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CHAP. III, IV.
The golden candlestick. Before shalt also keep my courts, and I will neighbour under the vine and under Before give thee t places to walk among the fig tree.
519. these that stand by. 8 Hear now, O Joshua the high
CHAP. IV. priest, thou, and thy fellows that sit | By the golden candlestick is foreshewed the + Heb. men before thee: for they are t men won
good success of Zerubbabel's foundation, of wonder.
. dered at: for, behold, I will bring 11 By the two olive trees the two anointed Isai. 11. 1. forth my servant the b BRANCH.
shall be seven eyes : behold, I will as a man that is wakened out of his
and behold a candlestick all of gold, her bowl.
Jer. 23. 5.
11 Or, seven
to the lamps,
in everlasting glory, so that thou shalt walk gloriously graces, which shall be eminent in the Messiah, the chief in white among these blessed angels. Bp. Hali.
corner stone of all the mystical churches of God. The 8. — thou, and thy fellows that sit before thee :) The eye is the emblem of Providence; the number seven Angel here directs His speech to Joshua and his asses- | denotes perfection. Dr. Stokes. sors or assistants in council; bespeaking their attention - I will remove the iniquity of that land in one day.] to what follows, as matter of great importance. W. Lowth. I will proclaim a free pardon of sins by the publishThe fellows of Joshua, that sat before him, may bave ing of the Gospel ; see Jer. xxxi. 34 ; or the words may been some of those called chief priests; who, though relate to the pardoning of the Jews upon their general subordinate to the high priest, were entitled by their conversion : compare chap. xiii. 1. Jer. 1. 20; Mic. vii. rank to assist in his councils. Dr. Blayney.
18, 19. W. Lowth. - for they are men wondered at:] The margin Or, we may understand by “one day,” that on which reads, “ men of wonder :" the original word signifies Christ died to put away sins by the offering of Himself. not only a wonder, but likewise “a sign,” or “a type;" | Dr. Blayney. and so it is to be here understood. Compare Isai. xx. 10. — shall ye call every man his neighbour &c.] The 3; viii. 18; Ezek, xii. 6, 11, 12; xxiv. 24. They are meaning of this passage is to shew the peace and secumen intended for signs or tokens, they are typical men, rity that should prevail in those happy days. Mr. Haras Bp. Chandler very properly translates the phrase ; mer supposes an hospitable custom to be here alluded men that foreshew something to come, according to the to, of people enjoying themselves in rural repasts in sense of the Latin Vulgate. They, with Joshua the the open air, and inviting those that passed by to parhigh priest at the head of them, are a figure of the re- take with them in their pleasures. Dr. Blayney. storation of the Church under the government of the Messiah. W. Lowth.
Chap. IV. In this chapter the Prophet is called upon - behold, I will bring forth my servant the to contemplate a fifth vision of the most sublime and BRANCH.] Behold, I will exhibit unto the world mysterious import. He sees a candlestick of pure gold, Christ the Saviour, whom I have ordained to work that with its seven lamps communicating by seven pipes with great business of mediation for My Church; whose a bowl at the top, which serves for a reservoir, and is visible presence shall grace that temple, which ye are constantly supplied with oil from two olive trees, standnow to build. Bp. Hall.
ing one on each side of the candlestick. He inquires The same Person must needs be intended here, as is into the meaning, and receives an answer, which, though spoken of under the same title, Jer. xxiii. 5: nor can it may in some sort apply to the circumstances of the terms so magnificent as those used in the latter place temple then in building, yet from the solemnity of the more especially be applicable to any one of less conse manner, and the terms in use, must be concluded to point quence than the great Messiah Himself, through whom to something far higher, no less than the final and comalone iniquity is put away, and the reign of perfect plete establishment of Christ's holy catholick Church, peace and righteousness is to be established. Dr. not by human means, but by the power of the Holy
Spirit; surmounting all obstacles thrown in its way. The title of “the Branch” is often given to the Annexed is a special prediction, that Zerubbabel, Messiah as sprouting from the stock of David : He is who had begun, should have the honour of finishing elsewhere called “God's servant” in an eminent sense, the material building of the temple; the accomplishbecause He was "sanctified and sent into the world” ment of which is made a sign or proof of the Divine upon a message of the highest importance. See Isaiah mission. The meaning of the seven lamps is then xlii. 1; xlix. 3: lii. 13; lü. 11; Ezek. xxxiv. 23, 24. explained, and also of the two overhanging branches W. Lowth.
