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The rejection of Israel foreshewn. AMOS.
Amaziah complaineth of Amos. Beforer 8 And the Lord said unto me, | O thou seer, go, flee thee away into Before
- Amos, what seest thou ? And I said, the land of Judah, and there eat bread, 787.
A plumbline. Then said the LORD, and prophesy there:
9 And the high places of Isaac 14 | Then answered Amos, and + Heb. House
|| Sycomore fruit: 10 1 Then Amaziah the priest of 15 And the Lord took me † as I + Heb. from Beth-el sent to Jeroboam king of Is- followed the flock, and the Lord said rael, saying, Amos hath conspired unto me, Go, prophesy unto my peoagainst thee in the midst of the house ple Israel. of Israel: the land is not able to bear 16 Now therefore hear thou the all his words.
word of the Lord: Thou sayest, Pro11 For thus Amos saith, Jeroboam Iphesy not against Israel, a and drop a Ezek. 21. 2. shall die by the sword, and Israel shall not thy word against the house of surely be led away captive out of their Isaac. own land.
17 Therefore thus saith the LORD; 12 Also Amaziah said unto Amos, Thy wife shall be an harlot in the
God's judgments are sometimes represented by a “line" had consecrated to perform the idolatrous service at and a "plummet,” to denote that they are measured out Beth-el. See 1 kings xii. 31. W. Lowth. by the exactest rules of justice; see 2 Kings xxi. 13;
Amos hath conspired against thee in the midst of Isai. xxviii. 17. The instruments which are designed the house of Israel :) That is, in Beth-el, where is the for building are sometimes used to mark out those greatest confluence of thy subjects. Bp. Hall. places, which are to be pulled down and destroyed : 11.-- Jeroboam shall die by the sword,] This was a see 2 Sam. viii. 2; Isai. xxxiv. 11; Lam. ii. 8. "The plain perverting of the Prophet's words; for he did not vision imports, that as God forinerly built up his peo-prophesy against the king himself, but against his faple, He would now pluck them down and destroy them. mily and posterity. W. Lowth. See Jer. i. 10; xxxi. 28. W. Lowth.
12, 13. Also Amaziah said unto Amos, O thou seer, &c.] 8. — Amos, what seest thou ?] This is said to excite Retire home to thy own country of Judah, and there the Prophet's attention. Abp. Newcome.
maintain thyself, and there bestow thy pains and admo- I will not again pass by them any more:7 I will nitions : but venture not any more to vent thy pronot any more pardon and pass by their wickedness. phecies in Beth-el; for thou knowest the condition of Bp. Hall. In this third vision the Prophet is informed, this place; it is both the king's sanctuary for his dethat now God Himself examines and tries the doings of votion, and the king's court for state ; meddle not any the Israelites according to the exact or perfect rule of more with prophesying here, lest thou provoke the Ilis justice, as prescribed to them in His law; and that king's anger against thee. Bp. Hall. He will give sentence upon them according to this 14.- I was no prophet, neither was I a prophet's son ;] rule, and not according to the mildness and gentleness I was not a Prophet by profession, nor bred up in the of His mercy, which He had before exercised towards schools of the Prophets, as usually were those who them, but which they had abused by becoming worse took the prophetical office upon them. See 2 Kings i. instead of better. Now therefore He will no more par- 5, &c.; iv. 38; vi. 1. W. Lowth. Amos says, that he don and pass over them, but will call all things to a had no pretensions to the office or title of a Prophet by just account, as carpenters and builders are accustomed birth, succession, or education; but since it had pleased to try and examine all things by line and by level. God to lay upon him, by a special commission, the neDanaus.
cessity of prophesying, he must obey the Divine call 9. And the high places &c.] “ The high places of rather than the command of the king. Dr. Stokes. Isaac" were the altar and grove at Beer-sheba, where - sycomore fruit :) A sort of wild fig, called by Isaac dwelt and built an altar, Gen. xxvi. 25; xlvi. 1: some the Egyptian fig. W. Lowth. See the note on this place was afterwards abused to idolatry, chap. v. 5. 1 Kings x. 27. “ The sanctuaries of Israel” were the places set apart 15. And the Lord took me as I followed the flock, for idolatrous worship, such as Beth-el, Gilgal, and thus he was taken to the office of a Prophet, as David Beer-sheba, chap. iii. 14; v. 5. The word “sanctuary" had been to that of a king : see Ps. Lxxviii. 70, 71, is used for an idolatrous temple, Isai. xvi. 12. W. Danmus. And as Moses also had been before him. Lowth.
| See the note on Exod. iii. ). - I will rise against the house of Jeroboam with the | 16.— drop not thy word &c.] Do not let fall the sword. This was fulfilled when Shallum conspired menaces of judgment upon the chosen people of God. against Zachariah the son of Jeroboam, and slew him, Bp. Hall. 2 Kings xv. 10: he was the last that reigned of that '17. – Thy wife shall be an harlot in the city,] When family. W. Lowth.
