« AnteriorContinuar »
Christ the Branch, and his
ZECHARIAH. church and kingdom, typified. c Befores , head of Joshua the son of Josedech, | Helem, and to Tobijah, and to Je- Before 519. the high priest;
daiah, and to Hen the son of Zepha- 519. 12 And speak unto him, saying, niah, for a memorial in the temple of n Thus speaketh the Lord of hosts, the Lord.
saying, Behold the man whose name 15 And they that are far off shall a Chap. 3. 8. is The a BRANCH; and he shall come and build in the temple of the || Or, branch || grow up out of his place, and he Lord, and ye shall know that the under him. shall build the temple of the LORD : Lord of hosts hath sent me unto
13 Even he shall build the temple you. And this shall come to pass, if
1 The captives enquire of fasting. 4 Zechashall be between them both.
riah reproveth their fasting. 8 Sin the 14 And the crowns shall be to cause of their captivity.
Rather, “Even take the silver and the gold,” &c. A crowns shall be kept and hanged up in the temple of plate or crown of gold was an ornament placed upon the Lord, as a memorial and monument of the liberal the mitre of the high priest : see Exod. xxviii. 36 ; xxix. offering, made by Helem, and Tobijah, &c.; (Bp. Hall ;) 6; Lev. viii. 9. Two such crowns are here ordered to and of the use, for which they had been made. IV. be made, and to be placed upon the head of Joshua, to Lowth, Dr. Wells. If the crowns, after having been signify that the Messiah, “the Branch," spoken of placed in the head of Joshua, were deposited on a con. in the next verse, of whom Joshua was a type, should spicuous part of the temple, they would naturally be both a King and Priest, and so should have a right remind the persons present of the prediction, which to wear the crowns belonging to those two offices. W. they would of course communicate to others. Dr. Blay. Lowth.
ney. 12. — Behold the man whose name is The BRANCH;7 l “Helem” was probably the same person as Heldai, See in the person of Joshua the high priest, the type or and “Hen" as Josiah: such variety of names belongrepresentation of the Man, whose "name is the Christing to the same person may be often observed in the that shall be revealed,” as the Targum paraphrases the books of Kings and Chronicles. W. Lowth. text. W. Lowth. There cannot be a doubt that the 15. And they that are far off shall come &c.] This is same Person is meant by “The BRANCH” here, who is a plain prediction of the coming in of the Gentiles, so called chap. iii 8; namely, the Messiah; of whom whom St. Paul expressly calls those “who were far off," Joshua is made the type or representative by the crown Eph. ii. 13, to “build,” or constitute a part of the placed on his head. The passage will not answer to Christian Church. Dr. Blayney. any other but to Him, who was at once both King and - And this shall come to pass, &c.] And ye of the Priest, and, by uniting both characters in Himself, Jewish nation shall be the first sharers in the benefits was completely qualified to bring about “the counsel arising from Christ's kingdom and priesthood, and then of peace," or reconciliation between God and man. Dr. those that are “far off," if you diligently listen to the Blayney.
voice of God, speaking to you both by His Prophets, - he shall build the temple of the Lord : 7 The and by His Son. W. Lowth. Church of Christ is expressly called “the temple of God," 1 Cor. iii. 16 ; 2 Cor. vi. 16; "a spiritual house,” | Chap. VII. In this chapter is contained a third and 1 Pet. ii. 5, &c. Dr. Blayney.
| distinct revelation made to Zechariah about two years 13. Even he shall build the temple of the Lord ;) This after the former ; of which the occasion and matter are clause is highly emphatical; implying that “even He," as follows. A considerable progress having by this the selfsame Person, who should build the temple of time been made in the rebuilding of the temple, and Jehovah, even He should have the honour of govern- affairs going on pretty smoothly, the hopes of the Jewish ing and presiding in it, as both King and Priest, in nation began to revive, and a deputation was sent to both capacities advancing the peace and prosperity of inquire of the priests and the Prophets, whether it was His people. Dr. Blayney.