of the olive trees on each side of the candlestick. Dr. 9. For behold the stone &c.] In signification of which Saviour, I have laid before Joshua a stone, to resemble Ver. 1.- and waked me, It should seem as if the Him who is the chief corner stone of His Church, Prophet was plunged into a deep reverie, musing on whereon it shall be firmly built. Bp. Hall.
what he had already seen, when he was roused again by - upon one stone shall be seven eyes :] To show My the angel to give his attention to what follows. Dr. watchful providence over this and all other places de Blayney. voted to My service; and withal the wisdom and other ! 2. — with a bowl upon the top of it,] To supply the
The good success
of Zerubbabel's foundation, Beforer pipes to the seven lamps, which are 8 Moreover the word of the LORD Before upon the top thereof:
came unto me, saying,
4 So I answered and spake to the shalt know that the LORD of hosts
5 Then the angel that talked with of small things ? || for they shall re- | 0r, sith the
seven; a they are the eyes of the of tin. 6 Then he answered and spake Lord, which run to and fro through unto me, saying, This is the word of the whole earth. the Lord unto Zerubbabel, saying, 11 I Then answered I, and said Not by || might, nor by power, but unto him, What are these two olive by my spirit, saith the LORD of trees upon the right side of the candlehosts.
stick and upon the left side thereof? 7 Who art thou, O great moun 12 And I answered again, and said + Heb. by the tain ? before Zerubbabel thou shalt unto him, What be these two olive kao become a plain : and he shall bring | branches which + through the two out of the forth the headstone thereof with shout- golden pipes || empty + the golden oil the gold. ings, crying, Grace, grace unto it out of themselves?
a Chap. 3. 9.
selres oil inta
lamps with oil, by seven conduits issuing from it to the God's grace and favour may protect that holy place, so seven lamps ranged in its front. Abp. Newcome.
happily finished, and with such joyful acclamations as 3. And two olive trees by it,] Which in a secret im- they used at laying its foundations; see Ezra ni. 10, 11. perceptible manner conveyed oil for supplying the lamps: W. Lowth. see ver. 6. W. Lowth. They probably signified the two 10. For who hath despised the day of small things ? &c.] sacred persons that had holy unction, the king and the Why did ye, O ye faithless Jews, look so discontentedly priest; and might intimate that a prince and a priest on the mean foundations of this temple, and weep to should continue among the Jews till the time of the think of that goodly structure of Solomon's compared Messiah. Dr. Stokes. See the note on ver. 14.
with this? There shall be no cause of this disparage5. — Knowest thou not what these be?) Capellus ob ment. Ye shall rather find reason to rejoice in this serves, that this is said, not to upbraid the dulness of noble work, which ye see Zerubbabel in hand to finish, the Prophet, but to excite his attention. Abp. Newcome. &c. Bp. Hall.
6. – This is the word of the Lord unto Zerubbabel,] By “the day of small things” I suppose to be meant The purport of the answer is, This building shalt thou the time, when the resources of the Jewish nation apbe able to raise and to fit for My service, not by any peared in the eyes of many, even well-wishers, so small wealth or power of your own, for who sees not how poor and inadequate to the building of the temple, against a and weak your nation is at this time? but by My Spirit, powerful opposition, that they despaired of seeing it saith the Lord of hosts, by the virtue and courage that carried into effect. Such persons would of course reI shall infuse into you all, and the means and friends joice, when the event turned out so contrary to their that I shall raise up for you; while your own poor abi- l expectations. Dr. Blayney. lities contribute as little to the finishing of so great a - the plummet] The use of the plummet is to try, work, as you do to the supply of oil for those lamps, after the stone is laid, whether it be in its just position. which are fed by olive trees, raised up miraculously by Dr. Blayney. Me, on purpose for that intent. Dr. Stokes.