Beth-el shall be taken by the Assyrians, (see Hos. x. 5, 10. Then Amaziah the priest of Beth-el] This Amaziah 6,) the soldiers shall abuse thy wife, and treat her as a was a priest, not of the tribe of Levi, but such an one common prostitute; as a just punishment of her idolas those were, whom Jeroboam, the first of that name, I atry, which is spiritual whoredom : “ thy sons and thy
The type of a basket of summer fruit. CHAP. VII, VIII.. . Oppression is reproved.
shall fall by the sword, and thy land up the needy, even to make the poor 787.
and the sabbath, that we may + set + Heb. open. CHAP. VIII.
forth wheat, making the ephah small,
and the shekel great, and t falsifying + Heb, 1 By a basket of summer fruit is showed the propinquity of Israel's end. 4 Oppression
the balances by deceit? is reproved.' 11 A famine of the word | 6 That we may buy the poor for of decert. threatened.
a silver, and the needy for a pair of a Chap. 2. 6. THU S hath the Lord God shewed shoes; yea, and sell the refuse of the
I unto me: and behold a basket of wheat ?
7 The Lord hath sworn by the
perverting the balances
ple of Israel; I will not again pass eth therein ? and it shall rise up
wholly as a flood; and it shall be cast 3 And the songs of the temple out and drowned, as by the flood of + Heb. shall + shall be howlings in that day, saith | Egypt.
the Lord God: there shall be many 1 9 And it shall come to pass in that
+ Heb. be silent.
daughters shall fall by the sword” of the Assyrians, as by deceit. Bp. Hall. That is, in plain terms, they had a recompense for thy infidelity concerning My prophecy, rather be defrauding neighbours, than serving God. that the house of Jeroboam shall fall by the sword, ver. Bp. Beveridge. 9; “ thy land shall be divided by” measuring it, as The “ephah” was the measure, wherewith they sold, usual, with a “line” or cord, among those to whom the containing about one of our bushels : this they made king of Assyria shall give it, as a suitable punishment smaller than the just standard. The “shekel” was the for thy contradiction of My prophecy concerning the money they received as the price for their goods : by conquest of this kingdom by the Assyrians : "and thou“ falsifying the balances” when they weighed it, and so shalt die in a polluted land," or in a land where idol. requiring it to be greater than it should be according to atry prevails, and where it will be impossible to con- the standard weight of a shekel, they diminished its verse without committing legal impurity, because thou just value. So in both ways they overreached those hast been instrumental in keeping the people of Israel who dealt with them. See Mic. vi. 11. Dr. Wells, in idolatry, whereby this kingdom is polluted: and the W. Lowth. people of “ Israel shall surely go into captivity forth of 6. That we may buy the poor for silver, &c.] That we his land,” because they have hearkened unto thee rather may cause the poor to sell themselves to our servitude than unto God, speaking to them by His Prophets. for a little silver, as being not able to sustain themDr. Wells, W. Lowth.
selves; and that we may buy the needy for a pair of
shoes, even for the basest necessaries : yea, and that, by Chap. VIII, ver. 1, 2. — behold a basket of summer this means, we may put off at an unreasonable rate the fruit, &c.] The basket of ripe summer fruit which Amos | very refuse and offal of the wheat. Bp. Hall. saw in this fourth vision, was to denote that Israel's ' 7. The Lord hath sworn by the excellency of Jacob,] sins were now ripe for judgment; as the time of judg. That is, by Jacob's most eminent and incommunicable ment is elsewhere expressed by an harvest or a vintage. One, or by Jacob's holy One: see chap. iv. 2. Jos. See Joel üži, 13. The two Hebrew words for “ summer Mede. By Himself, who is truly the glory of Jacob or fruit” and “an end” have an affinity in sound, which Israel, see Ps. lxviii. 34 : whatever other excellency or gives occasion to a play on the words not unusual in advantage they may make the subject of their glory. Scripture. W. Lowth.See Jer. i. 11, and the note See chap. vi. 8. W. Lowth. there.