God's will that they should still continue to observe the - and he shall bear the glory,Ī That is, the honour fast, which had been instituted on account of the city and authority, belonging to a sovereign or chief ruler. and the temple having been burnt by the Chaldeans. So when Moses was directed to give up his command To this the Prophet is directed to reply, That this and and authority to Joshua, it is said, “And thou shalt / another fast of the like kind, being of their own appointput some of thine honour upon him," Numb. xxvii. 20. ment, regarded themselves only, and not God, that And in this sense Christ was to “receive glory;" see Ps. what He required of them was the practice of moral xxi. 5; Dan. vii. 14; Acts iii. 13; v. 31; Phil. ii. 9- righteousness, like as He had enjoined it to their fa11; Heb. ii. 9. He was to be exalted to the right hand thers, who, disregarding His injunctions, had brought of God, there to sit upon His throne as a King, govern- upon themselves and upon their country all the evil ing His Church as a Priest, making intercession con- which they had recently experienced. tinually for it. It is impossible not to see, that this Having thus accounted for God's past severity, the prophecy was completed in Christ, so as it never could Prophet in the following chapter goes on to informn be in any other person. Dr. Blayney.
them, that the anger of Jehovah was now appeased, and - and the counsel of peace shall be between them He was again disposed to be gracious unto His people, both.] The kingdom and priesthood being united in the and to restore Jerusalem. He exhorts them therefore same Person, there shall be no clashing of jurisdiction to proceed vigorously with the building of the temple, between the two offices. W. Lowth.
and assures them that they would from that instant ex14. And the crowns shall be to Helem, &c.] And those perience a happy revolution in their affairs. He renews
Isai. 1. 23.
treat the face
gave a back
LORD of hand of.
Zechariah reproveth the hypocrisy CHAP. VII, VIII.
of the Jews' fasts. Before AND it came to pass in the fourth ment, and shew mercy and compas
A year of king Darius, that the sions every man to his brother :
the poor; and let none of you ima- Jer. 5. 28. 2 When they had sent unto the gine evil against his brother in your
house of God Sherezer and Regem- | heart. + Heb. to in. melech, and their men, † to pray be 11 But they refused to hearken, of the LORD. fore the LORD,
and + pulled away the shoulder, and + Heb.they 3 And to speak unto the priests stopped their ears, that they should sliding which were in the house of the LORD not hear. of hosts, and to the prophets, saying, 12 Yea, they made their hearts as heuvy. Should I weep in the fifth month, an adamant stone, lest they should separating myself, as I have done hear the law, and the words which the these so many years?
LORD of hosts hath sent in his spirit 4 Then came the word of the + by the former prophets : therefore + Heb. hy the Lord of hosts unto me, saying, came a great wrath from the Lord of
5 Speak unto all the people of the hosts.
land, and to the priests, saying, When 13 Therefore it is come to pass, a Isai. 58. 5. ye a fasted and mourned in the fifth that as he cried, and they would not
and seventh month, even those seventy hear; so they cried, and I would not < Prov. 1. 28. years, did ye at all fast unto me, even hear, saith the LORD of hosts : Jer. 11. 11. & to me?
14 But I scattered them with a
m eat for yourselves, and drink for desolate after them, that no man
passed through nor returned: for
CHAP. VIII. hand os &c. former prophets, when Jerusalem was inhabited and in prosperity, and the
i The restoration of Jerusalem. 9 They are
encouraged to the building by God's favour cities thereof round about her, when
to them. 16 Good works are required of men inhabited the south and the them. 18 Joy and enlargement are proplain ?
mised. 8 9 And the word of the LORD AGAIN the word of the LORD of 518. came unto Zechariah, saying,
hosts came to me, saying, + Heb. Judge 9 Thus speaketh the LORD of 2 Thus saith the LORD of hosts;
of hosts, saying, † Execute true judg-a I was jealous for Zion with great a Chap. 1. 14.
Isai. 1. 15.
his exhortation to the practice of moral goodness, and God any further than as it is subservient to the true ends promises them on that condition their fasts should be of religion. turned into joyful feasts; and they should be so dis- / The Prophet first reproves the hypocrisy of their tinguished by the Divine favour, that many nations fasts, before he gives them a direct answer to the question would be eager to embrace their religion, and sue for proposed. This he does chap. viii. 19. W. Lowth. their alliance. Dr. Blayney.