- with those seven ; they are the eyes of the Lord, It may be observed, that the Prophet's question, The Seventy translate the words to a better sense, taking “What are these?” is answered, not by descending to them for a distinct sentence from what goes before, an explanation of particulars, but by giving the general “ These seven are the eyes of the Lord," &c. W. Louth. purport of the vision; the design being not to gratify a Here is an answer to the question, ver. 4,“ What are partial curiosity, but to comfort and encourage an these?” “These seven (lamps) are the eyes," &c.; an almost desponding people by the assurance that God emblem of God's infinite providence and care, which would, not by those human means, in which they were extends itself over all things, and especially over His sufficiently sensible of their own deficiency, but by His own people. He then asks, * What are the olive trees :" own Spirit, render His Church triumphant over all Dr. Stokes. opposition. Dr. Blayney.
12. - olive branches] Young olives ; see ver. 3. 7. Who art thou, O great mountain &c.] Removing W. Lowth. “ Branches of the olive trees," bearing mountains, and levelling them into plains, are prover- much fruit like an ear of corn. Abp. Newcome. bial expressions to denote the overcoming of the great
pipes Or spouts, laid inclining from the olive est difficulties, and the removing of all obstructions. trees to the bowl upon the top of the candlestick, so as See Isai. xl. 4; Matt. xxi. 21. W. Lowth.
to receive the fluid from the trees, and pour it continu. - and he shall bring forth the headstone thereof with ally into the bowl to supply the waste. Dr. Blaney. shoutings, &c.] He shall put the top or finishing stone - the golden oil in the original “the gold." The upon the walls of the temple : which action the standers- liquor drawn from the olive trees must be oil, here on by shall accompany with their wishes and prayers, that account of its precious quality denominated gold, which
By a flying roll is shewed
CHAP. IV, V. the curse of thieves and swearers. Before 13 And he answered me and said, ' 3 Then said he unto me, This is Before
CHRIST ** 519. Knowest thou not what these be ? the curse that goeth forth over the 519. And I said, No, my lord.
face of the whole earth : for || every 14 Then said he, These are the one that stealeth shall be cut off as on one of this + Heb. sons two tanointed ones, that stand by the this side according to it; and every stenleth hold
elh himselt Lord of the whole earth. one that sweareth shall be cut off as
quilliess, as it on that side according to it. CHAP. V.
4 I will bring it forth, saith the
Lord of hosts, and it shall enter into
thieves and swearers. 5 By a woman house of him that sweareth falsely by
midst of his house, and shall consume
I mine eyes, and looked, and be- stones thereof.
5 ( Then the angel that talked
said, This is an ephah that goeth forth. is considered the most valuable of all metals, but yet of is cast upon her, and she is carried into exile in a distant far less worth than the word of Divine truth : see Ps. land, there to abide the full time allotted for her punishxix. 10 ; cxix. 72. Perhaps also the term may be used ment. Dr. Blayney. to signify the resemblance between oil, and gold in a Ver. 2. -- a flying roll ;7 The roll of a book, as it fluid state. Dr. Blayney.
is expressed Jer. xxxvi. 2; Ezek. ii. 9: the ancient way 11. — These are the two anointed ones, that stand by of writing being upon long scrolls of parchment. These the Lord of the whole earth.] Rather, “before the Lord," scrolls were usually longer than they were broad; so and minister to Him. See Deut. x. 8; 1 Kings xvii. 1. this is represented as ten yards in length, and five in W. Lowth. Zerubbabel and Joshua may be meant, who breadth. W. Lowth. The roll was very ample, to shew presided over the temporal and spiritual affairs of the what a number of curses should come upon the wicked. Jews; were the ministers or vicegerents of Jehovah; Abp. Newcome. and acted, not by their own strength, but by the Divine 3. – This is the curse that goeth forth over the face assistance, ver. 6. The golden candlestick is the Jewish of the whole earth :7 Or rather, “ of the whole land," state, both civil and religious; and the oil, with which meaning the land of Judea. The roll contained the the lamps are supplied, is the Spirit of God, contradis- curses; that is, the judgments, denounced against the tinguished from human efforts. . Abp. Neucome.