8. — it shall rise up wholly as a flood ;] This deluge 3. And the songs of the temple shall be howlings in that of sin in the nation shall make her punishment overday,] Instead of the songs and musick of the temples flow, and overwhelm her in every part. Dr. Stokes, of Beth-el and other high places, there shall be nothing 1 - it shall be cast out and drowned, as by the flood but howlings and shriekings of those that are slain. of Egypt.] Or rather, the river of Egypt. The inhaBp. Hall.
bitants of the land shall be cast out of their possessions, 5. Saying, When will the new moon be gone, 1 When or the land itself shall be swallowed up by the invading shall we have done with these solemn feasts, wherein Assyrians, as Egypt is by the inundation of the river we are not allowed to buy and sell? would God these Nile. W. Lowth. new moons and sabbaths were once past, that we might 9.- I will cause the sun to go down at noon,] Your sell our corn at a high rate ; making the measure of the sorrow shall be so extreme in that day, and that day wheat small, and the weights, wherewith the silver is shall be to you so black and gloomy, as if the sun were weighed, great and heavy; and falsifying the balances gone down at noonday, and as if darkness had covered
A famine of the word threatened.
The certainty of Before and I will darken the earth in the Samaria, and say, Thy god, O Dan,
B 787. clear day:
liveth; and, The manner of Beer- . 787.
CHA P. IX.
11 The certainty of the desolation. 11 The
restoring of the tabernacle of David.
12 And they shall wander from of them with the sword: he that fleeth
| 2 a Though they dig into hell, a Ps. 139. 8,
14 They that swear by the sin of thence will I bring them down :
the earth in the clearest day. Bp. Hall. Calamitous probably taken, Hos. x. 13; and the phrase is often times are expressed by the failing of the light of the used so in the Acts; particularly chap. xix. 23; xxiv. sun, and the day's being overspread with darkness. See 14. Here it is taken figuratively for the god or object Isai. xiii. 10; lix. 9, 10; Jer. xv. 9; Job v. 14; xxii. of their worship. Beer-sheba was a place noted for 11. W. Lowth.
| idolatry, as hath been observed upon chap. v. 5. W. 11.— I will send a famine in the land, &c.] Not a Lowth. famine of material bread, &c. but a spiritual famine of The punishment, which is here threatened upon the the word of God, which alone is able to feed and save people for their sins, is, that God would “send a famine your souls. Bp. Hall. It was usual among the Jews in the land, not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, to resort to the Prophets for counsel under any diffi. but of hearing the word of the Lord.” Let us learn culty. See chap. i. 11; Ezek. xiv. 7; xx. 1. 'Amos hence, that the most terrible chastisement God can intells them, that in a little time there will be no Prophets flict upon a people is to deprive them of His word, and for them to consult ; and this shall be a just punish- no longer to send His faithful servants among them: ment for their despising the former Prophets, and their and therefore, that those, who enjoy these precious adinstructions. This was fulfilled upon the whole nation vantages, ought to esteem them above all things, and at the time of the Babylonish captivity : see Lam. ii. 9; make a good use of them, lest they be deprived of them Ps. lxxiv. 9; Ezek. vii. 26. And after their return by the just judgment of God. Ostervald. from captivity they had no succession of Prophets, from the time of Malachi till the coming of Christ. See Chap. IX. The Prophet sees a fifth vision, repre1 Mac. iv. 46; ix. 27. W. Lowth.
senting a final destruction of the kingdom of Israel; 12. – from sea to sea, &c.] That is, from the east but he concludes his prophecy with promises of restorsea, namely, either the sea of Galilee, or the salt sea, to ing the kingdom of David, and the Jewish nations the west, or Mediterranean sea; and “from the north under the Messias, when the Church shall be enlarged even to the east" again ; that is, all through the king- | by the Gentiles coming into it. W. Lowth. dom. Dr. Wells.
| Ver. 1. - Smite the lintel of the door, &c.] This sig13. In that day shall the fair virgins and young men nifies that a severe blow was by the Divine command faint for thirst.] They who are in the bloom of their to be inflicted on those who were thought to be most youth, and in the strength of their age, shall faint and eminent, and most able to support and give aid to the be dispirited, like those that want necessary refresh temple and the whole nation to whom it belonged. Dr. ment. Compare Jer. xlviii. 18. W. Lowth.