7. Should ye not hear the words &c.] Or, “ Are not Ver. 1.- Chisleu ;] This month corresponded with these the words," as in the margin. He puts them in the latter part of November and the beginning of De- mind of the exhortations given to them by the Prophets cember. Dr. Blayney.
before the captivity. W, Lowth. This may refer to the 5. — When ye fasted &c.) When ye fasted and fifth and sixth verses : Did not the former Prophets mourned, both in the fifth month for the temple, and make the like declarations, concerning the inefficacy of in the seventh for the murder of Gedaliah, 2 Kings xxv. your external observances ? see Isai. Iviii. 6, &c. It may 25, did ye do this, even all these seventy years, out of also refer to the ninth verse: And did not the former any charge of Mine? or did ye it out of any true reinorse Prophets insist on the superiour excellence of moral du for those sins of yours, which drew down these judg- ties? see Amos v. 24 ; Micah vi. 8, &c. Abp. Newcome. ments upon you ; and not rather out of a sense of your
the south and the plain! See the note on Jer. own misery and sorrow? And, on the contrary, when, | xvii. 26. on your other solemn festivals, ye did eat and drink and 9.- Execute true judgment, &c.] I have often admake merry, was it out of any spiritual joy which ye monished your fathers, that judgment and mercy were had in Me and My service, and not rather for your own more acceptable to Me than fasting or any external perpleasure and jollity? Bp. Hall. The sense of these two formances, and I repeat the same admonition to you of verses is much the same with that of St. Paul, 1 Cor. the present age. W. Lowth. viii. 8; namely, that eating or abstaining from meat is 12.--- as an adamant stone,] Bochart shews, that this in its own nature indifferent; nor is it acceptable to means a hard stone used to polish gems. Abp. Newcome.
of man he.
multitude of days.
The restoration of Jerusalem. ZECHARIAH.
God encourageth the people. Before jealousy, and I was jealous for her the day that the foundation of the Before with great fury.
house of the Lord of hosts was laid, 518. 3 Thus saith the Lord; I am re- that the temple might be built. turned unto Zion, and will dwell in 10 For before these days || there Or, the hire the midst of Jerusalem : and Jerusa- was no b hire for man, nor any hire came nothing, lem shall be called a city of truth; for beast; neither was there any peace & and the mountain of the Lord of to him that went out or came in behosts the holy mountain.
cause of the affliction : for I set all 4 Thus saith the Lord of hosts; men every one against his neighbour. There shall yet old men and old 11 But now I will not be unto the women dwell in the streets of Jerusa- residue of this people as in the former
lem, and every man with his staff in days, saith the LORD of hosts. + Heb. for his hand + for very age.
| 12 For the seed shall be + pros- + Heb. of 5 And the streets of the city shall perous; the vine shall give her fruit, pe be full of boys and girls playing in and the ground shall give her increase, the streets thereof.
and the heavens shall give their dew; 6 Thus saith the Lord of hosts; and I will cause the remnant of this || Or, hard, or, If it be || marvellous in the eyes of people to possess all these things.
the remnant of this people in these 13 And it shall come to pass, that
7 Thus saith the LORD of hosts ; | Israel; so will I save you, and ye
Behold, I will save my people from shall be a blessing: fear not, but let
14 For thus saith the LORD of
15 So again have I thought in
country of the
Chap. VIII. ver. 3. — a city of truth;] Jerusalem very few or no Jews dispersed west of the Holy Land. shall be again the seat of truth and justice, her magis- Dr. Wells. trates being restored to execute their authority there. I 8. - in truth and in righteousness. These words apW. Lowth. Rather, “the city of the truth ;" the truth, ply equally to God and His people ; and imply, that by way of eminence, or the true religion: so that Je- they shall on both sides truly and faithfully perform the rusalem was to be celebrated in future as the city in conditions of the covenant, once more renewed between which the true religion particularly was professed, as them. Dr. Blayney. “the mountain of the Lord of hosts," meaning the 9. - ye that hear in these days &c.] “ These days" mountain of the temple was to be for the residence of stand opposed to “the day that the foundation of the the Most Holy One. Dr. Blayney.