Jews, who were guilty of the sins here specified. It Or, by the two olive trees are meant the two dispen- was written on both sides, as the roll mentioned Ezek. sations of the Law and the Gospel, under which were ii. 10. On one side were contained the judgments communicated the precious oracles of Divine truth, against stealing, on the other those against false swearwhich illuminate the soul, and make men wise unto ing. W. Lowth. salvation. Dr. Blayney.
4. — It shall enter into the house of the thief, &c.] The
curse denounced in this roll shall take hold of the man Chap. V. The visions represented in this chapter and his family, and shall never leave them till they are are of a very different kind from the preceding ones. utterly consumed. It shall be like the leprosy that Hitherto all has been consoling, and meant to cheer the infects an house, and cannot be purged, till the house hearts of the Jewish people, by holding forth to them' itself be pulled down. See Lev. xiv. 45. '. Lowth. prospects of approaching prosperity. But lest they By this is signified God's determinate counsel and should grow presumptuous and careless of their con- purpose, not to suffer the thief or the false swearer to duct, it was thought proper to warn them of the con- go unpunished. The roll will meet with them, the curse ditions on which their happiness would depend; and to will light upon them one time or other, and destroy let them see, that however God was at present disposed' them root and branch. Bp. Beveridge. to shew them favour, His judgments would assuredly! This vision may be considered as a republication of fall upon them with still greater weight than before, if the curses contained in Deut. xxvii, xxvü. The thief they should again provoke Ilim by repeated wicked- and the false swearer, says Capellus, are put for every ness. Accordingly in the first of these visions, which kind of transgressor. Abp. Newcome. Among the Jews, was the sixth in succession, the Prophet is shewn an an oath was tendered to him that was suspected of immense roll of a book, like that which Ezekiel de- theft : see Lev. vi. 2. For this reason the thief and the scribes, chap. ii. 9, 10, filled with curses, and in the act perjured person are here put together. Abp. Tillotson. of flying, to denote the celerity and speed, as well as 5.- Then the angel – went forth,] Or, “ went on.” the certainty, with which the thief and false swearer, W. Lowth. Or, advanced onward, to see the object who might otherwise flatter themselves with hopes of which presented itself at a distance. Abp. Newcome. impunity, would be visited to their utter destruction. - what is this that goeth forth.] That is now repreThe next vision presents the appearance of an ephah, or sented unto thee, as passing forth before thee. Bp. Hall. measure, in which sat a woman representing a nation, 6. — This is an ephah] The vessel here mentioned whose wickedness was arrived at such a height as re- resembled the common ephah, which was about the quired an immediate check. Accordingly a heavy cover size of our bushel, not in size, but in figure. Dr. Wells.
The final damnation
of Babylon. Before. He said moreover, This is their re- 1 10 Then said I to the angel that Before 519. semblance through all the earth. talked with me, Whither do these 519.
7 And, behold, there was lifted up bear the ephah ? Or, weighty a || talent of lead: and this is a woman 11 And he said unto me, To build
that sitteth in the midst of the ephah. it an house in the land of Shinar:
8 And he said, This is wickedness. and it shall be established, and set
1 The vision of the four chariots. 9 By the
crowns of Joshua is shewed the temple and
kingdom of Christ the Branch.
there came four chariots out from be
The extraordinary measure of the vessel corresponds those countries where they were dispersed. This is with the iniquities that prevailed in the land. Dr. expressed by removing them to Babylon, which was Blayney.
| a proverbial expression for utter ruin and desolation: - this is their resemblance through all the earth.]! W. Lowth. Or, “through all the land.” By this you may make The meaning of the vision seems to be, that the Ba. an estimate of their unjust dealings all the land over; bylonish captivity had happened on account of the wickcompare ver. 3, 4. An ephah, being the dry measure edness committed by the Jews; and that a like disperamong the Jews, denotes their unjust dealings in buy- sion would befall them, if they relapsed into the like ing and selling. See Amos viii. 5. W. Lowth. crimes. Thus the whole chapter will be an awful ad
7. And, behold, there was lifted up a talent of lead : monition, that multiplied curses, and particularly dis&c.] And, behold, there was also represented unto me persion and captivity, would be the punishment of a leaden weight; and withal a woman sitting in the national guilt. Abp. Newcome. midst of the ephah. Bp. Hall. The margin correctly! gives the sense, “ a weighty piece” of lead.
