley. entering in of Hamath unto the || river I beseech thee: by whom shall Jacob of the wilderness.
arise? for he is small. CHAP. VII.
6 The Lord repented for this: This
of the fire, are diverted by the prayer of 7 | Thus he shewed me: and,
line in his hand.
shall undertake to bring out his corpse, he that is the indignation, are, First, the injustice and violence comoverseer of these funeral rites, joining with him in that mitted by the rich and great: Secondly, A sensual work, shall say to that one which is left alive in the and voluptuous life, high living, the love of pleasure house, Is there any one remaining of the whole number and diversions, and pride: Thirdly, Insensibility under of the family? and he shall say, No. Then shall the God's corrections and the examples of His wrath. These other answer again, Rest thou humbly and silently in were the sins for which the Jews perished, and which the just pleasure of the Almighty : this is His work: bring down His vengeance upon such as are guilty of as for us, our sins have been so grievous, that in con- them. We ought therefore most carefully to avoid science thereof, it is not for us to call on the name of them. To this end let us consider, that these sins not the Lord for a release or mitigation of His judgment. only expose men to temporal punishments, but make Bp. Hall.
them subject still more unavoidably to the punishments 11.- the great house &c.] Universal ruin shall be of the world to come, and that injustice, a love of pleaspread through the city by the enemy. Or the earth-sures, impenitence, and incorrigibleness, are still more quake may be alluded to. Abp. Newcome.
displeasing to God in Christians, than they were in the 12. Shall horses run upon the rock ? &c.] Is it possi- | Jews; because the Gospel does so expressly command, ble, that horses should run upon the steep and craggy and by the most powerful motives engage us, to recliff's ? or can it be, that the husbandman should drive nounce the desires of the flesh, and to live in charity, his plough through those hard rocks? so impossible is temperance, and humility. Ostervald. it, that ye Israelites should continue to prosper while ye remain thus sinful; for ye have corrupted judgment Chap. VII. ver. 1.- after the king's mowings.] Or, and justice, and made it hateful and deadly to the “feedings :” agreeably to the remark of Mr. Stuart, innocent. Bp. Hall. See Bp. Lowth's note on Isai. that in general they mow not their grass, to make hay, v. 28.
as we do; but cut it off the ground, either green or 13. Ye which rejoice in a thing of nought,] In your withered, as they have occasion to use it. Harmer, own strength, which is vain and nothing worth. Bp. Fragments to Calmet. Hall. Or in your idols, which are nothing, 1 Cor. viii. 3. The Lord repented for this : &c.] To affect the 4. Abp. Newcome.
mind of the Prophet, and by him that of the people, - horns] That is, dominion. See the notes on God displays different judgments, and shews His cle1 Sam. ii. 1.
mency by forbearing to execute them upon the inter14. – I will raise up against you a nation, ] That is, cession of Amos: it being His sole intention to reprethe Assyrians who should afflict them from one end of sent these modes of punishment, and not to inflict them. the land to the other. “The entering in of Hamath” | Abp. Newcome. was the northern border of their country; and “the 4. - behold, the Lord God called to contend by fire, river of the wilderness" is the same with the river of&c. The second vision represents a more furious Egypt," the boundary of Judea on the south, Gen. xv. I enemy, that consumed all before him, like a flaming 18. W. Lowth.
| fire, an element that hath no mercy. Dr. Stokes. The sins here described, as especially provoking God's / 7,8.- the Lord stood upon a wall made by a plumbline,]