Stokes. 14. They that swear by the sin of Samaria, &c.] — and cut them in the head, all of them ;] That is, Those idolatrous Israelites, that swear by the molten I will destroy all the chief of the kingdom of Israel. images of Samaria, and say, As the god which is wor- Dr. Wells. The “head” corresponds to the “lintel" shipped in Dan, and the author of the religion of in the foregoing clause. Abp. Newcome. As if he had Beer-sheba liveth ; even they shall fall into utter per- said, Let them that are in the highest place, the guides dition, and never rise again. Bp. Hall.
and governours of the people, have the first and greatest “The sin of Samaria” was the calf, set up at Beth-el blow, that in them others may see their doom. And by Jeroboam, who committed a great sin in so doing, after that, “I will slay the last of them” also, the lowest and made Israel to sin, 1 Kings xii. 30; xiv. 16 : com- of the people,“ with the sword” of a cruel enemy. Dr. pare Mic. i. 5. “ The manner,” or way, “ of Beer-Stokes." sheba” is rendered “ the god of Beer-sheba” in the 2. Though they dig into hell, &c.] Though they hide Greek version, which expresses the sense rather than themselves in the deepest holes or caverns of the earth, the words. The “way” or “manner,” signifies the (see Isai. ï. 19;) or take refuge in the highest fortresses, same with "the way of worship :" in this sense it is they shall not escape My vengeance. W. Lowth.
Before their coed, and it shall upayaan Fort tile house of Lette sited in
the desolation of Israel.
CHAP. IX. The restoring of David's tabernacle. Before 3 And though they hide themselves Israel ? saith the LORD. Have not I Before
in the top of Carmel, I will search and brought up Israel out of the land of 787. take them out thence; and though Egypt? and the e Philistines from
be Jer. 47. 4. they be hid from my sight in the Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir? bottom of the sea, thence will I com 8 Behold, the eyes of the Lord mand the serpent, and he shall bite God are upon the sinful kingdom, them:
| and I will destroy it from off the face 4 And though they go into capti- of the earth; saving that I will not vity, before their enemies, thence will utterly destroy the house of Jacob,
I command the sword, and it shall slay saith the Lord. b Jer. 44. 11. them: and I will set mine eyes upon 9 For, lo, I will command, and I
them for evil, and not for good. will + sift the house of Israel among + Heb. cause
5 And the Lord God of hosts is all nations, like as corn is sifted in a *o* he that toucheth the land, and it shall sieve, yet shall not the least + grain + Heb. stone. melt, and all that dwell therein shall fall upon the earth. mourn: and it shall rise up wholly 10 All the sinners of my people like a flood; and shall be drowned, as shall die by the sword, which say, The by the flood of Egypt.
evil shall not overtake nor prevent us. 6 It is he that buildeth his 11 In that day will I raise up the ! Or, spheres. || of stories in the heaven, and hath tabernacle of David that is fallen, f Acts 15. 16. ascensions. founded his || troop in the earth; he and + close up the breaches thereof; + Heb, hedge,
that d calleth" for the waters of the and I will raise up his ruins, and I"
nant of Edom, and of all the heathen,
c Ps. 104. 3. 1 Or, bundle. d Chap. 5. S.
name is called.
3.- the serpent,1 The word is used for a water- ' 8. – saving that I will not utterly destroy &c.] God animal, Isai. xxvii. 1; and appears to be here used for still promises to preserve a remnant in the midst of His some carnivorous fish. W. Lowth.
heaviest judgments, that He may perform to them the The general meaning of these verses is, that whatever promises made to their fathers. See Jer. xxx. 11; Joel places of refuge the Israelites may seek, their attempts ii. 32 ; Rom. xi. 28, 29. W. Lowth. at hiding themselves shall be ineffectual : for the hand 9. — yet shall not the least grain fall upon the earth.] of God, which is every where present, will draw them I will mingle or scatter the Israelites among all nations, from thence, and give them over to their enemies. Da- just as good and bad grain are mingled in a sieve; but næus.
will so order it that none of the good grain shall be lost, 6. It is he that buildeth his stories in the heaven, ] An or fall to the ground. Compare Matt. iii. 12. W. awful description of God's irresistible power, discover- Lowth. ing itself in the works of the creation, particularly in 11. In that day] When I come to make a remarkable His appointing several regions of the air, as so many difference between the good and the bad, ver. 9. W. apartments that lead to the highest heavens, the seat of | Lowth. His own glory. See Ps. civ. 3. W. Lowth.