1 Chap. VI. The main design and purport of the eighth - and this is a woman that sitteth in the midst of and last vision, contained in the former part of this chapthe ephah.] Or, “ And, behold, there was a woman ter, was to confirm the Jews in their faith and depend. sitting in the midst of the ephah.” Dr. Wells. Or, ence upon God, by shewing them that, weak and dethese words may be the angel's explanation of the vision, fenceless as they seemed to be, they had nothing to fear What thou seest besides is a woman in the midst of, or from the greatest earthly powers, whilst they remained within, the ephah. W. Lowth.
under the Divine protection: since all those powers 8. And he said, This is wickedness.] The woman re- originally proceeded from the counsels of the Almighty, presented the wicked Jews, of whom the angel said, were the instruments of His providence, and could not These are so wicked, that they are as wickedness itself. subsist nor act but under His permission. Four chariots Bp. Hall.
drawn by horses of different colours represent the four - And he cast it into the midst of the ephah ; &c.] great empires of the world in succession, the Assyrian To signify, that when a people have filled up the mea-or Babylonian, the Persian, Grecian, and Roman, dissure of their iniquity, they sink under the weight of tinguishable both by their order and by their attributes. their sins, and cannot escape the judgment of God. . The first is only enumerated, and nothing more said of W. Lowth.
i it, having already run its career. The second is cha9. – behold, there came out two women, &c.] These racterized by going forth against the land of the north. may probably signify the empires of Assyria and Ba- The third by going forth against the posterity of the bylon. Empires and kingdoms are sometimes described preceding. And the fourth, whose horses were spotted as having wings, to denote the swiftness of their con- and strong, by their conquests in the south. These are quests. See Deut. xxviii. 49; Jer. xlix. 22; Hos. viii. also said to be ambitious, soliciting and obtaining per1. W. Lowth. Or, these circumstances may indicate i mission to extend their dominion far and wide. The nothing more particular, than that Providence would second are also said to have already executed God's judg. make use of quick and forcible means to effect its pur- ments upon the land of the north. pose. The stork, like other birds of passage, is provided After this the Prophet is favoured with another rewith strong wings. Dr. Blayney.
velation respecting a kingdom different from all the - and they lifted up the ephah &c.] The Assyrians preceding. By God's command, in the presence of witcarried away captive the ten tribes; and then the Baby- nesses, and for a memorial to them, he places a crown, lonians took away the remainder of the Jews, and made or crowns, upon the head of Joshua the high priest, an entire riddance of the people of the land. W. Lowth. thereby constituting him a type of Christ “the Branch,"
11. And he said unto me, To build it an house in the whom he proclaims as about to come to build the spirie land of Shinar : &c.] Or, “To build her," that is, the tual temple of Jehovah, and to preside orer it both as woman, “an house," &c. The design of the vision is King and Priest, for the great purpose of peace. The to instruct the Jews, that as their fathers were carried accession of strangers to assist in building the temple is into a seventy years' captivity to Babylon, so, if their foretold, and given as a proof of the Prophet's divine posterity should not take warning by their punish- mission. Dr. Blayney. ment, a worse captivity should befall them; one of so! Ver. 1.-four chariots) A chariot is in itself no unfit long a continuance, as should make them despair of emblem of government. But a chariot of war very aptly ever returning home, and resolve to settle themselves in represents a conquering nation, rushing furiously on,
y spirit orth
The vision of
the four chariots. Before
Before, tween two mountains; and the moun-| 7 And the bay went forth, and ~ Before CHRIST
CHRIST tains were mountains of brass. sought to go that they might walk to 519.