house of the Lord of hosts was laid," which was two 4. — with his staff in his hand for very age.] A mode years before. And the people are exhorted to proceed of expressing his being very old. Dr. Blayney. vigorously with the building, inasmuch as they now
6. — If it be marvellous &c.] And do not startle at heard repeated by the mouth of the Prophets the same it, saith the Lord of hosts; for though this may seem things which had prevailed on them at first to engage a strange and wonderful thing in the apprehension of in it. Dr. Blayney. this poor remnant of the people, that are now returned 10. — there was no hire for man,] Rather, “there was out of the land of their captivity; yet nothing should no reward for man," &c. The fruits of the earth would seem impossible to Me, saith the Lord of hosts. Dr. not pay the labour of those who manured it. See Hag. Stokes.
i. 9-11; ii. 16, 17. W. Lowth. 7.- Behold, I will save my people &c.] This denotes - neither was there any peace &c. 7 The adversaries the general restoration of the Jewish nation from their of the Jews ceased not to molest them from without, several dispersions ; compare verses 13, 20, 23; an Ezra iv. 1, &c.; and civil dissensions, it seems, preevent foretold by most of the Prophets of the Old Tes- vailed within. Dr. Blayney. tament: see the note on Isai. xi. 11. “The west country" ! 13. O house of Judah, and house of Israel ;] The appears to have a particular relation to their present mention both of Judah and of Israel, which had been so dispersion, great numbers of them being in these latter long separated, shews that both the curse and the blessages settled in the western parts of the world. See the ing, here spoken of, in the ultimate sense of the pronotes on Isai. xxiv. 14, and Hos. xi. 10. W. Lowth. phecy, belong to the whole body of the Jews. W. Lowth. At the time of the delivery of this prophecy, there were 16. These are the things that ye shall do ; &c.] The
or, set times.
+ Heb. lo intreat the face of the
Good works are required of them. CHAP. VIII, IX. Joy and enlargement are promised.
Beforer shall do; Speak ye every man the LORD, and to seek the Lord of hosts: Before **518.- truth to his neighbour ; + execute. I will go also.
the judgment of truth and peace in 22 Yea, many people and strong
nations shall come to seek the Lord
17 And let none of you imagine of hosts in Jerusalem, and to pray judgment of
evil in your hearts against his neigh- before the LORD. peace.
bour; and love no false oath: for all 23 Thus saith the Lord of hosts ;
that ten men shall take hold out of all
take hold of the skirt of him that is
horted to rejoice for the coming of Christ, fore love the truth and peace
and his peaceable kingdom. 12 God's 20 Thus saith the Lord of hosts ; | promises of victory and defence.
It shall yet come to pass, that there M HE burden of the word of the about 587. d Isai. 2. 3. Mic. 4. 1, 2. shall come people, and the inhabitants 1 Lord in the land of Hadrach, 1 Or. .. of many cities:
and Damascus shall be the rest thereHeh. going. 21 And the inhabitants of one city of: when the eyes of man, as of all intreat the shall go to another, saying, a Let us the tribes of Israel, shall be toward LORD." go ll + speedily † to pray before the the Lord. promises here made to the Jews are conditional, and the This and the three foregoing verses refer in some performance of them is made to depend upon their measure to the great accession of converts, which the observing the rules of justice and righteousness, which Jewish church received between the captivity and the God commanded their fathers by the Prophets, as “the coming of Christ ; but principally to the number of weightier matters of the law," and now again enjoined Christian disciples, which the Jewish preachers made ; upon them. See chap. vii. 9, 10. W. Lowth.