- the tabernacle of David Under the figure of - and hath founded his troop in the earth ;] The rebuilding a tabernacle, that was partly demolished by old English translation hath rendered the sense very force, partly decayed with age, the Prophet foretells the perspicuously thus : “And hath laid the foundation of restoring of the kingdom of David to one of his seed His globe of elements in the earth.” The word, ren- after it should be fallen into a very low condition, and dered “troop," signifies the collection of elements and the enlargement of his subjects in the room of those, other creatures, which furnish the earth, expressed by who had shaken off their obedience. Bp. Chandler. a word, which we render “the host,” Gen. ii. 1. W. 12. That they may possess the remnant of Edom, &c.] Lowth.
That My apostles and servants, and their successors, 7. Are ye not as children of the Ethiopians unto me, whom I shall use in the restoration of the Church, may &c.] Is there any reason in you, Oye children of take a kind of spiritual possession of the Gentiles in My Israel, why I should respect you more than the very name, (bringing them within the pale of the Church Ethiopians? Why should I make any difference be- and fold of the great Shepherd of our souls ;) even of twixt you and the very Philistines ? If you say that I the greatest enemies of the Church, as the Edomites brought up Israel out of Egypt, so also did I bring the were of the Jews : at least of a remnant of them, that Philistines out of Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir. is, so many as shall return by true repentance and obeBp. Hall.
dience from their opposition to the truth. Dr. Stokes. The sense seems to be, Trust not in your ancestors, -- saith the Lord that doeth this. 7 After the restowho were so highly favoured by Me; your vices have ration of the Jews from their captivity, the Messiah made you vile in My sight. Trust not in My deliver- came, and the Gentiles were admitted into His ance of you from the land of Egypt. Other nations Church: and on the future grand restoration of the have been transplanted into fertile countries, as well as Jews, the borders of the Christian Church will be enyou; and particularly your neighbouring enemies. Abp. I larged among the Gentiles, Rom. xi. 12, 15. Abp. NewNewcome.
The restoring of the
tabernacle of David. Before 13 Behold, the days come, saith inhabit them ; and they shall plant Before about 787. the LORD, that the plowman shall vineyards, and drink the wine there- about 187.
overtake the reaper, and the treader of; they shall also make gardens, and
14 And I will bring again the cap- pulled up out of their land which I
13. — the plowman shall overtake the recper, &c.] enemies. Compare Jer. xxiii, 6; xxxii. 41; Ezek. xxxiv. Rather, " the plowman shall meet the reaper;" that is, 28 ; Joel iii. 20; Mic. iv. 4; Zeph. iii. 13. W. Lowth. there shall be such an increase of the fruits of the earth, We have here a prophecy, that the ruin of the house that as soon as the harvest is got in, it will be time and kingdom of David should precede the coming of to plow for the next year, which was not usual in those the Messiah ; who should at his coming repair the hot countries, where the corn was ripe early in the sum- breaches thereof, and build it again. The captivity of mer, in the month of May, or June at farthest. And Zedekiah by the Chaldees perfected the fall of David's “the treader of grapes" shall meet “him that soweth kingdom, which could not rise before the return from seed;" that is, the vintage shall be so plentiful, that i that captivity, and was to rise, as seems to be implied, whereas it used to begin in August, it shall not be over before a new captivity began. After the Babylonian till seedtime, the earliest season of which was Novem- captivity was over, none of David's race was in any acber. W. Lowth. It is a lively way of expressing, that count. Edom was not “possest” by any of Zorobabel's the harvest and vintage should be copious and long in descendants, nor were “the heathen called by God's gathering. Abp. Newcome. And together with plenty name" through their means; till God gave unto Jesus of all outward blessings, it prefigures the abundance of the throne of His father David, and for the suffering of God's spiritual graces, and the great harvest of the death exalted Him to His right hand, to be a Saviour Church, of which our Saviour Himself speaks, Matt. and a Prince. His coming was " for the fall and rising ix. 37, in such figurative expressions as were familiar again of many in Israel," and by the preaching of His to the Oriental writers. Poole, Dr. Stokes.
Apostles the Gentiles were converted, and made part of -- the hills shall melt.] They shall flow, as it were His kingdom, out of which the Jews had excluded themwith the abundance of wine produced on them, Joel üïi. selves. But “the days come," when this sball appear 18. Mountains and hills are the proper places for to be more visibly the kingdom of David, by the coming vineyards. Abp. Newcome. See the note on Joel iii. of the body of ihe Jews into it, and probably by His 18.
literally “planting them” again in their “land," as His 15.- they shall no more be pulled up out of their land] principal subjects, from whence they shall be no more But shall dwell in it secure from any annoyance of ejected. Bp. Chandler.