2 In the first chariot were red and fro through the earth: and he horses; and in the second chariot said, Get you hence, walk to and fro black horses;
through the earth. So they walked 3 And in the third chariot white to and fro through the earth.
horses ; and in the fourth chariot 8 Then cried he upon me, and | Or, strong. grisled and || bay horses.
spake unto me, saying, Behold, these 4 Then I answered and said unto that go toward the north country the angel that talked with me, What have quieted my spirit in the north
of the heavens, which go forth from 10 Take of them of the captivity,
Jedaiah, which are come from Baby-
make crowns, and set them upon the
7. And the bay went forth, and souyht to go &c.] The midable empires before mentioned. Dr. Blayney. restless ambition of the Romans is here described, who
The two brasen mountains may denote God's firm under the Divine permission extended their conquests and immutable decrees, by which He governs the earth. to every quarter of the globe. In the preceding verse Abp. Newcome.
it is said of “the black horses” in the present tense, 2. — red horses ; &c.] The “red horses" may signify that they “go forth;" whereas the past tense is used the bloody cruelties of the Babylonish empire, especially of “ the white” and “the grisled,” in the original; as it towards the Jews; the “black," the sad and mournful is here also said, that “the bay went forth.” To acestate of the Jews under the Persian successors of Cyrus; count for this difference we must understand, that the the “white," the victories of Alexander, (white horses former words were spoken by the angel, who explains being used by conquerors in days of triumph,) and his what was passing at the instant. But the latter is the kindness towards the Jews : and the “grisled," the Prophet's relation of what appeared to him afterwards. various forms of the Roman government. W. Lowth. Dr. Blayney. Or, probably the colours of the horses design no more 8. — Behold, these that go toward the north country have than the diversity of the people, of whom the four em- quieted my spirit &c.] The Persians, by conquering the pires respectively consisted; not any characteristick Babylonians, have appeased My wrath, by executing quality belonging to them. Dr. Blayney.
upon them that vengeance which they have deserved 3. — bay horses. Or,“ strong horses," as the Latin for their cruelty towards My people. W. Lowth. Vulgate renders the word. W. Lowth. This sense is The foregoing exposition is given according to the preferable, because the Roman empire, here designed, is prevailing sense of our commentators. Poole, who characterized by Daniel, chap. vii. 7, 19, 23, as more recites several interpretations, appears to incline to that, strong and powerful than any of the preceding. Dr. which understands “the four spirits of the heavens,"
ver. 5, to signify angels, who have, as ministers of 5. These are the four spirits of the heavens, &c.] Divine Providence, a great share in the management Rather, as it is in the margin, agreeably to the Greek of affairs both of church and state ; and which conand Latin versions, “ four winds.” Compare Dan. vii. 2. siders the vision in general as a representation of these Like strong winds, these chariots rushed violently on, servants of the Lord, acting their part in the revolutions and produced great agitations and commotions in the and changes of things, be these of what temper soever earth, the effect of strong winds both by land and by sea. they may, till the Gospel be preached by the Messiah And these winds are said to go forth from attending and His Apostles. His remark upon the whole of the upon the Lord of the whole earth; that is, they waited vision is judicious, and well worthy of attention. “The His pleasure, and went forth like ministers, “ fulfilling appearance or emblem is plain enough, we can easily His word,” Ps. cxlviii. 8. Dr. Blayney.
conceive that: but the things signified hereby are most 6. The black horses — go forth into the north country;] difficultly found out, and perhaps not found when we Denoting the conquests of the Persians over the Baby- think they are; here then, if any where, all are bound lonians, often expressed by “the north" in the Prophets. to write modestly, and all are bound to read carefully, The angel says nothing of the red horses, because the and to judge candidly.” Edit. Babylonian empire was at an end. W. Lowth.
10. Take of them of the captivity, &c.] The exiles, - the white go forth after them ;) Alexander and who remained in Babylon, shewed their regard for the his armies go forth to conquer the Persians. W. Lowth. temple, then building, by sending their gifts and obla
- the grisled go forth toward the south country.]tions to Jerusalem for carrying on the work, and adornThis probably denotes the Roman conquests in Egypt, ing the temple after it was built. These offerings they frequently called the “south country in Scripture. sent by the persons here named, as they did afterwards This was the last country subdued by the Romans under by Ezra and his companions : see Ezra vii. 16; viii. 25, Augustus, whereby they became masters of the greatest 26. W. Lowth. part of the then known world. W. Lowth.
11. Then take silver and gold, and make crowns, &c.] VOL. II.