and perhaps to the future conversions, of which the res19. — The fast of the fourth month, &c.) Besides the toration of the Jews will be an eminent cause. Abp. two fasts mentioned, chap. vii. 5, the Jews observed Newcome. two others; that of the fourth month, when Jerusalem was taken, Jer. lii. 6, 7; and that of the tenth month Chap. IX. This chapter begins with announcing the when the Babylonians began the siege, Jer. lii. 4. In fate of the Syrian, Sidonians, and Philistines, contrasted answer to the question proposed, chap. vii. 3, the Pro- | with the better prospects of the Jewish nation. It forephet here tells them, that they may now disuse these tells the coming of the Messiah to Jerusalem, and the fasts, and lay aside the mournful circumstances, with peace of His kingdom. The restoration of Israel and which they were solemnized; since the judgments which Judah is afterwards predicted, together with a series of occasioned them were removed. W. Lowth.
glorious victories and great prosperity, which are set - therefore love the truth and peace.] God values an forth at large in this and the next chapter. Dr. Blayupright conversation more than the exactest care of out- ney. ward performances: see ver. 16; and the note on chap.vii. Ver. 1. The burden of the word of the Lord in the land 9. These instructions prepared men's minds for receive of Hadrach,] “The burden of the word of the Lord” ing the Gospel, the laws of which chiefly recommend pu- is a burdensome prophecy, threatening ruin and desrity of heart and life : see Jer. xxxi. 33. W. Lowth. truction : see Jer. xxiii. 33 ; Nahum i. 1. Hadrach is
21. And the inhabitants of one city shall go &c.] not elsewhere mentioned as the name of a country: the These expressions allude to the Jews going up in com context shews it to be some part of Syria. W. Lowth. panies to Jerusalem at their solemn feasts. Compare
and Damascus shall be the rest thereof :) God's Isai. ïi, 2, 3 ; Micah iv. 1, 2. W. Lowth.
anger rests on those whom He punishes, Ezek. v. 13 ; 23. — ten men] A certain number for an uncertain. xvi. 42 ; xxiv. 13. And His rod or His arm rests upon See the last note on Mic. v. 5. W. Lowth.
His enemies, Ps. cxxv. 3 ; Isai. xxx. 32. Abp. Newcome. - shall take hold of the skirt] Mr. Harmer, having The land of Hadrach and Damascus is here said to be observed that it was customary in the East to kiss the the place, on which “the burden” or calamity was to hem of the garment of a person of rank, and especially “rest” or settle; that is, the land would still continue to when a favour was asked or granted, adds, that “ten be visited by the like calamities as it had before undermen taking hold of the skirt of a Jew" is to be under- gone, first under Tiglath-pileser, as prophesied by Isaiah, stood as an application of the most submissive kind, to chap. xvii, and Amos, chap. i. 3—5 ; and again under be taken under his protection, or received among his Nebuchadnezzar, Jer. xlix. 23. Dr. Blayney. dependents. That it was a mode of humble solicitation
when the eyes of man, as of all the tribes of Israel, is evident from 1 Sam. xv. 27 : and like that of embrac- shall be toward the Lord.] This plainly implies, that a ing the knees, and laying hold on the feet, it was the time would come, when men, and the tribes of Israel in natural gesture of an importunate suitor, who would particular, should turn their eyes towards Jehovah, and seem to say thereby, “I will not let thee go, except thou look up to Him, either in hopes of deriving some blessbless me." Dr. Blayney.
ing from Him, or in gratitude for mercies received.
his church. Before 2 And Hamath also shall border / 6 And a bastard shall dwell in Before about 587. thereby; Tyrus, and Zidon, though | Ashdod, and I will cut off the pride about 587. Fre , it be very a wise.
of the Philistines.
that remaineth, even he, shall be for
8 And I will encamp about mine
eyes. But the scope of the prophecy goes to shew, that even | word, rendered “bastard," does not here imply an illeat that time those devoted nations had no prospect of gitimate offspring, but simply one of foreign extraction. emerging ; “the burden” would still “rest” or settle So that it is meant, that the city should be peopled with upon them. Dr Blayney.
strangers, not descended from its present possessors. 2,3. And Hamath also shall border thereby ; &c.] Nei- Ashdod, or Azotus, was burned and destroyed by ther shall Hamath be freed therefrom : nor Tyrus, and Jonathan, brother of Judas Maccabeus, and eight thouZidon, though they be crafty and subtle enough, to use sand of its men burned or slain, 1 Mac. x. 84, 85. all human power and wit for their own safety and These were probably what was meant by “the pride of evasion ; and though Tyrus have built strong holds the Philistines,” the prime or excellency of the ancient for her defence, and have heaped up great treasures of inhabitants, in whose room the strangers were introwealth. Bp. Hall.
duced. Dr. Blayney. 3. — and heaped up silver as the dust,] Tyre was the 7. And I will take away his blood out of his mouth, most celebrated place in the world for trade and riches, &c.] The idolatrous and abominable practices of the “the mart of nations," conveying the commodities of Philistines shall cease. The metaphor is taken from the East to the West, and of the West to the East. Bp. beasts of prey, who gorge themselves with blood. Abp. Newton.
Newcome. 4. Behold, the Lord will cast her out, &c.] Ezekiel At what time or whence the new colony was brought had likewise foretold that the city should be consumed to dwell in Ashdod, we are not informed. But some by fire, chap. xxviii. 18. And accordingly Alexander years after, in the reign of Alexander Jannæus, Azotus besieged, and took, and set the city on fire. The ruins is enumerated by Josephus among the cities of the Pheof old Tyre contributed much to the taking of the new nicians, which the Jews had been some time possessed of: city : for with the stones and timber and rubbish of and it is well known, that that people exacted of all that the old city Alexander built a bank or causey from the were under their dominion a conformity, to a certain continent to the island, thereby literally fulfilling the degree at least, to their religious rites and usages. This words of Ezekiel, “ they shall lay thy stones and thy will serve to explain what is here meant by “taking his timber and thy dust in the midst of the water," chap. blood out of his mouth, and his abominations from bexxvi. 12. Bp. Newton.
| tween his teeth.” The stranger was required to abstain 5. Ashkelon shall see it, &c.] The cities of the Philis- from eating blood, and from such things as were held tines, Ashkelon, Gaza, and Ekron, shall be very much in abomination by the Jewish law. Dr. Blayney. terrified at the news of Tyre's destruction, whence they
but he that remaineth, even he, shall be for our hoped for succours against the enemy. W. Lowth. God, &c.] Those that remain of them shall be conscien
- the king shall perish from Gaza,7 By the title of tiously devoted to God; and shall become friends and “king" any chief ruler may be designed ; so that the patrons of My people within My Church; yea, even plain purport of the passage is, that Gaza should cease those of Ekron shall so have a part in My Church, as to enjoy the benefit of civil government. Accordingly the Jebusite hath in the material and outward JerusaGaza, having suffered severely on being taken by Alex- | lem. Bp. Hall. ander the Great, was at length totally ruined and des. To be “as a governour in Judah” means to be retroyed by Alexander Jannæus, one of the Asmonean garded and honoured. The Jebusites were inhabitants kings of Judea : so that we find it spoken of in Acts of Jerusalem, Judg. i. 21. Josephus informs us, that viii. 26, by the name of “Gaza, which is desert.” Dr. many of the Philistines became proselytes to Judaism, Blayney.
and particularly the cities of Gaza and Ashdod. Abp. - Ashkelon shall not be inhabited.] Ashkelon and Newcome. the other cities of the Philistines having been subjugated 8. And I will encamp about mine house &c.] Amid the by Nebuchadnezzar, as foretold by Jeremiah, chap. foregoing revolutions and alterations of affairs in the xlvii, never recovered their former independency ; but, world, God here promises to preserve His temple, while falling under the dominion of the great empires in suc so many castles and strong holds about Jerusalem were cession, were almost continually involved in their wars, overturned, so many cities swept of their inhabitants by and suffered considerably, till by degrees they dwindled the besom of destruction. Bp. Horne. away, and at last sunk to nothing. Zephaniah's pro
for now have I seen with mine eyes.] Mine eye has phecy, chap. ii. 4—7, extends to this. Dr. Blayney. I pervaded future events, and I have thus determined.
6. And a bastard shall dwell in Ashdod, &c.) The 1 Abp. Neucome. Or, I have looked on the condition of